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G. A. A. . . G. A. AITKEN. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 







C. E. B. . . C. E. BEAZLEY. 


W. G. B-K. . W. G. BLACK. 


G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 


G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 


J. P. B.. . . J. P. BRODHURST. 

A. E. B. . . THE EEV. A. E. BDCKLAND. 


H. M. C. . 




A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

A. M. C-E. . Miss A. M. COOKE. 

X. 0. ...... THOMPSON COOPKR, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 



G. T. D. . . G. THORN DRURY. 
E. G. D. . . E. GORDON DUFF. 


C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 



W. H. F. . . THE VERY EEV. W. H. FRE- 


J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, LL.D., F.S.A. 




E. E. G. . . E. E. GRAVES. 
J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 


P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 
W. A. S. H. W. A. S. HEWINS. 


W. H.. . . 
C. L. K. . 
J. K. . . . 
J. K. L. . 
E. L. . . . 
8. L. . . . 
H. H. I.. 
W. L. . . . 
K. M. L. . 
J. E. L. . . 
J. H. L. . . 
J. B. M. . , 

w. n. M.. 

E. C. M. . . 

D. 8. M. . . 

E. H. M. . . 
L. M. M. . . 
A. H. M. . . 

C. M 

N. M 

W. K. M.. . 
G. P. M-Y.. 

A. N 

E. T. N. . . 
O. LE O. N. 
P. M. O'D. . 


J. H. 0. . 

List of Writers. 






















H. P. . . . 
G. V. P. . 

A. F. P. . 
S. L.-P.. . 

B. P. . . . 
D'A. P. . . 
R. B. P. . 
W. E. R. . 
J. M. R. . 

F. S. . . . 
T. S. . . . 
W. A. S. . 

C. F. S. . 

G. G. S. . 

B. H. S. . 
L. S. . . . 
G. S-H. . . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-T. . . 
H. R. T. . 
T. F. T. . 

E. V. . . . 
R. H. V. . 

A. W. W.. 

F. W-N. . 
W. W. W. 

B. B. W. . 
W. W. 





. Miss PORTER. 



. W. E. RHODES. 

. J. M. RIGG. 



. W. A. SHAW. 

. Miss C. FELL SMITH. 





. C. W. SUTTON. 


. H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 














PASTON, CLEMENT (1515 P-1597), 
sea-captain, second son of Sir William Paston 
(1479P-1554) [q. v.], is said by Lloyd (State 
Worthies) to have served the king of France 
in the time of Henry VII, but the inscription 
on his monument, which gives the date of 
his death, says : ' Twice forty years he lived 
and somewhat more,' fixing the date of his 
birth about 1515. He is first mentioned in 
1544 as ' one of the pensioners ' and a fitting 
man to command a king's ship. In 1545 he 
commanded the Pelican of Danzig, of three 
hundred tons, in the fleet under Lord Lisle. 
In 1546, still, presumably, in the Pelican, he 
captured a French galley having on board 
the Baron St. Blanchard, who appears to 
have been coming to England on some in- 
formal embassy from the king of France. 
The galley was probably the Mermaid, which 
was added to the English navy ; but of the 
circumstances of the capture no record can 
be found. It was afterwards debated whether 
the galley was ' good prize,' and whether St. 
Blanchard ought to pay ransom, for which 
Paston demanded five thousand crowns, 
with two thousand more for maintenance. 
At the request of Henry, on giving his bond 
for the money, the baron was released, and 
he returned to France with his servants, 
1 two horses, and twelve mastiff dogs.' After- 
wards he pleaded that he was under compul- 
sion at the time, and that the bond was 
worthless, nor does it appear that the money 
was paid. Paston, however, kept the plunder 
of the galley, of which a gold cup, with two 
snakes forming the handles, was in 1829 
still in the possession of the family. Lloyd's 
statement that Paston captured the admiral 
of France and received thirty thousand crowns 


for his ransom is as incorrect as that ' he 
was the first 'that made the English navy 
terrible.' At the battle of Pinkie in 1547, 
Paston was wounded and left for dead. It is 
said that he was the captor of Sir Thomas 
Wyatt in 1554, which is contrary to evidence 
(FROTJDE, #*,. o/EngL cabinet edit. v. 354), 
and that he commanded the fleet at Havre 
in 1562, which is fiction. In 1570 he was 
a magistrate of Norfolk, and a commissioner 
for the trial and execution of traitors (State 
Papers, Dom. Elizabeth, Ixxiii. 28), and in 
1587, though a deputy-lieutenant of the 
county, he was suspected of being lukewarm 
in the interests of religion (STRYPE, Annals, 
in. ii. 460). In 1588 he was sheriff of Norfolk. 
He died on 18 Feb. 1597, and was buried 
in the church of Oxnead, where a ' stately 
marble tomb ' testifies that 

. . . princes he served four, 
In peace and war, as fortune did command, 
Sometimes by sea and sometimes on the 

He married Alice, widow of Edward Lam- 
bert. Her maiden name was Packington. He 
appears to have had no children, and left the 
bulk of his property to his wife, with re- 
mainder to his nephew, Sir William Paston 
[see under PASTON, SIR WILLIAM, 1479?- 

[Blomefield and Parkins's Hist, of Norfolk, 
vi. 487; Chambers's Hist, of Norfolk, p. 211, 
959 ; the account in Lloyd's State Worthies 
is untrustworthy ; State Papers of Henry VIII 
(1830, &c.), i. 811, 866, 891, xi. 329; Acts of 
thePrivy Council (Dasent), 1542-7 pp. 514, 566, 
1547-50 p. 447; State Papers of Henry VIII 
(in the Public Eecord Office), vols. xvi-xix. As 
these papers have not yet been calendared, many 



of them being nearly obliterated by damp, and 
the writing very bad, it remains possible that an 
exhaustive search through them might lead to 
the discovery of some details concerning the cap- 
ture of St. Blanchard, which is equally unknown 
to French and naval histories.] J. K. L. 

PASTON, EDWARD,D.D. (1641-1714), 
president of Douay College, born in Norfolk 
in 1640, was the son of William Paston, esq., 
of Appleton in that county. He was sent 
to the English College at Douay when only 
ten years of age, arriving there on 24 Sept. 
1651 ; and he was ordained priest at Bruges 
on 10 April 1666. Afterwards he was ap- 
pointed professor of divinity at Douay. On 
5 Feb. 1680-1 he was created D.D. On 
11 June 1682 he set out for England, with 
the intention of remaining here as a mis- 
sioner ; but he returned to Douay in May 
1683, and was employed in teaching divinity, 
as before. On the accession of James II he 
revisited this country, and lived privately in 
London till June 1688, when he was chosen 
president of Douay College in the place of 
Dr. James Smith, who had been raised to 
the episcopal dignity. He arrived at Douay 
on 22 July, governed the college with suc- 
cess for about twenty-six years, and died on 
21 July 1714. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 479; Husenbeth's 
Colleges and Convents on the Continent, p. 4 ; 
Panzani's Memoirs, p. 402.] T. C. 

PASTON, JOHN (1421-1466), letter- 
writer and country gentleman, the eldest 
son of William Paston [q. v.J the judge, born 
in 1421, was brought up to the law in the 
Inner Temple, and by 1440 was married by 
his parents to a Norfolk heiress. We may 
infer that he had been at Cambridge from 
his residing for a time in Peterhouse, even 
after his marriage (Paston Letters, i. 42). 
After his father's death in 1444 he divided 
his time between his Norfolk estates and his 
London chambers in the Temple. The great 
additions which the judge had made to the 
Paston lands were viewed with jealousy, and 
John Paston incurred the further hostility of 
Sir Thomas Tuddenham and other officers of 
the duchy of Lancaster in Norfolk, of which 
he held some of his land in Paston. He was 
perhaps already seeking to round off his 
patrimony there, and secure the manorial 
rights at the expense of the duchy (ib. iii. 

A*)(\\ . _. 1 1 n ''i v 

420). Tuddenham and his friends; who 
had the ear of William de la Pole, duke 
of Suffolk [q. v.], the minister in power, 
prompted Robert Hungerford, lord Moleyns 
[Q. v.J, to claim and take possession (1448) 
of the manor of Gresham, near Cromer, which 
Judge Paston had purchased from the de- 

scendants of Thomas Chaucer [q. v.] Pas- 
ton's title was legally unassailable, but the 
times were such that he thought it useless 
to go to law, re-entered on the manor after 
vainly trying diplomacy, was driven out by 
an armed force, and only recovered posses- 
sion when the fall of Suffolk brought in a 
' changed world.' But the new ' world ' was 
so unstable that he failed to get a judgment 
against Moleyns for the damage he had sus- 
tained, and the indictments which he and 
others brought against Tuddenham and his 
supporters likewise fell to the ground. His 
friends had advised him to get elected as 
knight of the shire; but his patron, the Duke 
of Norfolk, forbade him to prosecute his can- 
didature. Shortly after this he came into 
close relations with Sir John Fastolf [q. v.], 
which had important effects upon his for- 
tunes and those of his family. His wife 
was a cousin of Fastolf, the connection being 
probably through the Berneys of Reedham, 
and in 1453 we find him exercising a gene- 
ral oversight of the building of the great 
castle at Caistor, near Yarmouth, where Sir 
John had decided to spend his declining 
years. After he had taken up his residence 
there in the summer of the next year, Paston 
transacted much legal business in London 
for his kinsman, who frequently thanked 
him for the zeal he showed in his ' charge- 
able matters.' Fastolf was childless, and 
tiad set his heart on disappointing the 
Duke of Norfolk and other great lords who 
turned covetous eyes on Caistor by found- 
*ng in it a college for 'seven priests and 
seven poor folk.' But such a prohibitive 
sum was demanded for the mortmain license 
that he died (5 Nov. 1459) before any ar- 
rangement had been arrived at. There was 
nothing, therefore, inherently improbable in 
the will, dated two days before his death, 
propounded by Paston, which gave the latter 
all his Norfolk and Suffolk estates on con- 
dition that he secured the foundation of the 
college, and paid four thousand marks into 
the general estate. Ten executors were 
named, but the actual administration was 
confined to Paston and Fastolf s Norfolk 
man of business, Thomas Howes. How far 
the objections which were presently raised 
by two of the executors were prompted by 
the Duke of Norfolk, who seized Caistor 
Castle before June 1461, and other claimants 
to the estates, it would be hard to decide ; but 
there was certainly a prima facie case against 
the will, which was obviously nuncupative 
at best, bore signs of hasty drafting, and can- 
celled a will made only five months before, 
leaving the foundation of the college and the 
administration of the estate to the whole 



body of executors. Howes, too, after Pas- 
ton's death, declared the later will a fabri- 
cation. But his testimony is not free from 
suspicion, and was contradicted by others. 
The facts before us hardly justify Sir James 
Ramsay (ii. 345) in assuming without ques- 
tion that Paston was guilty of ' forgery and 
breach of trust/ The reopening of the civil 
war in the autumn of 1459 may very well 
have convinced Fastolf that unless he gave 
some one a strong personal interest in the 
foundation of his college his intentions were 
very likely to be defeated (Paston Letters, i. 
491). For the rest of his life Paston's whole 
energies were devoted to retaining his hold 
upon the Fastolf estates against the Dukes 
of Norfolk and Suffolk and the recalcitrant 
executors. Once his enemies laid a plot to 
carry him off into the north, and three times 
he was imprisoned in the Fleet, on the second 
occasion (1464) just after he had obtained 
Edward IV's license for the foundation of 
Fastolf 's college. The suit against the will 
began in the spiritual court of Canterbury 
in 1464, and was still going on at his death. 
He was compelled to bring evidence to prove 
that he was not of servile blood. But the 
Fastolf succession had made Paston a man 
of greater importance than before ; he sat in 
the last parliament of Henry VI and the first 
of Edward IV as knight of the shire for 
Norfolk, and had some influence with Ed- 
ward, in whose household he seems for a 
time to have resided. He managed to re- 
tain possession of Caistor and most of the 
disputed estates down to his death, which 
took place at London on 21 or 22 May 1466 
(ib. ii. 290). He was buried in Bromholm 

Paston was somewhat hard, self-seeking, 
and unsympathetic. He grudged his younger 
brothers the provision which their father 
made for them, and his dealings with his 
own eldest son leave something to be desired. 
His letters reveal the cool, calculating, busi- 
ness temperament, which we have chiefly to 
thank for the preservation of the unique 
family correspondence, in which he is the 
central, though not the most interesting, 
figure (for the history of the ' Paston Corre- 
spondence ' see under FENN, SIB JOHN, where 
the reprint of Fenn's collection, edited by 
Ramsay in 1841 for Charles Knight, is not 

By his wife, Margaret Mauteby (d. 1484), 
daughter and heiress of John Mauteby of 
Mauteby, near Caistor, Paston had five sons 
and two daughters. The sons were : John the 
elder (1442-1479), who is separately noticed; 
John the younger (rf.1503), who was the father 
of Sir AVilliam Paston (1479P-1554) [q. v.]; 

Edmund, living in 1484; Walter, who took 
the degree of B. A. at Oxford in June 1479, and 
died a few weeks later; and William, who 
was at Eton in 1479, and was afterwards 
attached to the household of John de Vere, 
earl of Oxford [q. v.], until, some time after 
1495, he became ' erased in his mind.' Pas- 
ton's daughters were Margery, who married 
in 1469 Richard Calle ; and Anne, who mar- 
ried in 1477 William Yelverton, grandson of 
William Yelverton [q. v.], the judge. 

[Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner ; Norfolk Archaeo- 
logy, vol. iv. (1855) ; Ramsay's Lancaster and 
York.] J. T-T. 

PASTON, SIR JOHN (1442-1479), 
courtier and letter-writer, born in 1442, eldest 
son of John Paston (1421-1466) [q. v.], and 
his wife, Margaret Mauteby, may have been 
educated at Cambridge, like his father, who 
did not, however, intend him for his own pro- 
fession of the law (Paston Letters, i. 433). 
On the accession of Edward IV he was sent 
to court to push the family fortunes and make 
interest in support of their retention of the 
disputed Fastolf estates. His want of suc- 
cess in this direction and the demands he 
made upon the not too well filled family ex- 
chequer gave great dissatisfaction to his 
father, who before long despised him as ' a 
drane among bees ' without ' politic demean- 
ing or occupation ' (ib. iii. 481-2). Their 
relations were not perceptibly improved by 
the knighthood bestowed upon the younger 
Paston on his coming of age in 1463 (ib. ii. 
135). At any rate. Sir John was withdrawn 
from court, and kept hanging about at home 
in Norfolk. But he soon grew weary of 
this life, and stole away from Caistor ap- 
parently to join the king on his northern 
expedition in May 1464 (ib. i. 438, ii. 141, 
160, 257). His father was highly incensed, 
and for a time forbade him his house. But 
his mother interceded for him, and in the 
spring of 1465 he was back in Norfolk, and 
entrusted with the defence of Caistor Castle ; 
in July he got ' great worship ' by his resist- 
ance to the attempt of the men of John de la 
Pole, duke of Suffolk [q. v.], to enter upon 
the manor of Hellesdon (ib. ii. 177, 187, 
205). His favour at court seems to have 
stood him in good stead after his father's 
death in May 1466, for within two months 
he obtained a royal recognition of the right of 
the family to the estates of Sir John Fastolf 
[q. v.] Once his own master, Paston basked 
in the sunshine of the court, and seldom ap- 
peared in Norfolk. Henceforth he lived chiefly 
in London at his 'place in Fleet Street,' and 
afterwards ' at the George by Pauls Wharf.' 
Among his friends the most congenial was 
Anthony Wydville, lord Scales, afterwards 

B 2 



Earl Rivers, the king's brother-in-law, to a 
cousin of whom Paston was for many years 
engaged. He had the honour of tilting on the 
same side as the king and Scales in a tour- 
nament at Eltham in April 1467, and we 
have to thank him for the preservation of the 
account of the more famous tourney between 
Scales and the Bastard of Burgundy in the 
following summer (BENTLEY, Rrcerpta His- 
torica,j). 176). A year later the king sent him 
to the Low Countries in the train of his sister 
Margaret, on her marriage to Charles the 
Bold (Paston Letters, ii. 305, 316). 

Paston was also a friend of George Neville 
[q. v.], archbishop of York, to whom he lent 
a large sum of money, and this service was 
remembered when the Nevilles drove King 
Edward out of England. The Duke of Nor- 
folk was forced to relinquish Caistor Castle, 
which he had besieged and taken from the 
Pastons during the anarchy of 1469, and 
Paston was promised the constableship of 
Norwich Castle. But the battle of Barnet, 
in which he fought on the losing side, ruined 
these hopes ; Norfolk recovered Caistor, and 
kept it until his death. Nevertheless, by the 
influence of Scales and other well-wishers, 
Paston was soon pardoned and again in favour. 
There is some reason to believe that he sat in 
the parliament of 1472-3, and his friend Lord 
Hastings, who was lieutenant of Calais, se- 
cured him pretty constant employment there 
for the next four or five years. From Calais 
early in 1473 he visited Bruges, where he had 
himself measured for a complete panoply by 
the armourer of the Bastard, and two years 
later he seems to have been present at the 
famous siege of Neuss by Charles the Bold 
(id. iii. 96, 123). 

Paston had succeeded to an inheritance, 
the best part of which continued to be dis- 
puted by the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk 
in the face of a royal decision in his favour. 
He was hardly the man to pilot the family 
interests without loss through such troubled 
waters. Easy-going and lacking in j udgment, 
he left the struggle, which included a formal 
siege of Caistor, to his mother and brother, 
and involved himself in money difficulties, 
ending in alienations and mortgages, which 
almost drove his mother to despair. She 
reproached him with his neglect of his 
father's tomb in Bromholm Priory, which 
was still unfinished at his death. After 
much haggling, indeed, he succeeded in 
effecting a compromise with Bishop Wayn- 
flete and other executors of Fastolf, by 
which he saved some of the estates, including 
Caistor, at the expense of the rest. But even 
this remained a dead letter until the way was 
unexpectedly cleared by the sudden death in 

1476 of John Mowbray, fourth duke of Nor- 
folk, leaving no male issue. In the final ar- 
rangements Waynflete stipulated that the 
college which Fastolf had ordered to be esta- 
blished at Caistor should be transferred to his 
own new foundation at Oxford. The Duke of 
Suffolk persisted in his claims, and was still 
giving the family trouble in the last year of 
Paston's life. Towards the close of 1474 he 
had had a severe attack of fever and ague, 
which seems to have permanently injured 
him, and its effects were aggravated by stormy 
passages to Calais and foreign diet. Going up 
to London ill at ease in the autumn of 1479, 
a year of great mortality, which had already 
carried off his grandmother and his young- 
brother Walter, who had just taken his degree 
at Oxford, he was much put out at finding his 
chamber and 'stuff' not so clean as he liked, 
and in little more than a fortnight he died 
(15 Nov. ; ib. iii. 254, 261). In compliance 
with his will, made 31 Oct. 1477, he was buried 
in the chapel of Our Lady at the White Friars 
in London (ib. pp. 207, 262). 

Paston was unmarried, though one of his 
friends described him as the best chooser of a 
gentlewoman he ever knew. He was plighted 
for many years to Anne Haute, a niece of the 
first Earl Rivers, and a cousin of Edward IV's 
queen. But from 1471 both parties were 
seeking release from the contract, which was 
not abrogated until the end of 1477 at the 
earliest. In the next year there was some 
talk of his marrying another kinswoman of 
the queen. By his mistress, Constance Reyn- 
forth, he left a natural daughter (ib. iii. 221, 
287). He was succeeded in the estates by 
his younger brother, who, strangely enough, 
bore the same Christian name. Robert Pas- 
ton, first earl of Yarmouth (1631-1683) [q. v.], 
was a descendant of the second Sir John. 

Paston's faulty but not unamiable character 
has a certain charm. He was a child of the 
new time, with its curious mixture of 
coarseness and refinement. His letters and 
those of his friends, with, their touches of 
sprightly if somewhat broad humour, light 
up the grave and decorous pages of the Paston 
1 Correspondence.' Disliking the business de- 
tails forced upon him by his position, he is 
happier when matchmaking for his brother, 
or stealing a lady's muskball on his behalf, 
sending his mother salad oil or treacle of 
Genoa with appropriate comments, or rally- 
ing the Duchess of Norfolk not over deli- 
cately on her interesting condition. His 
taste for literature seems to have been real 
and catholic, ranging from the ' Ars Amoris ' 
to treatises on wisdom, not excluding theo- 
logy ; on the death of his mother's chaplain 
he wrote to secure his library. He employed 



a transcriber, one piece of whose handiwork, 
a 'great book' containing treatises on knight- 
hood and war, Hoccleve's l De Regimine Prin- 
cipum,' an account of the tournament between 
Lord Scales and the Bastard and other items, 
is still preserved in the British Museum 
(Lansdowne MS. 285). This occurs in the 
interesting inventory of books (among them 
Caxton's l Game of Chess '), belonging either 
to him or his namesake and successor, included 
in the Paston l Correspondence ' (iii. 300). We 
are disposed to regard it as a list drawn up by 
the elder brother, a few days before his death. 
Mr. Gairdner refers it to the younger brother. 

[The Paston Letters (ed. Gairdner) are the 
sole authority ; they include some documents not 
originally included in the Paston Collection. 
In a few cases the dates assigned by Mr. 
Gairdner seem open to dispute; so. 325, placed 
under 1459, belongs more probably to 1464, and 
No. 539 to 1465, rather than 146d.] J. T-T. 
MOUTH (1631-1683), was born at Oxnead, 
the seat of the Paston family in Norfolk, on 
29 May 1631. He was eldest son of Sir 
William Paston, an antiquary, who had been 
high sheriff of Norfolk in 1636, was created a 
baronet 8 June 1642, and died 22 Feb. 1662-3 
[see under PASTON, SIR WILLIAM, 1479?- 
1554]. His mother, Katherine, daughter 
of Robert Bertie, first earl of Lindsey [q. v.], 
died in 1636. He was educated at West- 
minster, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and is said to have fought in the civil wars. 
His family suffered during the Common- 
wealth (cf. Cal. Comm. for the Advance of 
Money, i. 487), and he travelled abroad. 
When Charles II was restored, Paston was 
knighted on 29 May 1660. He sat in the 
House of Commons as member for Castle 
Rising from 1661 to 1673, and then gave 
place to Samuel Pepys. In 1661 he was made 
deputy-lieutenant for Norfolk, and captain 
in the Earl of Suffolk's regiment of militia 

On 22 Feb. 1662-3 Paston succeeded his 
father as second baronet ; he became a fellow 
of the Royal Society on 20 May of the same 
year, and on 25 Jan. 1666-7 he was appointed 
gentleman of the privy chamber. On 19 Aug. 
1673 he was created Baron Paston of Paston 
in Norfolk, and Viscount Yarmouth of Great 
Yarmouth, and took his seat on 20 Oct. of 
the same year. He was also appointed high 
steward of Great Yarmouth 23 Dec. 1674 ; 
and he became lord-lieutenant of Norfolk 
6 March, and vice-admiral of Norfolk 9 May 
1676. In the same year he entertained 
Charles II at Oxnead, and on 9 Aug. he was 
wounded while in his coach by some ruffians 
who shot at him. , .. 


Yarmouth was evidently a friend of the 
king. He had obtained a lease of the subsi- 
dies of wood, glass, earthen and stone ware, 
oranges, citrons, lemons, and pomegranates in 
1666, and on 24 Jan. 1677-8 he secured the 
joint surveyorship of the green wax. In 1679 
he became colonel of the 3rd Norfolk militia. 
On 30 July 1679 he was advanced to the 
earldom of Yarmouth. He took some, part 
in debates in the lords, and signed numerous 
protests. Yarmouth died 8 March 1682-3, 
and was buried at Oxnead. His portrait was 
painted by Kneller after 1675. 

Yarmouth married Rebecca, daughter of 
Sir Jasper Clayton, by whom he left issue. 
His eldest son, WILLIAM PASTON, second 
EARL OF YARMOUTH (1652-1732), succeeded 
to the title, became a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and was treasurer of the household 
from 1686 to 1689. He was a supporter of 
James II, and married Charlotte Jemima 
Mary, natural daughter of Charles II ; and, 
after her death, Elizabeth, widow of Sir 
Robert Wiseman and daughter of Lord 
North [see under NORTH, DUDLEY, fourth 
BARON NORTH] ; but his sons, who were by 
his first wife, died before him, and the title, 
on his death on 25 Dec. 1732, became extinct. 
His estate was found to be so encumbered 
with debt that it had to be sold, and Oxnead 
was bought by George, afterwards Lord An- 
son [q. v.J, the admiral, who pulled down the 
old mansion. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 736 ; Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Peerage, p. 420 ; Pepys's 
Diary, ed. Lord Braybrooke, vol. i. p. xviii, vol. 
v. pp. 288, 289, 291 ; Wheatley's Samuel Pepys 
and the World he lived in, pp. 47-8 ; Evelyn's 
Diary, ed. Wheatley, ii. 83, 88, 184 ; Blomefield's 
Norfolk, iv. 491 ; Macaulay's Hist, of Engl. i. 
489 ; Eogers's Protests of the Lords ; Cal. of 
State Papers, Dom. 1 663-4 p. 389, 1665-6 pp. 
104, &c., 1667 p. 473; Turner's Hist. Sketch of 
Caistor Castle.] W. A. J. A. 

PASTON, WILLIAM (1378-1444), 
judge, was born in 1378 at Paston on the 
coast of Norfolk, four miles from North 
Walsham, and close to the small Cluniac 
priory of Bromholm (Norfolk Archeology, vol. 
iv. ; Paston Letters, i. 80). He was son of 
Clement Paston, who died on 17 June 1419, 
and Beatrix de Somerton (ib. i. 52, iii. 448). 
Twenty years after William Paston's death 
an attempt was made to defeat his son's 
claim to the Fastolf estates on the plea that 
his grandmother, and apparently his grand- 
father too, had been of servile blood. Cle- 
ment Paston was alleged to have been merely 
a good plain husbandman who cultivated his 
own little holding of a hundred acres or so, 
much of which he held on base tenure ot 



the duchy of Lancaster, and drove his own 
corn to market (ib. vol. i.p. xxi, vol. ii. p. 227). 
The family, it was said, held no manorial 
rights until William Paston purchased some. 
These assertions might seem to be supported 
by Clement Paston's modest will, and we cer- 
tainly find the judge's son endeavouring to 
obtain the grant of a court leet in Paston 
from the duchy (ib. iii. 421, 447). But the 
Pastons proved to the satisfaction of Ed- 
ward IV and his council that they were 
* gentlemen descended lineally of worshipf ull 
blood sithen the Conquest hither.' The pedi- 
gree and other evidences on which they 
relied were preserved at Oxnead Hall until 
the family became extinct, and still exist in 
a copy made by Francis Sandford [q. v.] for 
Robert Paston, viscount (afterwards first 
earl of) Yarmouth [q. v.], in 1674, and 
printed by Mr. Worship in the fourth volume 
of the 'Norfolk Archaeology.' The first steps 
in the family tree, beginning with Wol- 
stan, who came over from Normandy in 
1069, are more than doubtful, and some 
curious errors occur elsewhere; but there 
seems no good reason to doubt that the Pas- 
tons belonged to the small gentry of Nor- 
folk, and had secured by marriage manors in 
parishes contiguous to Paston. But Judge 
Paston was clearly the real founder of the 
family fortunes. If the unfriendly statement 
already quoted may be trusted, his father had 
to borrow money to keep him at school, and he 
was partly supported, during his law studies 
in London, by a maternal uncle. He made 
great progress in these studies, and one of the 
first acts of Richard Courtenay [q. v.] when 
he became bishop of Norwich in 1413 was to 
make Paston steward of all his courts and 
leets (BLOMEFIELD. Hist, of Norfolk, vi. 479). 
According to Blomefield, the citizens of Nor- 
wich called him in as arbitrator in a dispute 
about the election of mayor in 1414, an 
honour repeated in 1442 (ib. iii. 126, 148). 
In 1421 the bench enrolled him in the 
select body of serjeants-at-law, and his ser- 
vices in that capacity were soon, retained for 
the crown (DTJGDALE, Orn/ines Juridiciales, 
p. 46). On 15 Oct. 1429 Paston was raised 
to the bench as one of the justices of the 
common pleas, and continued' to perform the 
duties of this office until a few months before 
his death (Ordinances of the Privy Council, 
iv. 4). A salary of over seventy pounds was 
assigned to him, and, as a mark of special 
Jayour, he received two robes more than the 
ordinary allowance of the judges (Paston 
Letters, vol. i. p. xxiii). He was a member of 
the king g council for the duchy of Lancaster, 
and acted as a trier of petitions in the par- 
liaments of 1439 and 1442 (Rot Parl v 4 

36). His conduct on the bench in days 
when judicial impartiality was hard to pre- 
serve was such as to secure him the honour- 
able title of the ' Good Judge,' and a place 
among Fuller's ' Worthies of England.' But 
it did not entirely escape challenge. While 
a serjeant-at-law he had been in great re- 
quest among the Norfolk gentry as trustee 
and executor, and his services as counsel had 
been retained by towns and religious bodies 
as well as by private persons. In the par- 
liament of November 1433 one William 
Dalling, an official of the duchy of Lancas- 
ter in Norfolk, accused the judge of being 
still ' withholden ' at fees in every matter in 
Norfolk. The exact sums which he took 
yearly from certain parties named were speci- 
fied. If he still took fees from old clients, 
it would be sufficient to cast a doubt upon 
his impartiality in cases where their interests 
were concerned. The petition, however, was 
rejected, and his reputation does not seem to 
have suffered. His duties as an advocate in 
lawless and litigious Norfolk had, before he 
became a judge, involved him in some awk- 
ward situations, of which we get a glimpse 
in the earlier letters of the Paston collection. 
In 1426 he prays ' the Holy Trinite, dely vere 
me of my iij. adversaries, of this cursed 
bysshop ibrBromholm, Aslak for Sprouston, 
and Julian Herberd for Thornham. I have 
nought trespassed ageyn noon of these iij., 
God knowing, and yet I am foule and noy- 
syngly vexed with hem, to my gret unease, 
and alfor my lordes and frendes matieres, and 
nought formyn owyn' (Paston Letters,!. 26). 
As counsel for the priory of Bromholm, in 
whose fortunes he had a personal and family 
as well as a professional interest, Paston had 
resisted the claim of Walter Aslak to the 
advowson of Sprouston, and prosecuted a 
certain John Wortes 'that namythe hymself 
Paston, and affirmeth hym untrewely to be 
my cousin,' for apostasy from the priory. In 
August 1424 Aslak placarded Norwich with 
bills, threatening to murder Paston, and by 
his interest in high places brought him into 
ill-odour with John Mowbray, second duke 
of Norfolk, whose steward Paston had been 
since 1415. Worteswentto Rome, where he 
was made bishop of Cork, and got his adver- 
sary mulcted in a fine of 205/., and ultimately 
excommunicated. W 7 eare not told how either 
matter ended. 

In January 1444 Paston was too ill to ride 
the home circuit, and made his will. He died 
on 13 Aug., late at night, which no doubt 
accounts for the date of his death being 
sometimes given as the ]4th (ib. i. 50, 54, if 
289, iii. 448-60). Sandford quotes a state- 
ment of W T illiam Worcester that he died at 



London, which may be doubted. He was 
buried in the chapel of Our Lady in Norwich 
Cathedral, of which he had been a benefactor, 
and his son endowed a priest to pray for his 
soul in the said chapel for ninety years 
(BLOMEFIELD, vi. 480). Blomeneld states 
that he built the north aisle of Therfield 
Church, Hertfordshire, and probably that of 
Great Cressingham Church, Norfolk, in both 
of which effigies of himself and his wife for- 
merly existed. 

Paston married Agnes, daughter and heiress 
of Sir Edmund Berry of Harlingbury or Hor- 
welbury Hall in Hertfordshire, who bore him 
five sons and one daughter. The sons were : 
John (1421-1466), who is separately noticed ; 
Edmund ( 1425 P-1449 ?), William (1436?- 
1496 ?), Clement (b. 1442 ; d. before 1487), 
and Harry, who must have predeceased his 
father (Paston Letters, i. 77). The daughter 
was Elizabeth, who married (1), before 1459, 
Eobert Poynings (d. 1461), by whom she was 
mother of Lord-deputy Sir Edward Poynings 
[q. v.], and (2), before 1472, Sir George 
Browne of Betchworth, Surrey. She made 
her will on 18 May 1487 (ib. iii. 462). 

Paston's wife had brought him estates in 
Hertfordshire and Suffolk, and he himself 
had made extensive purchases of lands in 
Paston and other parts of Norfolk, including 
the manor of Gresham, bought of Thomas 
Chaucer [q. v.] These estates he divided by 
his will between his widow and his sons, 
with elaborate precautions against disputes, 
which did not prove entirely successful. He 
also left a very considerable amount of ready 
money and plate, although over four hun- 
dred pounds of his salary was not paid until 
fourteen years after his death (Foss, iv. 352 ; 
Enrolled Customs Accounts, 37 Henry VI). 
His widow died in 1479. 

[Foss, in his Lives of the Judges (iv. 350-2), 
gives a short biography of Paston, to which 
something has been added from Blomefield and 
Parkin's History of Norfolk (8vo ed.. 1805) and 
Mr. Gairdner's edition of the Paston Letters. 
The fullest materials for the Paston genealogy 
are contained in Sandford's transcript of the 
family pedigree and evidences printed in 1855 
by Mr. Worship in vol. iv. of the Norfolk Archaeo- 
logy from the original manuscript at Clumber. 
Some additional information may be gleaned 
from Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum (ed. 
Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel), iii. 63 sqq., v. 59 sq.] 

J. T-T. 

PASTON, SIB WILLIAM (1479P-1554), 
lawyer and courtier, born about 1479, was son 
of Sir John Paston the younger of Paston in 
Norfolk, by Margery, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Brews of Sturton Hall in Sail, Norfolk. The 
father was a soldier, and had been brought 

up in the family of the Duke of Norfolk, with 
whom his family had much dispute ; but, like 
his elder brother, also called Sir John Paston, 
who is separately noticed, and from whom he 
must be carefully distinguished, he took the 
Lancastrian side in the war of the Roses. 
With his brother he fought at Barnet in 1471, 
and had to secure a pardon to meet the new 
turn of affairs. He served in the army of 
1475, and, on his elder brother's death in 
1479, he succeeded to the estates. He was 
high sheriff of Norfolk in 1485, and evidently 
was much trusted by the new king, who gave 
him a reward of 1601. in the same year. He 
behaved well in the rebellion of Lambert 
Simnel, was knighted at the battle of Stoke 
in 1487, was made a knight of the king's 
body, and took part in the reception of 
Catherine of Arragon in 1501. He died in 

William Paston was educated at Cam- 
bridge, and a letter from him to his father, 
written about 1495, has been printed among 
the ' Paston Letters.' It shows that at the 
time he had been forced to leave the univer- 
sity on account of the ravages of the sweat- 
ing sickness. He was bred to the law, the 
borough of Yarmouth acknowledging his ser- 
vices on one occasion by giving him a present ; 
but he is chiefly known as a courtier. In 1511 
he was a commissioner of array for Norfolk. 
In 1513 he secured a grant of part of the Pole 
estates. On 7 July 1517 he attended on the king 
at a banquet at Greenwich. The same year 
he was sheriff of Norfolk. It seems uncertain 
when he was knighted, but probably he was 
dubbed early in Henry VIII's reign. He was 
certainly a knight in 1520. He was present 
at the reception of the emperor, Charles V, 
and the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, 
and in 1522 seems to have been employed^as 
a treasurer for the army on the Scottish 
border. He was often in the commission of the 
peace for Norfolk, and secured various grants. 
In 1523 he was again serving on the northern 
border, and his family connection with the 
Lovell family secured him the executorship 
to Sir Thomas Lovell [q. v.],who died in 1524. 
He was a commissioner to collect the subsidy 
of 1524 ; the same year, on 1 Sept., he was 
one of those who rode to Blackheath to meet 
the papal ambassador bearing the golden rose 
to Henry. He seems to have been high- 
handed as a landlord, and had disputes with 
the men of Yarmouth about his estate of 
Caistor. In 1528 he was sheriff of Norfolk 
and Suffolk. He went on the expedition of 
1532, took some part, as an augmentation 
commissioner for Norfolk, in the suppression 
of the monasteries, was present at the recep- 
tion of Anne of Cleves in 1539, and died 




in September 1554. He was buried at Pas- 
ton on 26 Sept., and his will (P.P.C. More 
1 5 1 was proved on 4 Dec. of the same year. 
He married Bridget, daughter of Sir Henry 
Heydon of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk. By her he 
left two sons, of whom the second, Clement, 
is separately noticed. 

The eldest son, Erasmus Paston, died in 
his father's lifetime, in 1540, and was buried 
at Paston on 6 Nov. of that year. He had 
married Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Wyndham of Felbrigg, Norfolk ; she lived 
until 1596, and by her he had a son, SIK 
WILLIAM PASTON (1528-1610), who was 
knighted on 22 Aug. 1578, and is famous as 
the founder of North Walsham grammar 
school. He succeeded to the property of his 
grandfather in 1540, and of his uncle Clement 
in 1597. In the latter year he removed to 
the new house which Sir Clement Paston 
had built at Oxnead ; and Caistor, which the 
Paston family had had such difficulty to 
keep in the fifteenth century, was suffered 
to fall into ruin. He died on 20 Oct. 1610, 
and was buried in the church at North 
Walsham. A portrait is at North Walsham, 
and another, said to be by Zucchero, was at 
Empingham Rectory, Rutland. He settled 
40/. per annum on the school, with 10/. for 
a weekly lecturer ; he was also a benefactor 
to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 
He had married, on 5 May 1651, Frances, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Clere of Stokesby, 
Norfolk, and by her he left, with other issue, 
Christopher, his heir, who became insane 
in 1611, and who was great-grandfather 
of Robert Paston, first earl of Yarmouth 
[q. v.] 

[For Sir John Paston the introduction to the 
third volume of Gairduer's Paston Letters sup- 
plies full information ; see also Dawson Turner's 
Hist. Sketch of Caistor; Letters, &c., Richard III 
and Henry VII, ed. Gairdner ( Rolls Ser.) i. 410 ; 
Campbell's Materials for the Hist, of Henry VII 
(Rolls Ser.) i. 158, &c. (the William Paston 
referred to in this authority is Sir John Paston's 
uncle, not his son), ii. 135, &c. For the others, 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII ; Chron. of 
Calais (Camd. Soe.), pp. 22,42, 174; Ordinances 
of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, vii. 49; 
Sharp's Royal Descent, &c., pp. 11-13 ; Blome- 
field's Norfolk, iv. 491.] W. A. J. A. 

DETTO) (Jl. 1775-1810), draughtsman and 
engraver, a native of Italy, came to England, 
where he obtained employment as a deco- 
rator of ceilings in the style then in vogue. 
He also studied stipple engraving under Fran- 
cesco Bartolozzi [q. v.], and executed some 
very successful plates in this manner, mostly 
subjects after Angelica Kauffmann, Zucchi 

Rigaud, and others, but including a full- 
length portrait of Mrs. Billington after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. Pastorini published in 
1775 a very scarce set often engravings, en- 
titled * A New Book of Designs for Girandoles 
and Glass Frames in the Present Taste.' He 
exhibited two drawings for ceilings at the 
Royal Academy in 1775 and 1776. He also 
engraved some caricatures in aquatint. 
When the Society of Engravers was formed 
in 1803 to protect engravers and their 
widows and orphans, Pastorini was one of 
the first governors, the qualification being 
the contribution of a plate worth seventy- 
five guineas. It was this society which 
led to the foundation of the Artists' Bene- 
volent Fund in 1810, and as Pastorini's 
name does not appear among the governors 
then, it is probable that his death had taken 
place before the latter date. Two members 
of his family, F. E. and J. Pastorini, practised 
as miniature-painters, and exhibited minia- 
tures at the Royal Academy from 1812 to 
1834. The latter died in Newman Street, 
London, on 3 Aug. 1839, aged 66. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Pye's Patronage 
of British Art; Tuer's Bartolozzi and his 
Works ; Royal Academy Catalogues, with manu- 
script notes by J. H. Anderdon.] L. C. 


(1651-1719?), New England settler, born in 
Sominerhausen, Frankenland, Germany, on 
26 Sept. 1651, was son of Melchior Adam 
Pastorius, judge of Windsheim. In 1668 he 
entered the university of Altorf, afterwards 
studied law at Strasburg, Basle, and Jena, 
and at Ratisbon obtained a practical know- 
ledge of international polity. On 23 Nov. 
1 676 he received the degree of doctor of law at 
Nuremberg. In 1679 he was a law lecturer at 
Frankfort, where he became deeply interested 
in the teachings of the pastor Spener, the 
founder of Pietism. In 1680 and 1681 he 
accompanied Johannes Bonaventura von 
Rodeck, on Spener's recommendation, in his 
travels through France, England, Ireland, 
and Italy, returning to Frankfort in 1682. 
Haying joined the sect of the pietists, he 
devised, with some of his co-religionists, a 
plan for emigrating to Pennsylvania. They 
purchased twenty-five thousand acres, but 
abandoned the intention of colonising the 
land themselves. Pastorius, who acted as 
their agent, had made the acquaintance of 
William Penn in England, and became a 
convert to the quaker doctrines. He was 
commissioned by his associates, who in 1683 
organised themselves as the Frankfort Land 
Company, and by some merchants of Crefeld, 
who had acquired fifteen thousand acres, to 



conduct a colony of German and Dutch 
Mennonites and quakers to Pennsylvania. 
He arrived on 20 June 1683, settled upon 
the company's tract between the Schuylkill 
and the Delaware rivers, and on 24 Oct. 
began to lay out Germantown. Soon after 
his arrival he united himself with the Society 
of Quakers, and became one of its most able 
and devoted members, as well as the re- 
cognised head and law-giver of the settle- 
ment. In 1687 he was elected a member of 
the assembly. In 1 688 he drew up a me- 
morial against slave-holding, which was 
adopted by the Germantown quakers and 
sent up to the monthly meeting, and thence 
to the yearly meeting at Philadelphia. It is 
noteworthy as the first protest made by a re- 
ligious body against negro slavery, and is the 
subject of John Greenleaf Whittier's poem, 
'The Pennsylvania Pilgrim.' The original 
document was discovered in 1844 by Nathan 
Kite, and was published in the ' Friend ' 
(vol. xviii. No. 16). Pastorius was elected the 
first bailiff of the town in 1691, and served 
the office again in 1692, afterwards acting 
frequently as clerk. For many years he 
carried on a school in Germantown, which 
he temporarily removed to Philadelphia 
between 1698 and 1700, and wrote deeds 
and letters required by the more uneducated 
of his countrymen. He died in Germantown 
between 26 Dec. 1719 and 13 Jan. 1720, the 
dates respectively of the making and proving 
of his will. On 26 Nov. 1686 he married 
Anneke, daughter of Dr. Johann Kloster- 
man of Miihlheim, by whom he had two 
sons, John Samuel (b. 1690) and Henry 
(b. 1692). He was on intimate terms with 
William Penn, Thomas Lloyd, Chief-justice 
Logan, Thomas Story, and other leading 
men in the province belonging to his own 
religious society, as well as with Kelpius, the 
learned mystic of the Wissahickon, with the 
pastor of the Swedes church, and the leaders 
of the Mennonites. 

His l Lives of the Saints/ &c., written in 
German and dedicated to Professor Schurm- 
berg, his old teacher, was published in 1690. 
He also published a pamphlet, consisting in 
part of letters to his father, and containing 
a description of Pennsylvania and its go- 
vernment, and advice to emigrants, entitled, 
' Umstandige geographische Beschreibung 
der zu allerletzt erfundenen Provintz Penn- 
sylvania,' 8vo, Frankfort and Leipzig, 1700, 
a further portion of which was included in 
the quaker Gabriel Thomas's ' Continuatio der 
BeschreibungderLandschafft Pennsylvania,' 
8vo, Frankfort and Leipzig, 1702. Some of 
his poetry, which is chiefly devoted to the 
pleasures of gardening, the description of 

flowers, and the care of bees, appeared in 
1710, under the title of ' Delicise hortenses : 
eine Sammlung deutscher epigrammatischer 

Others of his works are : 1 . ' De Rasura Docu- 
mentorum,' Nuremberg, 1676, 4to, being his 
inaugural dissertation for his degree. 2. A 
primer, printed in Pennsylvania previously 
to 1697. 3. ' Treatise on four Subjects of 
Ecclesiastical History, viz., the Lives of the 
Saints, the Statutes of the Pontiffs, the De- 
cisions of the Councils of the Church, the 
Bishops and Patriarchs of Constantinople,' 
written in German and printed in Germany, 
and dedicated by Pastorius to his old school- 
master at Windsheim, Tobias Schumberg, 

Pastorius left forty-three volumes of 
manuscripts. Few of these compilations 
have escaped destruction ; the most curious 
of all, however, the huge folio entitled 
Francis Daniel Pastorius, his Hive, Bee- 
stock, Melliotrophiuni Alucar or Rusca 
Apium,' was in 1872 in the possession of 
Washington Pastorius of Germantown. It 
is a medley of knowledge and fancy, history, 
philosophy, and poetry, written in seven 
languages. His Latin prologue to the German- 
town book of records (1688) has been trans- 
lated by Whittier as an ode beginning ' Hail 
to Posterity,' which is prefixed to the 
1 Pennsylvania Pilgrim.' 

[Penn Monthly for 1871 and for January and 
February 1872 ; Whittier's Writings (London, 
1888-9), i. 316-45,434-5; DerdeutschePionier 
(Cinc'innati) for 1871 ; Allgemeine deutsehe 
Biographic, xxv. 219; Appleton's Cyclop, of 
Amer. Biogr.] G. G. 

PATCH, RICHARD (1770 P-1806), cri- 
minal, born about 1770 at Heavitree, near 
Exeter, Devonshire, was the eldest son of a 
small farmer who for some daring acts of 
smuggling was imprisoned in Exeter gaol, 
where he afterwards became turnkey. Ri- 
chard Patch was apprenticed to a butcher, 
and was liberally supplied with money by 
his father. On his father's death he inhe- 
rited a small freehold estate of about 50/. a. 
year, which he farmed, renting at the same 
time a small farm in the neighbourhood of 
Heavitree. In this occupation he was en- 
gaged for some years ; but he was compelled 
to mortgage his estate, and in the spring of 
1803 journeyed to London to avoid, accord- 
ing to his own account, an action for the 
non-payment of tithes. He was taken into 
the service of Isaac Blight, a ship-breaker 
living in the parish of St. Mary, Rother- 
hithe. In the summer of 1803 Blight, in 
order to protect himself against his creditors, 
appears to have executed an instrument con- 


veying his property to Patch. In Aug. 1805 
it was arranged that Patch should become a 
real, instead of a nominal, partner in Blight's 
business to the extent of one-third. For 
this share Patch paid Blight 250/., procured 
from the sale of his estate in Devonshire, 
and promised him, by 23 Sept. 1805, 1,000/., 
a sum that Patch knew he had no means of 
obtaining. ( hi the evening of the 23rd Patch 
was alone with Blight in the front parlour 
of the letter's house, and about 8 P.M., just 
after Patch had been seen to leave the room, 
Blight was discovered by a servant lying 
wounded by a pistol-shot. Blight expired 
the next day, and Patch was tried for his mur- 
der on 5 April 1806, at the Sessions House 
in Horsemonger Lane, before Lord-chief- 
baron Macdonald. The prisoner, who ap- 
peared dressed ' in a handsome suit of black,' 
behaved with the utmost coolness, and read 
a written defence. He was found guilty on 
clear circumstantial evidence, skilfully mar- 
shalled by the prosecution. Patch was 
deeply affected when visited in prison by his 
brother and by the sister of his deceased wife, 
but does not appear to have confessed the 
murder. He was executed on 8 April 1806 
at nine o'clock, on a platform on the front of 
the gaol, Horsemonger Lane. A man and 
his wife were at the same time hanged for 

The case excited great interest, and nume- 
rous accounts of the trial were published, 
among which were shorthand reports by J. 
& W. B. Gurney, and by Blanchard & 
Ramsey (London, 1806, 8vo). A view and 
plan of Blight's house appeared in the 
'Lady's Magazine' for 1806, pp. 211-16. 
Fairburn's edition of the trial and an account 
published in vol. iv. of Kirby's ' Wonderful 
and Eccentric Museum ' (pp. 43-97) contain 
portraits of Patch, who is described (Gent. 
Mag. 1806, p. 375, paged '383') as a man 
of heavy build, 'very round-shouldered, with 
a short thick neck and florid complexion.' 

[Gurney's Trial of Richard Patch, and other 
accounts of the Life and Trial of Patch, enume- 
rated in Brit. Mus. Cat. under ' Patch, Richard.'] 

W. W. 

PATCH, THOMAS (d. 1782), painter and 
engraver, after studying art in London, went 
as a young man to Italy, making his way 
thither, chiefly on foot, in company with 
Richard Dalton the artist. He arrived at 
Rome some time before 1750, and became a 
student at the academy there. He was 
patronised by the Earl of Charlemont and 
sther amateurs, for whom he painted or 
copied pictures. His eccentric behaviour 
however, drew on him the displeasure of the 



church authorities, and he had to leave Rome 
hurriedly towards the end of 1755. He then 
removed to Florence, where he resided until 
his death. When in Rome he became ac- 
quainted, and appears to have travelled in 
company, with Sir Joshua Reynolds [q. v.], 
who introduced a portrait of Patch into the 
caricature of ' The School of Athens,' drawn 
by Reynolds in 1751. At Florence Patch 
became well known among the English resi- 
dents, and was a great friend of Sir Horace 
Mann [q. v.l, who frequently recommended 
Patch and his works to Horace Walpole and 
other friends in England or on their travels. 
Patch was one of the first artists to discern 
the supreme merits of Masaccio's frescos in 
the Church of the Carmini at Florence. He 
made careful drawings of these, which are 
the more valuable as the original paintings 
were shortly afterwards seriously damaged 
by fire. Though Patch had no previous ex- 
perience of engraving, he etched these draw- 
ings on copper, and published them in twenty- 
six plates in 1770 as 'The Life of the Cele- 
brated Painter, Masaccio,' with a dedication 
to Sir Horace Mann. In 1772 he published a 
series of twenty-four etchings from the works 
of Fra Bartolommeo, dedicated to Horace 
Walpole ; and another series from the pic- 
tures by Giotto in the Church of the Carmini, 
dedicated to Bernardo Manetti. In 1774 he 
published a set of engravings by himself and 
F. Gregory from Lorenzo Ghiberti's Gates 
of the Baptistery of San Giovanni at Flo- 
rence. All these works have merit, and entitle 
Patch to a foremost place among the students 
of early Florentine art. Patch also executed 
number of caricatures of English travellers 
ind residents in Florence, including two of 
himself. A small 'caricature' painting of 
the bibliophile Duke of Roxburghe, by Patch, 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. He 
sainted conversation pieces and landscapes. 
Two views of the Arno by him are at Hamp- 
:on Court ; and he engraved a similar view 
limself. He also engraved portraits of Ni- 
colas Poussin, Sir J. Hawkwood, A. P. Bel- 
'ori (after C.Maratti), some landscapes after 
xaspar Poussin, &c. Patch was seized with 
poplexy in Sir Horace Mann's house at Flo- 
rence, and died on 30 April 1782. There are a 
ew drawings by him in the print-room at the 
British Museum. His brother, James Patch, 
was a surgeon in Norfolk Street, London. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Doran's Mann 
ind Manners in Florence; Hist. MSS. Comm 
2th Rep. App. x.] L c> 

PATE or PATES, RICHARD (d. 1565) 
bishop of Worcester, son of John Pate by 
Minor, sister of John Longland [q. v.], bishop 




of Lincoln, was born in Oxfordshire, probably 
at Henley-on-Thames, and was admitted on 
1 June 1522 a scholar of Corpus Christ! Col- 
lege, Oxford, whence he graduated B.A. on 
15 Dec. 1523, according to Wood (Fasti, ed. 
Bliss, i. 63). This degree having been com- 
pleted by determination, he went to Paris, and 
there graduated M.A. On 4 June 1523 he 
was collated by his uncle to the prebend of 
Centum Solidorum in the church of Lincoln, 
and he resigned it for that of Cropredy in 
1525. He appears to have resided for some 
time at Bruges, as John Ludovicus Yives, 
writing from that city on 8 July 1524 
to Bishop Longland, the king's confessor, 
says : ' Richard Pate, your sister's son, and 
Antony Barcher, your 'dependant, are won- 
derfully studious ' (BREWEK, Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, vol. iv. pt. i. p. 203). 
In 1526 he was made archdeacon of Worces- 
ter. On 11 March 1526-7 he had the stall 
of Sanctno Crucis, alias Spaldwick, in the 
church of Lincoln, and on 22 June 1528 the 
stall of Sutton cum Buckingham in the same 
church. On this latter date he was also 
made archdeacon of Lincoln upon the death 
of William Smith, doctor of decrees. His 
uncle, the bishop, wrote to Wolsey on 15 July 
1528 : < There is a house in the close at Lin- 
coln, belonging to the late archdeacon, which 
I should be glad of for a residence for my 
nephew, Richard Pate, archdeacon of Lin- 
coln, whom I should like to settle there ' (ib. 
vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 1973). 

In November 1533 Pate was appointed to 
be the king's ambassador resident in the court 
of the emperor, Charles V. During his ab- 
sence the bishop of Lincoln was not unmind- 
ful of his nephew's interests, and in a letter 
dated 27 Sept. 1535 he desired Cromwell's 
favour for the archdeacon of Lincoln, ' whose 
great charges at this time are beyond what 
his income can bear,' and shortly afterwards 
he sought leave for the archdeacon to license 
his officers to visit his archdeaconry, ' or he 
will lack money to serve the king where he 
is, for this is the chief time of his profits.' 
In April 1536 Pate was at Rome with the 
emperor, who complained of the course 
adopted by the king of England, and ener- 
getically defended his own action on behalf 
of his aunt, Catherine of Arragon. Subse- 
quently he accompanied the emperor to the 
Low Countries. Soon afterwards be was 
recalled to England, and Sir Thomas Wyatt 
succeeded him as ambassador in the em- 
peror's court in March 1536-7. In June 
1536 he had supplicated for the degree of 
B.D. at Oxford. 

On 8 July 1541 Pope Paul III < provided ' 
Pate to the bishopric of Worcester, which 

had been vacated by the death of Cardinal 
Jerome Ghinucci, who had been deprived 
of the temporalities of the see in 1535 on 
account of his being a foreigner. Bishop 
Stubbs assigns the appointment and conse- 
cration of Pate to 1554, when he received the 
temporalities from Queen Mary (Registrum 
Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 81). It is to be noted 
that Nicholas Heath [q. v.], who was placed 
in this see by Henry VIII in 1543, although 
rehabilitated by Cardinal Pole, and made 
archbishop of York, was not recognised by 
the pope as bishop of Worcester. In his 
provision ' to York, Heath is styled ' cleri- 
cus Eboracensis ' (BEADY, Episcopal Succes- 
sion in England, i. 51, 52). Pate attended 
the council of Trent as bishop of Worcester, 
his first appearance there being in the session 
which opened on 21 April 1547. He was 
also present at the sittings of the council in 
September 1549 and in 1551. He remained in 
banishment during the reign of Edward VI. 
In 1542 he had been attainted of high treason, 
whereupon his archdeaconry was bestowed on 
George Heneage, and his prebend of East- 
harptre in the church of Wells on Dr. John 

On the accession of Queen Mary he re- 
turned to this country. His attainder was 
reversed, and on 5 March 1554-5 he obtained 
possession of the temporalities of the see of 
Worcester (RYMEE, Fadera, xv. 415). Queen 
Elizabeth deprived him of the tempora- 
lities in June 1559, and cast him into prison. 
He was in the Tower of London on 12 Feb. 
1561-2, when he made his will, which has 
been printed by Brady. On regaining his 
liberty he withdrew to Louvain, where he 
died on 5 Oct. 1565. Mass is still said for 
him every year at the English College, Rome, 
on the anniversary of his death. 

One of the figures in Holbein's celebrated 
picture of ' The Ambassadors,' now in the 
National Gallery, is believed to represent 
Pate (Times, 8 Dec. 1891). 

[Baker's Northamptonshire, i. 697; Bedford's 
Blazon of Episcopacy, p. 108; Chambers's Bio- 
graphical Illustrations of Worcestershire, p. 62 ; 
Dodd's Church Hist. i. 488; Foster's Alumni 
Oxonienses, 100-1714, iii. 1126; Fowler's His- 
tory of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, pp. 86, 
88, 382; Godwin, De Prsesulibus, eel. Richardson, 
p. 470; Humfredus, Vita Juclli, 1573, p. 179; 
Kennett MSS. xlvi. 298 ; Le Neve's Fasti; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 203, 2nd ser. v. 378 ; 
Oxford University Register, i. 131 ; Thomas's 
Survey of the Cathedral of Worcester, 1736, pt. 
ii. pp. 209-10 ; Willis's Survey of Cathedral?, 
ii. 646; Wood's Athense Oxonienses, ii. 794, and 
Fasti Oxonienses, i. 19, 62, 63, 85, ed. Bliss.] 

T. C. 




PATE, RICHARD (1510-1588), founder 
of the Cheltenham grammar school, com- 
monly described as of Minsterworth, Glou- 
cestershire, was born on 24 Sept. 1516. At 
the age of sixteen he was admitted 'disciple 
( m scholar) on the Gloucestershire founda- 
tion of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, but 
never became fellow. He was a commissioner 
to Henry VIII and Edward VI for taking a 
survey of all the suppressed religious founda- 
tions in Gloucester, Bristol, and neighbouring 
places, and himself purchased of Edward VI 
several of the lands belonging to these monas- 
teries in Gloucestershire and elsewhere. He 
was also for many years recorder of Gloucester. 
In 1586 he founded the grammar school and 
almshouses ('hospital') at Cheltenham which 
still bear his name, and by an indenture dated 
6 Oct. of that year he covenants with Corpus 
Christi College that, in return for undertaking 
the charge of his property and administering 
the benefaction, they shall, as stipulated in the 
statutes of the founder, receive one-fourth part 
of the gross revenue. This property, which 
was situated in Cheltenham and Glouces- 
ter, brought in at that time a gross sum of 
about 54/. a year. It now, in some years, 
produces a net income of over 2,000/. Pate 
died on 28 Oct. 1588, in his seventy-third 
year, and was buried in the south transept 
of Gloucester Cathedral, where his monument 
was renewed by Corpus Christi College in 
1688. He is dressed in the habit of a lawyer, 
and is represented together with his wife and 
children. There is also a fine portrait of him, 
apparently contemporary, though by an un- 
known artist, in the Corpus common room. 
This Richard Pate must not be confounded 
with Richard Pate or Pates [q. v.], bishop of 

[Fowler's History of Corpus Christi College, 
pp. 34-5; Rudder's Hist, of Gloucestershire, p. 
118 ; Griffith's Hist, of Cheltenham, pp. 53-4.] 

T. F. 

PATE, WILLIAM (1666-1746), 'the 
learned woollen-draper,' son of William Pate, 
was born in 1606. lie was a direct lineal 
descendant from John Pate (b. 1557) of Brin 
in Essex, the great-uncle of Sir John Pate, 
bart. ( 1 585-1 652), of Sysonby, Leicestershire. 
He is erroneously stated by Nichols, who is 
followed by Scott, to have been educated at 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and to have been 
granted the degree of LL.D. It appears, 
however, that he travelled in Italy, whence 
Arbutlmot mentions that he ' brought back 
all Chaussane's music.' Charles King, writ- 
ing to Wanley in 1693, alludes to Pate as a 
young man newly set up, yet 'probably 
master of the best study of books and the 

best scholar of his age I know.' About the 
same period John Arbuthnot, previous to 
matriculating at Oxford, lived with Pate, 
who inherited from his father a prosperous 
business and a house opposite the Royal 
Exchange. In October 1694 the learned 
woollen-draper gave his boarder a letter of in- 
troduction to Dr. Charlett, master of Univer- 
sity, in which he spoke highly of his young 
friend's honesty, discretion, and merit (Letter 
in Tanner MSS. at the Bodleian Library, xxv. 
228). It was probably through the instru- 
mentality of Arbuthnot that Pate became such 
a familiar figure in the literary society of his 
epoch ; he was doubtless taken up the more 
warmly because to men like Steele and Swift 
the combination of literary taste with the 
practice of trade was something of a novel 
sensation. Steele wrote about the learned 
tradesman in the ' Guardian ' (No. 141) : 
'A passage which happened to me some 
years ago confirmed several maxims of fru- 
gality in my mind. A woollen-draper of 
my acquaintance, remarkable for his learn- 
ing and good nature, pulled out his pocket- 
book, wherein he showed me at the one end 
several well-chosen mottos, and several 
patterns of cloth at the other. I, like a well- 
bred man, praised both sort of goods, where- 
upon he tore out the mottos and generously 
gave them to me, but with great prudence 
put the patterns in his pocket again.' Swift, 
who, while staying in London during 1708-9, 
wrote of Pate as a ' bel esprit and woollen- 
draper,' renewed his acquaintance in the 
autumn of 1710. He dined with Pate at Lee 
Grove, Kent, on 17 Sept., and again on the 
24th. On 6 Oct. he and Sir Andrew Fountaine 
shared Pate's hospitality at a chop-house in 
the city, and the trio subsequently ' sauntered 
in booksellers' and china shops ' until it was 
time to go to the tavern, the party not break- 
ing up until ten o'clock. About this time Pate 
started the ' Lacedemonian Mercury,' under 
Tom Brown, to oppose Dunton's ' Athenian 
Mercury;' but he was outmanoeuvred by 
his rivals, and the venture failed. He re- 
tained, however, the loyalty of Brown, who 
in 1710 dedicated to his 'honest friend, Mr. 
Pate,' his ' Memoirs of the Present State of 
the Court and Councils of Spain.' By Swift 
the accomplished draper was introduced to 
Pope, who, writing to John Hughes in 1714, 
enclosed a ' proposal for his Homer ' to Pate, 
as a likely person to promote the subscrip- 

Pate, who was a sheriff of the city in 1734, 
died at Lee on 9 Dec. 1746, and was buried 
in the old churchyard. He dictated the fol- 
lowing apophthegm, to be inscribed in gold 
letters upon his tomb: 'Epicharmion illud 



teneto nervos atque artus esse scientise : Non 
temere credere.' Pate had many friends at 
Oxford, and he presented a portrait of Sir 
Kenelm Digby to the Bodleian Library in 
1692. An autograph note to Sir Hans Sloane 
about a pattern of black cloth is preserved at 
the British Museum (Addit, MS. 4055, f. 29). 

[Nichols's Life of Bowyer and Lit. Anecdotes, 
i. 98; Burke's Extinct Baronetage, p. 403; 
Drake's Hundred of Blackheath, pp. 225 and n. 
231 ; Lysons's Environs, iv. 505, 659 ; Archseolog. 
Cantiana, xiv. 193; Swift's Journal to Stella, 
passim; Eorster's Life of Swift, pp. 251, 279, 
280, 284 ; Aitken's Life of Arbuthnot, pp. 7, 18, 
24 ; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope, 
vol. x. ; Dunton's Life and Errors ; Macray's 
Annals of the Bodleian Library, p. 196 ; Notes 
and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 346.] T. S. 

1894), critic and humanist, was born at 
Shadwell in the east of London on 4 Aug. 
] 839. He was the second son of Dr. Richard 
Glode Pater and Maria Hill, his wife. The 
family is of Dutch extraction, the critic's 
ancestors having, it is believed, come over 
from the Low Countries with William of 
Orange. It is said that the French painter 
Jean-Baptiste Pater was of the same stock. 
The English Paters had settled at Olney 
in Buckinghamshire, where they lived all 
through the eighteenth century. Reserved 
and shy, preserving many of their Dutch 
habits, they are described in family tradition 
as mingling little with their neighbours, and 
as keeping through several generations this 
curious custom, that, while the sons were 
always brought up as Roman catholics, the 
daughters were no less invariably trained in 
the Anglican faith. The father of Walter 
Pater quitted the Roman church before his 
marriage, without, however, adopting any 
other form of faith, and his two sons were 
the first Paters who were not brought up as 

The grandfather of the critic removed to 
New York, and there Richard Glode Pater 
was born. He settled as a physician at 
Shadwell, and here were born to him two 
sons the elder, William Thomson Pater 
(1835-1888), a medical practitioner and 
two daughters, who survive. Richard Glode 
Pater died so early that his second son 
scarcely remembered him in later life. The 
family, at his decease, removed to a re- 
tired house in Chase Side, Enfield, which 
has since been pulled down. Here they con- 
tinued to reside for fourteen or fifteen years. 
Walter Pater received the first elements of 
education in a local school at Enfield, but 
proceeded at the age of fourteen to King's 
School, Canterbury. Of the feelings and ex- 

periences of this change of life he has given 
a vivid picture in the ' imaginary portrait ' 
called ' Emerald Uthwart.' Pater was happy 
at King's School, in spite of his complete 
indifference to outdoor games. In his 
first years at public school he was idle and 
backward, nor was it till he reached the 
sixth form that his faculties seemed really 
to awaken. From the first, however, and 
long before he went to Canterbury, Walter 
had been considered the ' clever ' one of the 
family; not specially precocious, he was 
always meditative and serious marked from 
the very cradle for the intellectual life. 
From the time when he first began to think 
of a future condition, his design was to be a 
clergyman, and this had received a great 
impetus, while he was yet a little boy, from 
his having seen, during a visit to Hursley, 
Keble, who walked and talked much with 
him, and encouraged him in his religious 

Shortly before he left school, when he 
was entering his twentieth year, Pater read 
' Modern Painters,' and came very abruptly 
under the influence of Ruskin. The world 
of art was thus for the first time opened to 
him. But there is no truth in the fable, 
widely circulated at the time of his death, 
to the effect that the finished and beautiful 
essay on 'Wlnckelmann ' was written and 
even printed while the author was a school- 
boy at Canterbury. It was not until many 
years later that Pater became aware of the 
existence of the German critic, and his essay 
was composed and published long after he 
was a fellow of Brasenose. He is not known 
to have made any attempt to write, either 
as a schoolboy or as an undergraduate, his 
earliest essays being as mature in style as 
the author was mature in years. Pater did 
not begin to practise the art of authorship 
until he had mastered all its secrets. 

On 11 June 1858 Pater entered Queen's 
College, Oxford, as a commoner, with an ex- 
hibition from Canterbury, and four years 
later, in the Michaelmas term of 1862, he 
graduated B.A. with a second class in classics. 
He was the pupil of Mr. W. W. Capes, then 
bursar and tutor of Queen's, and he was 
coached by Jowett, who was struck by his 
abilities, and who said to him, l I think you 
have a mind that will come to great emi- 
nence.' Some years afterwards there was an 
estrangement of sympathy between Jowett 
and Pater, but this was removed in the last 
year of the life of each, and the master of 
Balliol was among those who congratulated 
Pater most cordially on his ' Plato and Pla- 
tonism.' In 1862 Pater took rooms in the 
High Street, Oxford, and read with private 



pupils. It was not until after he graduated 
that Pater emerged from his shell at Queen's 
and came to know some of the more inte- 
resting men in other colleges. In the be- 
ginning of 1863 he and Professor Bywater 
were elected members of the Old Mortality, 
an essay society which flourished at Oxford be- 
tween 1858 and 1865. The principal resident 
members at that time were Thomas Hill Green 
[q. v.l, Alfred Robinson, Henry Nettleship 
[q. v.l, Professor Bryce, the present master 
of Balliol (Edward Caird), and Mr. Boyle of 
Trinity, with whom Pater had been reading. 
Pater's first essay was philosophical ; one who 
was present describes it as a ' hymn of praise 
to the absolute.' Through the Old Mortality, 
Pater became acquainted with other non-resi- 
dent or future fellows, such as John Nichol, 
Mr. Swinburne, and Sir Courtenay Ilbert. 
In 1864 he was elected a fellow of Brase- 
nose College, and went into residence there, 
proceeding M.A. in 1865. It was as a 
non-clerical fellow that he took his place 
in the society. 

On relinquishing his early project of en- 
tering the church of England, Pater had 
thought of becoming a Unitarian minister. 
But this notion also he had abandoned by 
1864. His interests were at the time, how- 
ever, mainly philosophical. He had come from 
school with a tendency to value all things 
German. The teaching of .Towett and of 
T. H. Green served to strengthen this habit. 
Mr. Capes warned him against its excess, but 
his endeavour to attract his pupil to the 
lucidity and gaiety of French literature met 
at first with little success. In the year fol- 
lowing his election to his fellowship, he paid, 
in company with Mr. C. L. Shadwell, fellow 
of Oriel College, his first visit to Italy, and 
at Ravenna, Pisa, and Florence formed those 
impressions of the art of the Renaissance 
which powerfully coloured his future work as 
an artist. With the accession of humanistic 
ideas, he gradually lost all belief in the Chris- 
tian religion. 

In 1866 Pater's first essay in composition, 
a fragment on Coleridge, was published in 
the Westminster Review.' His studies in 
philosophy naturally brought him to Goethe, 
and it was only natural that one so deli- 
cately sensitive to the external symbol as 
Pater was, should be prepared by the com- 
panionship of Goethe for the influence of a 
man who was Goethe's master in this one 
direction. The publication of Otto Jahn's 
1 Life of Winckelmann ' in 1866 made a pro- 
found impression on Pater. His famous essay 
on Winckelmann was the result of this new 
enthusiasm. It was published in the 'West- 
minster Review 'for January 1867. From 

this time forth he began to contribute essays 
to the larger periodicals, and particularly to 
the ' Fortnightly Review.' In 1868, invent- 
ing a name which has since sunk into dis- 
repute, he composed an essay on ' ^Esthetic 
Poetry,' in which the early work of Mr. 
William Morris received prompt and judicious 
analysis. Then folio wed the series which pos- 
sess a potent and peculiar charm, the cha- 
racteristic ' Notes on Lionardo da Vinci,' in 
November 1869 ; the ' Fragment on Sandro 
Botticelli,' in August 1870; the 'Pico della 
Mirandula' in October, and the 'Michelan- 
gelo' in November 1871. In 1873 most of 
these and others were published together in 
the memorable volume originally entitled 
1 Studies in the History of the Renaissance.' 

In 1869 he had become associated with 
the group of painters and poets known as the 
pre-Raphaelites, and particularly with Mr. 
Swinburne, but he remained domiciled in 
Oxford. He took a house at No. 2 Bradmore 
Road, and his sisters came to live with him. 
Once settled here, Pater became a familiar 
figure in academic society; but, although 
he had a large circle of pleasant acquaint- 
ances, his intimate friends were always few. 
His career was exceedingly quiet and even 
monotonous. He was occupied through term- 
time in tutorial work, and his long vaca- 
tions were almost always spent abroad, in 
Germany or France, in the company of his 
sisters. He would walk as much as possible, 
and sometimes more violently than suited 
his health. He loved the north of France 
extremely, and knew it well; nor was it 
any sensible drawback to his pleasure that 
he spoke no language but his own, and even 
in French could scarcely make his wants 
understood. Once, in 1882, he spent the 
winter in Rome. 

Always engaged in literary labour, his pro- 
cedure was nevertheless so slow and so com- 
plicated that twelve years elapsed between 
the publication of his first book and his se- 
cond. In February 1885 his romance of 
'Marius the Epicurean' was published in 
two volumes. This is, without doubt, Pater's 
most valuable legacy to literature. It is 
written to illustrate the highest ideal of the 
aesthetic life, and to prove that beauty may be 
made the object of the soul in a career as pure, 
as concentrated, and as austere as any that 
asceticism inspires. < Marius ' is an apology 
for the highest epicureanism, and at the same 
time it is a texture which the author has 
embroidered with exquisite flowers of ima- 
gination, learning, and passion. Modern hu- 
manism has produced no more admirable 
product than this noble dream of a pursuit 
through life of the spirit of heavenly beauty. 



In 1887 Pater published a volume of * Ima- 
ginary Portraits,' four short romances, two of 
them on French topics ' A Prince of Court 
Painters/ an anecdote of Watteau, and 
( Denys 1'Auxerrois,' a fantastic vision of Re- 
naissance manners one on a Dutch subject, 
* Sebastian van Storck,' and one on a Ger- 
man, *' Duke Carl of Rosenmold.' These 
are studies in philosophic fiction, executed 
with great delicacy. In 1889 he collected 
some of his miscellaneous critical studies 
into a volume called 'Appreciations, with 
an Essay on Style.' In 1893 he published 
his highly finished college lectures on ' Plato 
and Platonism.' In the early summer of 
1894 'The Child in the House,' an 'ima- 
ginary portrait,' written in 1878, was issued 
from the Oxford press of Mr. Daniel. In 
January 1895 a posthumous volume of ' Greek 
Studies ' appeared, prepared for the press by 
Mr. Shadwell. 

Pater's household was moved to 12 Earl's 
Terrace, Kensington, in 1886, and in 1893 
back to Oxford, where he again took a house, 
64 St. Giles's. But all the while his real 
home was in his rooms at Brasenose, where 
he divided his time between his college duties 
and his books. His death was almost with- 
out warning. He was taken ill in his house 
at Oxford with rheumatic fever in June 1894, 
and died suddenly, when he was believed to 
be convalescent, on Monday, 30 July 1894. 
He was buried in the cemetery of St. Giles 
at Oxford. 

The qualities of Pater's style were highly 
original, and were in harmony with his 
sequestered and somewhat mysterious cha- 
racter. His books are singularly indepen- 
dent of influences from without ; they closely 
resemble one another, and have little relation 
to the rest of contemporary literature. He 
exhausted himself in the research after ab- 
solute perfection of expression, noting with 
extreme refinement fine shades of feeling and 
delicate distinctions of thought and senti- 
ment. His fault was to overburden his 
sentences, to annex to them too many paren- 
thetical clauses and adjectival glosses. He 
was the most studied of the English prose- 
writers of his time, and his long-drawn style 
was lacking in simplicity and freshness. He 
wrote with labour, incessantly revising his 
expression and adding to it, wearying him- 
self in the pursuit of a vain perfection. He 
possessed all the qualities of a humanist. 

In temperament Pater was stationary 
rather than recluse, not shrinking from his 
fellows, but unwilling to move to meet them. 
He was fond of travel, yet hated the society 
of strangers. His disposition was highly 
affectionate, but not effusive, and his ten- 

dencies were contemplative and indolent. 
For a long time before his death he had 
silently grown to be a leading personage in 
the intellectual life of Oxford, though taking 
no part in any of its reforms or factions. He 
had a singular delight in surrounding him- 
self with beautiful objects, but without any 
of the instinct of a collector ; their beauty 
and nothing else delighted him, and the per- 
fect copy of an ancient coin gave him as much 
pleasure as the original. He disliked noise 
and extravagance of all kinds ; his manners 
were of the utmost simplicity ; and his sense 
of fun as playful as that of a child. 

The volumes published by Pater have been 
enumerated above. Of works brought out in 
periodical form, and not as yet republished, 
the most important are : 1. ' Gaston de la 
Tour,' a romance, a portion of which appeared 
in 'Macmillan's Magazine,' from June to 
October 1888, and was then discontinued. 
It was never completed, but a considerable 
number of chapters still exist in manuscript. 

2. 'Emerald Uthwart,' a short romance 
published in the 'New Review' for 1892. 

3. ' Some Churches in France,' a series of 
studies commenced in ' The Nineteenth Cen- 
tury' for 1894. 4. 'Apollo in Picardy,' a 
short romance published in ' Harper's Maga- 
zine' for 1893. 5. 'Pascal,' a study pub- 
lished in the ' Contemporary Review ' for 
February 1895. Pater was also an occasional 
contributor to the * Guardian.' 

[Personal knowledge and family information. 
See ' Walter Pater : a Portrait,' in the Contem- 
porary Eeview for December 1894, by the 
present writer.] E. G. 

PATERNUS, SAINT (/. 550). [See 


1831), Scottish catholic prelate, born at Path- 
head in the Enzie, Banffshire, in March 1766, 
entered the seminary at Scalan at the age of 
twelve, and was sent in the following year 
to the Scottish College at Douay, where he 
remained until 1793, when the institution 
was dissolved in consequence of the French 
revolution. On his return he was stationed 
successively at Tombae in Glenlivet (1793- 
1812) and Paisley (1812-16X and on 15 Aug. 
1816 he was consecrated bishop of Cybistra 
inpa?'tibus,&nd appointed coadjutor to Bishop 
Alexander Cameron [q. v.] In 1821 he went 
to Paris, and succeeded in recovering all the 
property of the Scottish colleges in France 
that had not been sold under the revolu- 
tionary governments. On the resignation 
of Bishop Cameron in 1825, Paterson sue- 




ceeded him as vicar-apostolic of the Low- 
land district. In 1826 he repaired to Rome 
in order to procure the appointment of a 
third bishop for the Scottish mission. In 
this he also succeeded, for in February 1827 
Leo XII decreed the division of Scotlam 
into three districts or vicariates, viz. th 
eastern, western, and northern, and Pater 
son became the first vicar-apostolic of th 
newly created eastern district. Soon afte 
his return he united the two seminaries o 
Aquhorties and Lismore into one college 
established at Blairs, Kincardineshire, on 
property made over to him for that purpose 
by John Menzies ( 1756-1843) [q. v.] of Pit 

The last three years of Paterson's life he 
spent chiefly at Edinburgh. He died a 
Dundee on 30 Oct. 1831, and was buried 
in his chapel at Edinburgh. His successo 
in the vicariate was Andrew Carruthers 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 463, 468 
Catholic Directory, 1894, p. 61 ; Catholic Mag 
and Review (Birmingham) 1831-2, i. 714, 784 
Gent. Mag. 1831, ii. 476; London and Dublin 
Orthodox Journal, 1837, iv. 121; Orthodox 
Journal, iv. 316; Stothert's Catholic Mission in 
Scotland, p. 460, with portrait.] T. C. 


(1756-1841), admiral, son of James Paterson, 
a captain in the 69th regiment, was born at 
Berwick in 1756. In 1765 his name was put 
on the books of the Shannon at Portsmouth, 
and in 1768 on those of the St. Antonio. 
His actual entry into the navy was probably 
in 1769, when he joined the Phoenix going 
out to the Guinea coast, with the broad 
pennant of his maternal uncle, Commodore 
George Anthony Tonyn. He afterwards 
served on the home and Newfoundland sta- 
tions ; in 1776 was in the Eagle, Lord Howe's 
flagship, on the coast of North America, and 
in 1777 was promoted by Howe to be lieu- 
tenant of the Stromboli, from which he was 
moved the next year to the Brune. In June 
1779 he joined the Ardent, a 64-gun ship, 
which, on 17 Aug., was captured off Ply- 
mouth by the combined Franco-Spanish fleet. 
In April 1780 he was appointed to the 
Alcide of 74 guns, which joined Rodney in 
the \V est Indies in May ; went to New York 
with him during the summer; returned to 
the West Indies in November, and in the 
llowmg January was present at the re- 
duction of St. Eustatius and the other Dutch 
LORD]. In February 1781 Paterson joined 
the Sandwich, Rodnev's flagship ; went 
lome with the admiral in the Gibraltar, and 

returned to the West Indies with him in the 
Formidable. On arriving on the station in 
the end of February, he was appointed acting- 
captain of the St. Eustatius, armed ship, and 
on 8 April was promoted to command the 
Blast, in which he returned to England on 
the conclusion of the peace. 

In 1793 Paterson was appointed to the 
Gorgon, in which he went out to the Medi- 
terranean, where, on 20 Jan. 1794, he was 
posted to the Ariadne. On the reduction of 
Corsica he was moved into the Melpomene, 
and returned to England in 1795. In 1797 
hs was inspecting captain of the quota men 
in Kircudbright and Wigtonshire, and in 
1798 superintended the fitting of the Ad- 
miral de Vries, till she was turned over to 
the transport board. In 1800 he commanded 
the Montagu in the Channel, and in 1801-2 
the San Fiorenzo. In 1810 he had charge 
of the French prisoners of war in Rochester 
Castle, and in 1811-12 commanded the Puis- 
sant guardship at Spithead. He was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral on 12 Aug. 1812, 
vice-admiral 12 Aug. 1819, and admiral 
10 Jan. 1837, but had no further service, 
and died on 10 March 1841. He married, 
in 1801, Jane Ellen, daughter of his first 
cousin, David Yeats, formerly registrar of 
East Florida. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biosr. i. 515; Service 
Book in the Public Record Office.] J. K. L. 

^PATERSON, DANIEL (1739-1825), 
author of < The Road Book,' born in 1739, was 
gazetted an ensign in the 30th foot on 13 Dec. 
1765, promoted to be a lieutenant on 8 May 
1772, was advanced to a captaincy in the 36th 
foot on 11 July 1783, became a major in the 
army on 1 March 1794, and a lieutenant-colo- 
nel on 1 Jan. 1798. For many years he was an 
assistant to the quartermaster-general of his 
majesty's forces at the Horse Guards, London. 
On31Dec.l812hewasmade lieutenant-gover- 
nor of Quebec, and held the appointment to 
his death. In 1771 he published < A New 
and Accurate Description of all the Direct 
and Principal Cross Roads in Great Britain, 
containing: i. An Alphabetical List of all the 
Cities, Boroughs, Market and Sea-port Towns 
n England and Wales; ii. The Direct Roads 
rom London to all the Cities, Towns, and 
Remarkable Villages in England and Wales ; 
n. Ihe Cross Roads of England and Wales ; 
v. The Principal Direct and Cross Roads of 
Scotland ; v. The Circuits of the Judges.' 
Ihe work, which is dedicated 'To Lieute- 
nant Colonel George Morrison, Quarter Mas- 
er General of His Majesty's Forces/ soon 
Became very well known in the army, as by 
ts use all the distances of military marches 



were calculated and charged in the public 
accounts. The second edition was called 
' Paterson's British Itinerary : being a new 
and accurate Delineation and Description of 
the Roads of Great Britain,' 1776, 2 vols. ; the 
third edition bore the original title. 

Paterson latterly lived so retired a life 
that, when Edward Mogg brought out a ' re- 
modelled,augmented, and improved 'sixteenth 
edition of Paterson's ' Roads ' in 1822, he in 
the preface spoke of the ' death of the late 
proprietor.' The eighteenth and last edition 
came out in 1829. Paterson died at the 
residence of his friend, Colonel Dare, on 
Clewer Green, near Windsor, in April 1825, 
and was buried at Clewer on 21 April. 

Besides the works already mentioned, he 
wrote: 1. ' A Travelling Dictionary, or Al- 
phabetical Tables of the Distances of all the 
Cities, Boroughs, Market Towns, and Sea- 
ports in Great Britain from each other,' 1772, 
2 vols. ; 5th edit. 1787. 2. ' Topographical 
Description of the Island of Grenada/ 1780. 
3. t A New and Accurate Description of all 
the Direct and Principal Cross Roads in 
Scotland,' 5th edit. 1781. 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 264; 
Royal Military Calendar, 1820, iv. 311; Gent. 
Mag. 1825, i. 568; Army List, May 1825, p. 84; 
information from the rector of Clewer.] 

CT. C. B. 

(1848-1886), organiser of trade unions 
among women, born in London on 5 April 
1848, was daughter of Henry Smith (d. 1864), 
head master of the schools of St. George's 
parish, Hanover Square. At a very youthful 
age she interested herself in the amelioration 
of the political and industrial condition of 
women, and in 1867 became assistant secre- 
tary of the Workmen's Club and Institute 
Union. She thus gained opportunities of 
studying the trade organisations of working 
men. In February 1872 she transferred her 
services to the Women's Suffrage Association, 
of which she was appointed secretary. This 
post she resigned in 1873, when she married 
Thomas Paterson (1835-1882), a cabinet- 
maker and wood-carver of Scottish origin, 
who devoted his leisure to the study of eco- 
nomic and philosophical questions. He was 
successively honorary secretary and vice- 
chairman of the Working Men's Club and 
Institute Union, and organised the Work- 
men's International Exhibition at the Agri- 
cultural Hall in 1870. Mr. and Mrs. Pater- 
son spent a prolonged honeymoon in Ame- 
rica. On her return to London in 1874 she 
founded the Women's Protective and Pro- 
vident League, with the object of helping 
working women to form trade unions. The 


scheme was suggested to her by the Female 
Umbrella Makers' Union of New York. Of 
the Women's League Mrs. Paterson was 
honorary secretary and organiser until her 
death. Its members were largely men and 
women of the upper middle class who in- 
terested themselves in social reform, and 
were ready not only to give working women 
instruction in trade-unionist principles, but 
to pay the preliminary expenses of organising 
unions among women engaged in trade. A 
similar body was established at the same time 
at Bristol at Mrs. Paterson's suggestion, and 
was called the National Union of Working 
Women. The first women's union founded by 
the league in London was the bookbinders' in 
1874. Unions of upholstresses, shirt-makers, 
tailoresses, and dressmakers quickly followed. 
In 1875 Mrs. Paterson was a delegate to the 
Trade Union Congress at Glasgow as a repre- 
sentative of the bookbinders' and uphol- 
stresses' societies. No woman had been ad- 
mitted to the congress before. She attended 
each succeeding congress (except that of 1882) 
until her death, and by her^tact partially 
overcame the prejudices of the working-men 
delegates against female agitators. In the 
league's behalf she repeatedly addressed public 
meetings in London, Oxford, and other cities 
in the provinces, and edited the ' Women's 
Union Journal,' a monthly record of the 
league's proceedings, which was started in 
February 1876. Meanwhile, in 1876, Mrs. 
Paterson had founded the Women's Printing 
Society at Westminster. To the manage- 
ment of that concern, which became a pro- 
nounced success, she devoted all her spare 
energies and personally mastered the printer's 
craft. Her husband died on 15 Oct. 1882. In 
1886 she published, with a memoir, a pos- 
thumous work by him, * A New Method of 
Mental Science, with applications to Political 
Economy.' The views advanced were original 
and full of promise. In spite of increasing 
ill-health, Mrs. Paterson never relaxed her 
self-denying and sagacious labours until her 
death at her lodgings in Westminster on 
1 Dec. 1886 ; she was buried in Paddington 

The Women's League was rechristenedthe 
Women'sTrade Union League in 1891. Thirty 
trade societies are now (1895) affiliated to it. 
A fund, raised in Mrs. Paterson's memory, was 
employed in securing offices for the associa- 
tion in the buildings of the Workmen's Club 
and Institute Union in Clerkenwell Road, 
which were completed in 1893. 

[Women's Union Journal, December 1886 > 
Times, 6 Dec. 1886 ; private information 5 
Women's Work by Misses Bulley and Whitley 
with preface by Lady Dilke, 1894, pp. 67, 76.] 





PATERSON, JAMES (1805-1876), anti- 
quary and miscellaneous writer, was the son 
of James Paterson, farmer at Struthers, Ayr- 
shire, where he was born on 18 May 1805. 
Although his father was compelled by pe- 
cuniary difficulties to give up his farm and j 
experienced various vicissitudes, the son re- i 
ceived a fairly good education. Ultimately j 
he was apprenticed to a printer at the office of i 
the Kilmarnock ' Mirror/ and in his thirteenth I 
year began to contribute to Thomson's ' Mis- 
cellany.' Subsequently he was transferred 
to the 'Courier' office in Ayr, and on com- 
pleting his apprenticeship he went to Glasgow, 
where he joined the ' Scots Times.' In 1826 
he returned to Kilmarnock, and, having taken 
a shop as stationer and printer, he, in partner- 
ship with other gentlemen, started the Kil- 
marnock 'Chronicle,' the first number appear- 
ing on 4 May 1831, in the midst of the reform 
agitation, and the paper expiring in May 1832. 
In 1835 he left Kilmarnock for Dublin, where 
for some time he acted as Dublin corre- 
spondent of the Glasgow ' Liberator.' Thence 
he went to Edinburgh, and ultimately found 
employment at a small salary in writing the 
letterpress for Kay's ' Edinburgh Portraits,' 
1837-9, the majority of the biographies being 
contributed by him. Failing to find further 
employment in Edinburgh, he accepted in 
1839 the editorship of the Ayr ' Observer.' 
In 1840 he published ' Contemporaries of 
Burns and the more recent Poets of Ayrshire,' 
and in 1847 a ' History of the County of Ayr.' 
Disappointed with his prospects on the Ayr 
' Observer,' he again returned to Edinburgh, 
where he supported himself chiefly by miscel- 
laneous writing. In 1871 he published 'Au- 
tobiographical Reminiscences.' Shortly after 
this he was attacked by paralysis, and he died 
on 6 May 1876. His works are not character- 
ised by much literary merit, and are popular 
rather than scholarly. 

Paterson's publications, other than those 
mentioned, were: 1. 'The Obit of the Church 
of St. John the Baptist at Ayr,' with a trans- 
lation and historical sketch, 1848. 2. ' The 
Poems of the Sempills of Beltrees,' with notes, 
1849. 3. ' The Poems of William Hamilton 
of Bangour,' with a life of the poet, 1850. 

4. < Memoir of James Fillans, Sculptor,' 1854. 

5. ' Origin of the Scots and of the Scottish 
Language,' 1855 ; 2nd ed. 1858. 6. ' History of 
the Regality of Musselburgh,' 1857. 7. ' Wal- 
lace and his Times,' 1858, and several subse- 
quent editions. 8. ' The Life and Poems of 
William Diinbar,' 1860. 9. A. Crawfurd's 
' The Huntly Casket and other Poems,' 1861. 

10. 'James the Fifth, or the Gudeman of Bal- 
lengich, his Poetry and Adventures,' 1801. 

1 1. ' The History of the Counties of Ayr and 

Wigton,' 1863. 12. 'A Contribution to His- 
torical Genealogy : The Breadalbane Succes- 
sion Case how it arose and how it stands,' 
1863. He had also some share in the pro- 
duction of P. H. M'Kirlie's ' History of the 
Lands and their Owners in Galloway,' 1870, 
about which he had a dispute with the author. 
[Autobiogr. Reminiscences, 1871 : Irving's 
Eminent Scotsmen; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

PATERSON, JOHN (1632-1708), the 
Last archbishop of Glasgow, born in 1632, was 
eldest son of John Paterson, bishop of Ross. 
The father, born about 1604, graduated at 
Aberdeen in 1624, and was appointed to the 
church of Foveran, Aberdeenshire, in 1632. 
He refused to sign the covenant of 1639, and 
fled south to the king. In July of the follow- 
ing year, however, he recanted in a sermon 
before the general assembly, and was restored 
to his church at Foveran. He was a member 
of the commission of the assembly in 1644, 
1645, 1648, and 1649, and in 1661 he was 
named a commissioner for the visitation of 
the university of Aberdeen. In 1649 he had 
left Foveran to become minister of Ellon in 
Aberdeenshire. He was among the bene- 
factors contributing to the erection of a new 
building at King s College, Aberdeen, in 
1658 (Fasti Aberdonenses, Spalding Club, 
1854, p. 541). In 1659 he was translated to 
the ministry of Aberdeen (the third charge). 
In 1662 he was promoted to the bishopric of 
Ross, being consecrated on 7 May. He died 
in January 1679, leaving, besides the arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, George, of Seafield, com- 
missary ; Sir William of Granton, bart., clerk 
to the privy council ; Thomas ; Robert, prin- 
cipal of Marischal College, Aberdeen ; and a 
daughter Isabella, who married Kenneth 
Mackenzie of Suddie (GORDON, Scots Affairs, 
SPALDING, Memorials, and Diary of the Lairds 
of Brodie, all published by the Spalding Club ; 
GUTHKIE, Memoirs ; SCOTT, Fasti Eccl. Scot. 
iii. 454, 602, 607). 

The son John, who may possibly have 
made some preliminary studies at King's 
College, Aberdeen, was admitted as a stu- 
dent of theology at St. Andrews on 13 March 
1655, and he is entered as regent in St. 
Leonard's College under date of 3 Feb. 
1658, indicating that he had taught the 
junior class in the preceding year (informa- 
tion from Mr. J. M. Anderson, keeper of 
the records at St. Andrews). He probably 
continued to teach there until called to 
succeed his father (not without some oppo- 
sition, Synod Records of Aberdeen, Spalding 
Club, 1846, p. 260) at Ellon on 6 Nov. 1659, 
to which charge he was admitted before 
15 July 1660. On 24 Oct. 1662 he was elected 



by the town council of Edinburgh, as minister 
of the Tron Church, and was admitted 
4 Jan. following-. From that charge he was 
promoted to the deanery of the High Kirk 
on 12 July 1672. and was admitted a burgess 
and guild-brother of the city on 13 Nov. 
1673. He strongly opposed the proposal of 
the more moderate party in the Scottish 
church in 1674 to hold a national synod. 
Through the influence of his patron, the 
Duke of Lauderdale, he was appointed on 

20 Oct. 1674 to the see of Galloway, but 
was not consecrated until May 1675 at 
Edinburgh (LAWSOX, Hist, of Scottish Epi- 
scopal Church, p. 34; GRUB, Eccl. Hist, of 
Scotl. iii. 249). For a few years father and 
son were thus occupants of Scottish sees at 
the same time. On 27 Sept. 1678 he was 
appointed a privy councillor. He was trans- 
lated to Edinburgh on 29 March 1679. In 
the previous January he had obtained license 
from the king to reside in Edinburgh, on the 
ground that he had not a competent manse 
or dwelling-house in Galloway (STEPHENS, 
Life of Sharpe, p. 568). A pension of 100Z. 
per annum was granted him on 9 July 1680. 
He is found assisting on 15 March 1684-5 
at Lambeth at Sancroft's consecration of 
Baptist Levinz[q.v.], the bishop of Sodor and 
Man. On 20 July 1685 an order was made 
for an annual payment to him by the city of 
Edinburgh of twelve hundred marks until 
the city should build him a house and chapel. 
He went to London in February 1686, re- 
turning at the end of March to give the king 
assurances that the bishops would support 
his proposed toleration, although it was re- 
ported by the Duke of Hamilton in the fol- 
lowing year that he was not in favour of 
such an entire repeal of the penal laws as 
the king desired (Hist. MSS. Comm. llth 
Rep. App. vi. p. 175). He was rewarded by 
being nominated to the see of Glasgow on 

21 Jan. 1687, upon the illegal deprivation 
of Archbishop Alexander Cairncross [q. v.] 
On 29 Jan. 1688 he preached a thanksgiving 
sermon at Edinburgh for the queen's being 
with child, in which he mentioned that she 
often spent six hours at a time on her knees 
in prayer. At the Revolution he, with the 
majority of the bishops, adhered to James II. 
At the meeting of the estates in April 1689, 
when nine bishops were present, of whom 
seven were against declaring the throne va- 
cant, ' the Bishop of Glasgow made a long 
discourse of passive obedience' (ib. 12th Rep. 
App. vii. p. 237). He remained in Edin- 
burgh, living in privacy, after the Revolution, 
but is said in W. Nelson Clarke's preface to 
a ' Collection of Letters,' &c. (Edinburgh, 
1848, p. xxxi), to have been arrested in 1692 

on suspicion of holding correspondence with 
the exiled court, and to have been imprisoned 
in Edinburgh Castle. The authority for this 
statement is not given ; and a further state- 
ment that he remained in prison until 1701 
is incorrect, as, at some date previous to 1695, 
he was banished from Scotland to England, 
and was restrained to London. Among the 
papersof the Earlof Rosslyn at Dysart House 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 1871, 2nd Rep. p. 192) 
there is a journal kept by Paterson in London 
in 1695-6, in which he records interviews 
with statesmen while seeking permission from 
William III to return to Scotland. Leave was 
at that time refused, and he was also forbidden 
to reside in any of the northern counties of 
England. He was, however, shortly after- 
wards permitted to return to Edinburgh, and 
probably regained complete liberty upon the 
accession of Queen Anne in 1702. In that year 
he wrote a letter from Edinburgh to Bishop 
Compton of London on the subject of tolera- 
tion for the episcopal clergy. He exerted 
himself in the following years, together with 
the other Scottish bishops, in endeavouring to 
obtain grants from the government for relief 
of poor clergymen, as well as some allowance 
for themselves out of the revenues of their 
sees. It was the queen's intention that such 
grants should be made, but it was not carried 
into real effect, except with regard to Bishop 
Alexander Ross [q. v.] of Edinburgh and 
Paterson himself. On 7 Dec. 1704 Paterson 
and Bishop Rose, with others, accredited Dr. 
Robert Scot, dean of Glasgow, as an agent to 
make collections in England. Their letters, 
with a list of contributions, were printed in 
1864 in the ' Antiquarian Communications of 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society ' (ii. 226- 
231). At the beginning of 1705 he went to 
London to personally approach the queen on 
the subject. He was favourably received, and 
obtained a promise of 1,600/. annually, out of 
which George Lockhart [q. v.] of Carnwath 
charges him with securing 400/. for himself, 
although he was then worth 20,000/., or, as 
the archbishop of Canterbury reported (ac- 
cording to Paterson's own statement), 30,000/. 
But Paterson declared that he never had a 
third of the latter sum. On 25 Jan. 1705, 
in consequence of the number of surviving 
bishops being reduced to five, he, with Bishops 
Rose and Douglas of Dunblane, consecrated, 
in a private chapel in his own house at Edin- 
burgh, Bishops Fullarton and Sage. He died 
in his house on 9 Dec. 1708, and was buried 
on the 23rd in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood, 
at the east end of the north side, at the foot 
of Bishop Wishart's monument. 

His character has been represented by 
enemies in the blackest colours. He deposed 




a, namesake, Ninian Paterson, in 1682, from 
his ministry at Dunfermline for accusing him 
of adultery. William Row, in his continua- 
tion of Robert Blair's Life' (published by the 
Wodrow Society in 1848, p. 542), calls him 
' one of the most notorious liars of his time, 
and a vicious, base, loose liver; ' and Kirk- 
ton (Hist, of the Church of Scotland, 1817, p. 
182) records some gross stories against him. 
George Ridpath (Jl. 1704) [q. v.] dedicates to 
him in the most scurrilously abusive terms his 
' Answer,' published in 1693, to the ' Scottish 
Presbyterian Eloquence,' and accuses him of 
scandalous offences. And these charges are 
found also in Scottish pasquils of the time. 
He was certainly actively engaged in all the 
intolerant measures of the government, and 
opposed, until the accession of James II, the 
granting of any indulgences. But many of 
the charges brought against him were clearly 
libellous, and Dr. Alexander Monro (d. 1715 ?) 
[q. v.], in his reply to Ridpath's pamphlet, says 
that ' the world is not so besotted as to think 
that the archbishop needs particular answers.' 
The accusations, however, are so definite that 
it must be feared they were not altogether 
groundless. Lockhart of Carnwath describes 
Paterson as proud, haughty, and avaricious. 
Nothing is known of any published writ- 
ings by him, except that Kirkton mentions 
(p. 185) a pamphlet which 'he wrote to fix 
Dr. Oats his popish plot upon the presby- 
terians, and so to divert the inquiry from the 
papists.' This has not been traced. An 
anonymous pamphlet, published in 1703, 
contains a vindication of a sermon by him on 
passive obedience. He was supposed to be 
about to write, in 1683, the life of Charles I, 
being encouraged to do so by Charles II 
Of his correspondence much remains, in print 
and manuscript. Some is to be found among 
the episcopal records formerly kept at Glenal- 
mond, and now in the Theological College 
at Edinburgh. From these some remarks by 
him on a copy which he made in 1680 of 
proposed instructions approved by the king 
in 1670 with relation to ecclesiastical affairs 
are printed, with the instructions, in 
Stephens's ' Life of Archbishop Sharpe' (pp. 
430-8). In the same volume (pp. 480-2) are 
a letter from him to Sharpe, of 6 May 1675 
(before his consecration), and a ' Repre- 
sentation of the Evils of a further Indul- 
gence,' dated 10 Feb. 1676 (pp. 499-504). 
Five letters written to Sancroft in 1681-5, 
one dated 20 Dec. 1688, excusing his com- 
pliance with King James's toleration, and 
enclosing a declaration made in 1686 in 
favour of a relaxation of the penal laws, and 
another on the prospects of the church in 

1689, are printed from the Tanner MSS. in 
the Bodleian Library in Dr. W. Nelson 
Clarke's ' Collection of Letters relating to 
the Church in Scotland,' Edinburgh, 1848. A 
letter to Lauderdale, 4 June 1674, against 
a national synod, and another, of 17 June 
1680, about debates in the council, are in 
Mr. 0. Airy's ' Lauderdale Papers ' (Camd. 
Soc. 1885, iii. 46, 199). His attestation, dated 
5 Jan. 1703, of a copy made by him of Bur- 
net's l Arguments for Divorce ' is printed in 
John Macky's ' Memoirs,' 1733. A letter to 
the Duke of Hamilton, 13 Feb. 1703, sending 
a copy of Sir J. Turner's observations on 
Bishop Guthrie's ' sillie Memoirs,' is calen- 
dared by the ' Historical MSS. Commission/ 
llth Rep. vi. 199. Several letters now at 
Edinburgh, assigned to him in the Second 
Report of the Commission (p. 203), are really 
from his predecessor at Glasgow, Alexander 
Burnet ; and one to Lauderdale, among the 
Malet Papers now in the British Museum, 
entered in the Fifth Report, page 314, is 
not from him, but from James Hamilton, 
bishop of Galloway. Correspondence with 
Bishop Compton of London in 1698-1707, 
which reveals disputes with his co-bishops, 
and relates to relief from Queen Anne, is in 
Rawlinson MS. C. 985 in the Bodleian 

The name of his wife and the date of 
marriage do not appear to be known. She 
had died before 1696, in which year he re- 
cords in his diary an offer of marriage from 
Lady Warner. He speaks in several letters 
of his numerous family. 

[In addition to authorities quoted above, Dr. 
H. Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scoticame, pt. vi. passim ; 
Lauder of Fountainhall's Diary (Bannatyne 
Club), pp. 204, 268, 361,656, 708, 850 ; informa- 
tion kindly furnished by the Bishops of Glasgow 
and Edinburgh, Mr. Gr. F. Warner, and others.] 

W. D. M. 

PATERSON, JOHN (1776-1855), mis- 
sionary, third child of George Paterson of 
Duntocher in the parish of Old Kilpatrick, 
near Glasgow, was born at Duntocher on 
26 Feb. 1776, and became a student at the 
university of Glasgow in 1798. He was at- 
tracted by the religious revival which sprang 
out of the preaching of James Alexander Hal- 
dane [q. v.], and applied for admission into a 
class formed by the congregationalists to train 
young men for the ministry. He was sent to 
Dundee, and spent the greater part of 1800 
there, under the care of the Rev. W. Innes. 
Removing to Glasgow, he on 5 July 1803 
became the minister of a church which he 
had formed at Cambuslang, but he relin- 
quished it on 17 June 1804, with the inten- 
tion of going out as a missionary to India. 




Accordingly, on 27 Aug., accompanied by 
his friend, Ebenezer Henderson [q. v.], he 
sailed for Denmark, with the intention of 
going thence to India ; but finding it im- 
possible to carry out this intention, he re- 
mained in Northern Europe, and became a 
zealous and useful missionary there. Gra- 
dually his connection with the churches in 
Edinburgh was dissolved, and he was left 
to his own resources. He remained in Den- 
mark until after the bombardment of Copen- 
hagen in 1807, when he removed and settled 
in Stockholm. Here during the next five 
years he continued his labours among the 
natives of the northern kingdoms. The 
British and Foreign Bible Society afforded 
him aid in carrying out his plans (though he 
was at no time the society's salaried agent). 
In 1812 he removed to St. Petersburg, and 
on 1 Nov. 1817 he received the degree of 
doctor of theology from the university of 
Abo in Finland. In 1822 he withdrew 
from the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
and Prince Galitzin and other friends in 
St. Petersburg requested him to conduct the 
affairs of the Russian Bible Society. The 
Emperor Alexander granted him an annual 
salary of six thousand roubles. On the death 
of the emperor the party in power raised 
objections to the circulation of the scriptures. 
Ultimately, in 1825, the Emperor Nicholas 
issued ukases suspending the operations of 
the Bible Society, and placing the society 
under the control of the Greek church. 
Thereupon Paterson left Russia ; but the 
emperor treated him with great kindness, 
and continued to him his pension for life. 
During his residence in Northern Europe 
he was connected with the work of trans- 
lating and printing portions of the scriptures 
into Finnish, Georgian, Icelandic, Lap- 
ponese, Lettish, Moldavian, Russ, Samogi- 
tian, and Swedish. 

On returning home he settled in Edin- 
burgh, and served for many years as secre- 
tary for Scotland of the London Missionary 
Society, also acting as chairman of the com- 
mittee of the Congregational Union. In 
1850 he removed to Dundee, where he oc- 
casionally preached. He died at Kincal- 
drum, Forfarshire, on 6 July 1855. He 
married, first, at Stockholm, on 31 Aug. 
1809, Katrine Margarate Hollinder, who 
died 7 March 1813, leaving two children, one 
of whom, Dr. George, born 18 March 1811, 
became congregational minister at Tiverton. 
Paterson married, secondly, on 19 April 1817, 
Jane, daughter of Admiral Samuel Greig, of 
the Russian navy ; she was born in Russia on 
26 Oct. 1783, and, from her knowledge of 
Russ and Russian dialects, was of much help 

to her husband in his work at St. Petersburg. 
She died on 19 Jan. 1820, leaving a daughter, 
who became the wife of Edward Baxter of 

Paterson was the author of : 1. 'A Letter 
to H. H. Norris, containing Animadversions 
on his Respectful Letter to the Earl of 
Liverpool on the Subject of the Bible So- 
ciety,' 1823. 2. The Book for every Land : 
Reminiscences of Labour and Adventure in 
the Work of Bible Circulation in the North 
of Europe and in Russia.' Edited, with a 
'Prefatory Memoir,' by W. L. Alexander, 
1858. The ' Memoir ' is on pp. xi-xxxv. 

[Norrie's Dundee Celebrities, 1873, pp. 162-4; 
Swan's Memoir of Mrs. Paterson, Ib24.1 

0. C. B. 


(1787-1871), author, was born in the parish 
of Kells, Kirkcudbrightshire, in 1787, and 
was the eldest son of Walter Paterson, stone- 
engraver, and grandson of Robert Paterson 
[q. v.], ' Old Mortality.' His mother was Mary 
Locke. He was educated at Balmaclellan, 
where the only prize he is known to have 
gained was one for cock-fighting, then a recog- 
nised school sport. In 1804, when sixteen 
years of age, he matriculated at Edinburgh 
University, and studied for the ministry of 
the church of Scotland. In 1821 he became 
minister of Galashiels, where he wrote { The 
Manse Garden '(Glasgow, 1836), a work which 
passed through many editions. He enjoyed 
the friendship of Sir Walter Scott, but after 
a time explained to Scott that the invitations 
to Abbotsford being usually for Saturday, his 
preparation for Sunday services was inter- 
fered with. Sir Walter took no offence, but 
thenceforth invited him on some earlier day 
of the week. On 8 Feb. 1825 he married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Robert Laidlaw, Scott's 
friend, and George Thomson, the Dominie 
Sampson of ' Guy Mannering,' was one of his 
most constant visitors. In 1833 he was trans- 
lated to the charge of St. Andrew's parish 
church, Glasgow. When, in 1843, the dis- 
ruption took place in the church of Scotland, 
Paterson followed Dr. Chalmers ; and in the 
autumn of that year he formed one of a de- 
putation to the north of England to explain 
the principles of the free church and plead 
its cause. In 1844 he visited the southern 
counties. At the same time the many mem- 
bers of his congregation who with him joined 
the free church formed the congregation 
known as Free St. Andrew's, Glasgow, of 
which he remained minister till his death. 
In 1850 he was chosen moderator of the 
free church assembly, the highest honour 
which that church can bestow. His appear- 




ance in his later years was highly picturesque. 
His hair fell on'his shoulders in wavy curls 
white as snow. He died at Glasgow on 
25 April 1871. All his life occupied ac- 
tively with ministry, Dr. Paterson had also a 
keen interest in angling and mechanics. He 
was a man of great geniality and courtesy, 
and did much for the progress of the free 
church in the west of Scotland. He pub- 
lished several sermons and tracts. His por- 
trait, by John J. Napier, was exhibited in 
the ' Old Glasgow ' exhibition held in Glas- 
gow in 1894. 

[Letters to his Family by Nath. Paterson, 
D.D., with Memoir by the Rev. Alex. Anderson, 
1874 ; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scoticanse, ii. 551, 
iii. 25; private knowledge.] W. Gr. B-K. 

PATERSON, ROBERT (1715-1801), 
< Old Mortality,' son of Walter Paterson, 
farmer, and Margaret Scott, was born at 
Haggisha in the parish of Hawick in 1715. 
He married Elizabeth Gray, who had been 
at one time cook to Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick 
of Closeburn, Dumfriesshire. Kirkpatrick 
procured for Paterson from the Duke of 
Queensberry a lease of a freestone quarry at 
Gatelawbrigg in the parish of Morton. The 
highlanders returning from England on their 
way to Glasgow in 1745-6 plundered Pater- 
son's house, and carried him off as a prisoner 
owing to the violent opinions he had expressed 
against ' the bloody and wicked house of 
Stuart,' and ' the abominable heresies of the 
church of Rome.' Paterson became a member 
of the sect of hillmen or Cameronians [see 
CAMERON, RICHARD], and contributed in a 
practical way to the perpetuation of their 
views by carrying gravestones from his quarry 
to erect over the martyrs' graves. Ultimately 
his religious zeal appears to have become a 
mania. From 1758 he neglected entirely to 
return to his wife and five children at Gate- 
lawbrigg. At last Mrs. Paterson sent his 
eldest son, Walter, then only twelve years 
old, in search of his father,' who was ulti- 
mately found working at some Cameronian 
monuments in the old kirkyard of Kirkchrist, 
on the west side of the Dee, opposite Kirk- 
cudbright. Paterson refused to return home, 
and continued his wandering life until his 
death at Bankhill, near Lockerbie, on 14 Feb. 

Dr. Laing was of opinion that Paterson died 
at Bankend, not Bankhill, and that he was 
interred in the churchyard of Caerlaverock, 
where Messrs. A. & C. Black erected a tomb- 
stone to his memory in 1869. His wife sup- 
ported her family by keeping a small school. 

The self-imposed task of repairing monu- 
ments was thus Paterson's sole occupation for 

over forty years. Mounted on a white pony, 
he traversed the whole lowlands of Scotland, 
receiving a hearty welcome at every Came- 
ronian hearth, but maintaining a melancholy 
demeanour befitting his labours. 'To talk 
of the exploits of the covenanters was the 1 
delight, as to repair their monuments was 
the business, of his life ' (ScoTT, Old Mor- 
tality}. ' Old Mortality ' had three sons : 
Robert, Walter, and John. The eldest son, 
Robert, long lived in Balmaclellan, in the 
Glenkens of Galloway. Walter, who was a 
stone-carver, like his father, died there on 
9 May 1812, and was the father of the Rev. 
Nathaniel Paterson [q. v.] John went to 
America in 1776, and settled in Baltimore. 
He is sometimes said to have been the father 
of Elizabeth Paterson of Baltimore who 
married Jerome Bonaparte, afterwards king 
of Westphalia. The story, however, is quite 
erroneous, Madame Bonaparte's father having- 
been William Paterson from Tanat, co. Done- 
gal. The theme of Scott's novel of ' Old Mor- 
tality' was suggested by Paterson's career. 

[Introd. to Old Mortality ; Letters to his Family 
by Nath. Paterson, D.D., 1874.] W. Gr. B-K. 

PATERSON, SAMUEL (1728-1802), 
bookseller and auctioneer, was born 17 March 
1728. His father, a woollendraper in the 
parish of St. Paul, Covent Garden, London, 
died in 1740, and young Paterson went to 
France. About 1748 he opened a shop op- 
posite Durham Yard, in the Strand, and im- 
ported foreign books; at that time Paul 
Vaillant was the only other dealer in foreign 
literature in London. Paterson published 
a few books, among them Mrs. Charlotte 
Lennox's first work, ' Poems on several Oc- 
casions,' in 1747. He continued the busi- 
ness without great success until about 1753, 
when he commenced as auctioneer at Essex 
House, formerly the residence of Sir Or- 
lando Bridgman, in Essex Street, Strand. 
He subsequently had a room in King Street, 
Covent Garden, afterwards occupied by 
Messrs. King, Collins, & Chapman. His 
stock in trade was sold off in 1768 and 1769. 
'He was the earliest auctioneer who sold 
books singly in lots; the first bidding for 
which was sixpence, the advance threepence 
each bidding until five shillings were offered, 
when it ran to sixpence' (SMITH, Nollekens 
and his Times, 1829, ii. 279). 

Besides the catalogues of his own sales, he 
acted as cataloguer for other auctioneers. 
He was one of the first in England to pro- 
duce good classified catalogues, with careful 
descriptions of the contents. Among the 
many excellent sale-catalogues due to him 
are those of the libraries of Sir Julius Csesar 



(1757), Sylvanus Morgan (1759), Robert 
Nelson (1760), James Parsons (1769), James 
West, P.R.S. (1773), "William Eletewode 
(1774), E. Howe Mores (1779), Topham 
Beauclerk (1781), George Costard (1782), 
Thomas Crofts (1783), Maffeo Pinelli (1789), 
John Strange (1801), H. Fagel of the Hague 

In 1776 he visited the continent and 
brought back a large collection of books 
described in 'BibliothecaUniversalisSelecta, 
methodically digested with an index/ 1786. 
For some years he was librarian at Bowood 
to Lord Shelburne, first marquis of Lans- 
downe. In November 1794 he writes of the 
' extreme agitation' he had 'been in for a 
considerable time in abstracting and index- 
ing my lord's private papers ' (NICHOLS, Lit. 
Anecd. viii. 483). 

He had an impediment in his speech, but 
this did not prevent him from delivering 
a series of lectures on Shakespeare's plays, 
which were attended by Steevens, Malone, 
and Barry. He was an honest man and an 
excellent bibliographer, but constantly failed 
in business, as he always preferred reading to 
selling books. ' Perhaps we never had a 
bookseller who knew so much of the contents 
of books generally, and he was particularly 
well acquainted with our English poets' 
( Gent. Mag. 1802, ii. 1075). Johnson wrote 
of him as ' a man for whom I have long had a 
kindness ' (BoswELL, Life, ed. Hill, iii. 90), 
and was godfather to Paterson's son Samuel, 
whom he befriended on several occasions (ib. 
iv. 269). His original works were not re- 

Paterson died in Norton Street, 29 Nov. 
1802, in his seventy-fifth year. He married 
a Miss Hamilton about 1745 ; she died on 
25 Nov. 1790. His eldest son, Charles, a 
lieutenant of marines, died at Chatham on 
14 Dec. 1779, in his twentieth year. His 
second son was John, and the third, Samuel 
Paterson the younger, who was assisted by 
Johnson, was an artist, and exhibited a por- 
trait at the Royal Academy in 1789 (GRAVES, 
Dictionary, 1884, p. 179). One of his daugh- 
ters, Margaret, married James Pearson [q. v.], 
the glass-stainer. 

Paterson wrote : 1. 'Another Traveller! or 
Cursory Remarks and Tritical Observations 
made upon a Journey through part of the Ne- 
therlands in 1766, by Coryat Junior,' London, 
1767-9, 8vo; 'second edi- 
tion corrected,' London, 1769, 12mo (senti- 
mental travels in the manner of Sterne, of very 
poor quality). 2. ' Bibliotheca Anglica Cu- 
riosa : a Catalogue of several thousand printed 
Books and Tracts (chiefly English) collected 
with a view to a History of English Lite- 

rature,' London, 1771, 8vo. 3. ' Joineriana, 
or the Book of Scraps,' London, 1772, 2 vols. 
sm. 8vo (miscellaneous essays, anonymous). 
4. 'The Templar/ London, 1773 (a periodical 
of which only fourteen numbers were pub- 
lished, the last in December 1773 ; designed 
as a protest against the advertising of eccle- 
siastical offices and places of trust under 
government). 5. ' Speculations on Law and 
Lawyers, applicable to the Manifest Hard- 
ships, Uncertainties, and Abusive Practice 
of the Common Law/ London, 1788, 8vo 
(on the dangers of personal arrest for debt 
previous to any verification). 

[Obituary Notices in Gent. Mag. 1802, pt. ii. 
1074, and European Mag. 1802, pt. ii. 427; 
see also Cha^ers's G-en. Biogr. Diet. xxiv. 185- 
189; Dibdin's Bibliomania, 1842, p. 441; Ni- 
chols's Lit. Anecd. vols. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. 
ix. ; Notes and Queries. 4th ser. i. 23 ; Timperley's 
Encylopsedia, 1842, p/812.] H. E. T. 

PATERSON, THOMAS v .._ __ . 
lieutenant-general, was the son of Robert S^tW* 
Paterson of Plewlands, Ayrshire, He en- $ f c f* 
tered the royal artillery as second lieutenant gf b&lk *' 
1 Dec. 1795. After serving in Canada and 
the West Indies from 1796 to 1804, and 
becoming second captain 19 July 1804, he 
took part in the expedition to Copenhagen 
under Lord Cathcart in 1807. He was at- 
tached to Baird's division, and after the 
army had landed it fell to him to keep the 
Danish gunboats in check with his 9-poun- 
ders, while batteries were being thrown up 
for the bombardment. He became captain 
1 Feb. 1808, and in the following year he 
served in the Walcheren expedition. He 
was given a brevet majority 4 June 1814, and 
became lieutenant-colonel in the regiment 
6 Nov. 1827, and colonel 10 Jan. 1837. In 
1836 he was made superintendent of the 
Royal Military Repository at Woolwich. 
He was promoted major-general 9 Nov. 
1846, and lieutenant-general 30 June 1854, 
having become a colonel-commandant of the 
royal artillery 15 Aug. 1850. He died at 
Woolwich on 13 June 1856. 

[Royal Military Calendar ; Irving's Book of 
Scotsmen ; Kane's List of Artillery Officers.] 

E. M. L. 

PATERSON, WILLIAM (1658-1719), 
founder of the Bank of England, son of John 
Paterson of Skipmyre, in the old parish of 
Trailflatt now merged in that of Tinwald, 
Dumfriesshire, by his wife Elizabeth (Bethia), 
was born there in April 1658. The farm- 
house where he was born was pulled down 
in 1864. The story that 'he came from 
Scotland in his younger years, with a pack 
onhis back/ and ' having travell'd this country 



for some years,' became first a missionary 
and then a buccaneer in the West Indies, is 
rot supported by evidence of any value (A 
Defence of the Scots abdicating Darien, 1700, 
pp. 2, 3 ; cf. Caledonia, or the Pedlar turrid 
Merchant ; LAING, Fugitive Pieces of Scottish 
Poetry, 2nd ser.) He was ' bred in England 
from his infancy '( Clerk ofPenicuiVs Memoirs, 
p. 61), and live'd for some time at Bristol with 
a kinswoman of his mother, from whom he 
is said to have received a legacy. Until 
the revolution of 1688 he ' had experience 
abroad and at home in matters of general 
trade and revenues ' (Paterson's * Memorial 
to George I,' dated 8 March 1714-15 quoted 
by BANNISTER), going for several years 'in 
person' to the West Indies, where his re- 
putation was so great that at the time of 
the Darien expedition it was said that 'wher- 
ever he should be settled, thither the people 
would throng from all the plantations to 
join him.' He also formed connections with 
New England. He became a member of the 
Merchant Taylors' Company by redemption 
on 16 Nov. 1681, and was admitted to the 
livery on 21 Oct. 1689. In 1688 he took 
part with those who were planning the re- 
volution, being ' much in the coffee-houses 
of Amsterdam' at this time (BANNISTER). 

By 1691 he had acquired great influence in 
the city and a considerable fortune. In July 
and August of that year, he, with Michael 
Godfrey and other merchants, proposed to 
the government the foundation of the Bank 
of England, pointing out at the same time the 
necessity of restoring the currency. Of the 
whole scheme Paterson was ' chief projector.' 
But, in spite of repeated applications to the 
government, nothing was done for three years. 
In January 1692 Paterson was the principal 
witness before the parliamentary committee 
appointed to receive proposals for raising 
supplies. He conducted the negotiations 
between the government and the merchants 
who signed the proposals, and stated that 
1 himself and some others might come up to 
advance 500,000/.' (Journals of the House of 
Commons, x. 631. 632). On the foundation 
of the bank in 1694 he became a director, 
with a qualification of 2,000/. But the bank 
realised his wishes ' but lamely . . . and far 
from the extensive nature and other publick 
advantages concerted in the proposition' (An 
Enquiry . . . By the Wednesday's Club in 
Friday Street, 1717, p. 68). In 1695. on a 
difference with his colleagues, when he was 
outvoted, he sold out and voluntarily with- 
drew from the directorate. On 12 Feb. of 
that year he made proposals for the con- 
solidation of the City of London orphan fund 
which were not accepted. He had 4,000/. 

invested in the fund, which was t of very 
great moment to him' (A State of Mr. Pater- 
son's Claim upon the Equivalent^. He also 
took part in the Hampstead Water Company, 
a scheme for supplying north London with 
water from reservoirs south of the Hampstead 
and Highgate hills, and in December 1693 
the city granted him a license to lay pipes 
for supplying water to the inhabitants of 
Southwark (SHARPE, London and the King- 
dom, ii. 582). At this time he had a house 
in the parish of St. Giles-in-the-fields. 

Meanwhile Paterson had matured his 
scheme, first formed in 1684, for the founda- 
tion of a colony in Darien. Originally in- 
tending to start a company differing in its 
constitution from any of the existing English 
trading companies, he had made overtures 
to the elector of Brandenburg and the cities 
of Embden and Bremen. In 1695 he went to 
Scotland, where Andrew Fletcher [q. v.] of 
Saltoun introduced him to members of the 
administration, and his scheme was eagerly 
taken up. Paterson himself framed the first 
draft of the act establishing the Scottish 
Africa and India Company (26 June 1695). He 
raised 300,000/., the maximum fixed for any 
one subscription in England, and 400,000/. 
in Scotland, besides obtaining subscriptions 
from abroad ; he himself subscribed 3,000/. 
But pressure by Spain, France, and Holland 
compelled the Englishgovernmenttopublicly 
withdraw their support ; the English subscrip- 
tions had to be abandoned, and an impeach- 
ment on a technical point of infringement of 
the act of 1695 was commenced, but after- 
wards dropped, against Paterson and twenty- 
two members of the company. Paterson had 
engaged in the company's service on the pro- 
mise (6 Nov. 1695) of receiving 12,000/. in 
ready money and three per cent, of the profits 
for twenty-one years, or an additional 12,0007. 
He now gave up his business in London, 
which was ' considerable,' and 'growing upon 
him daily,' and devoted himself entirely to 
the company's interests, on the promise of 
30,000/. But a resolution of the directors 
(6 Oct. 1696), which granted him only one 
fourth of the stipulated sum, does not appear 
to have been confirmed by the general council 
of the company. Paterson was one of four 
directors sent abroad in 1696 to settle the 
Hamburg subscriptions. In the following 
year he and two others were commissioned 
to purchase stores for the expedition with a 
sum of 25,000/. The agent employed by him 
to conduct the financial operation made off 
with the money, and, though part of it was 
recovered and Paterson himself paid 6,000/. 
out of his own resources, a sum of more than 
8,000/. was lost. Paterson thereupon offered 


2 5 


to leave the company altogether, or to go out 
in the service of the directors, appropriating 
a large portion of his salary for their benefit. 
But his offer was not accepted. He accom- 
panied the expedition in 1698 ; but as the 
management was entrusted to seven coun- 
cillors, who quarrelled amongst themselves, 
he had little influence on the conduct of affairs. 
He was seriously ill in Darien, and on the 
voyage to New York after the colony was 
abandoned. ' Trouble of mind' deprived him 
temporarily of his reason. He returned to 
Edinburgh on 5 Dec. 1699, and drew up a 
report, dated the 19th, to the directors of the 
company, who appointed a committee to 
confer with him. Far from abandoning his 
design, he tried repeatedly to revive it in 
a form which would enlist the support of 

On his arrival in London Paterson was 
kindly received by William III (April 1701), 
with whom he had frequent private con- 
ferences on public credit and state affairs, 
and at whose request he put his proposals 
into writing. Paterson suggested (1) the 
provision of interest for the existing national 
debts ; (2) the regulation of the treasury and 
the exchequer, so as to leave no room for 
fraud ; (3) strict inquiry from time to time 
into the conduct of all concerned in the reve- 
nue .; (4) a commission of inquiry into the 
state and the management of the national 
debt ; (5) a West India expedition, on the 
ground that ' to secure the Spanish monarchy 
from France ... it was more practicable to 
make Spain and the other dominions in 
Europe follow the fate of the West Indies, 
than to make the West Indies, if once in the 
power of France, follow the fate of Spain ; ' 
(6) union with Scotland, than which, he con- 
vinced William, ' nothing could tend more 
... to render this island great and con- 
siderable' (Paterson's letter to Godolphin, 
12 Dec. 1709; An Enquiry . . . By the 
Wednesday's Club in Friday Street, 1717, p. 
84). After the death of William HI he re- 
newed his proposals, with the addition of 
others, to Godolphin, at the request of that 
minister. From this time until his death 
Paterson was frequently consulted by minis- 
ters, and employed by them to devise means 
of raising public supplies. From 1701 he 
urged upon the government the financial 
measures which became the basis of ' Wai- 
pole's Sinking Fund ' and the great scheme 
of 1717 for the consolidation and conversion 
of the national debt. In 1703 he proposed, if 
indeed he did not actually establish, a public 
library of commerce and finance, for ( to this 
necessary and it's hoped now rising study of 
trade there is requisite not only as complete a 

collection as possible of all books, pamphlets, 
and schemes relating to trade . . . ancient 
or modern, but likewise of the best histories, 
voyages, and accounts of the states, laws, and 
customs of countries, that from them it may 
be more clearly . . . understood how . . . 
wars, conquests . . . plenty, want, good or 
bad management, or influence of government 
. . . have more immediately affected the rise 
and decline of the industry of a people ' (' A 
Catalogue of Books . . . collected by William 
Paterson, Esq.,' Harl. MS. 4684, Brit. Mus.) 
In 1705 he engaged in a controversy with 
John Law (1671-1729) [q. v.], and prevented 
the adoption of an inconvertible paper cur- 
rency in Scotland. 

Paterson not only published an able pam- 
phlet in favour of the union of England and 
Scotland, but ho had a l great share ' in 
framing the articles of the treaty relating to 
trade and finance. He was also employed, 
with Bower and Gregory, in the calculation 
of the equivalent, for which he received 200/. 
He went to Scotland in 1706, and remained 
there until the end of the negotiations, wait- 
ing upon ministers, explaining the treaty, 
and smoothing away difficulties. One of the 
last acts of the Scottish parliament (25 March 
1707) was to recommend him to Queen Anne 
' for his good service ' (DEFOE, History of the 
Union, p. 525). Though the people of Dum- 
fries had suffered much from the failure of 
the Darien scheme, and had been violently 
opposed to the union, they returned Pater- 
son, with William Johnstoun, to the first 
united parliament. But the house decided 
that it was a double return, and Paterson 
was unseated (LTJTTKELL, Brief Relational. 
378). In the accounts of the Scottish 
Africa Company's debt to be provided for 
out of the equivalent, Paterson's claims had 
been omitted. He repeatedly urged his 
claims, Avithout success. In 1713 the com- 
mons reported in his favour, and passed a 
bill, which was thrown out by the lords, ap- 
propriating to him the sum of 18,()00/. He 
did not receive the money until 1715, when 
a bill, supported by the king, was passed 
without opposition. From 1703 until his 
death he resided in Queen Square, West- 
minster, where he was one of the higher rate- 
payers. He appears to have been in reduced 
circumstances until he received the Darien 
indemnity, and is said to have taught mathe- 
matics and navigation. He was paid, how- 
ever, small sums for services in the manage- 
ment of the South Sea Company, and he 
retained an interest in the Hampstead Water 
Company. He died in January 1719. His 
will was proved at Doctors' Commons on 
22 Jan. 1719 (O.S.) 



Paterson married, first, Elizabeth Turner, 
widow of Thomas Bridge, minister of the 
gospel in Boston, New England (she died 
before his return to England) ; secondly, 
Hannah Kemp, widow of Samuel South, by 
whom he had one son. His second wife and 
child died in Darien. By his will, signed at 
ninster on 1 July 1718, and certified 
on 3 July at the Ship Tavern, Without Temple 
Bar, he left legacies to his step-children, the 
children of his sister Janet Mounsey, and to 
his sister Elizabeth, who married John Pater- 
son the younger of Kinharvey. The legacies 
to his Scottish relatives were never paid, as 
the 'just debts' he was forced to contract in 
connection with his various schemes absorbed 
all his estate. 

Paterson published anonymously: 1. 'Con- 
ferences on the Public Debts. By the Wed- 
nesday's Club in Friday Street,' London, 
1695, 4to. 2. ' A Letter to a Member of the 
late Parliament, concerning the Debts of the 
Nation,' London, 1701. 3. 'Proposals and 
Reasons for constituting a Council of Trade,' 
Edinburgh, 1701, 12ino. 4. 'England's 
great Concern, in the perpetual settlement 
of a Commission of Accounts. . . . With a 
discovery of some notable frauds committed 
in collecting the supplies,' London, 1702, 
4to. 5. ' The Occasion of Scotland's Decay 
in Trade, with a proper expedient for re- 
covery thereof, and the increasing our 
Wealth,' 1705. 6. ' An Essay, concerning 
Inland and Foreign, Publick and Private 
Trade; together with some overtures how a 
company or national trade may be consti- 
tuted in Scotland, with the advantages 
which will result therefrom,' 1705. The 
last two pamphlets were written in reply to 
1 Two Overtures humbly offered to ... John, 
Duke of Argyle [by John Law].' 7. ' An 
Enquiry into the Reasonableness and Conse- 
quences of an Union with Scotland. . . . By 
Lewis Medway. With observations there- 
upon, as communicated to Lawrence Phillips, 
Esq., near York,' London, 1706, 8vo. 8. ' An 
Enquiry into the State of the Union of Great 
Britain and the Past and Present State of 
the Trade and Public Revenues thereof,' Lon- 
don,^ 1717, 8vo. Written, it is said, at Wai- 
pole's request. Bannister also printed and 
published Paterson's memorial to William III 
(1 Jan. 1701), and his proposal for settling 
on the isthmus of Darien, releasing the natives 
from the tyranny of Spain, and throwing open 
the trade of South America to all nations, 
1701 (Addit. MS. 12437, Brit. Mus.), with 
the title, 'Central America, London, 8vo, 
1857; reprinted, with some of Paterson's 
other works, in Bannister's ' Life and Writings 
of Paterson,' 1859. 

The only known portrait of Paterson is 
the pen-and-ink wash-drawing in the British 
Museum (ib. 10403, f. i />), executed in 1708, 
the date of the transcription of ' T wo Treatises 
relating to the Union ... by William Pater- 
son, Esq.,' to which it is prefixed. 

[Notes kindly supplied by Archibald Constable, 
esq.; authorities quoted, and Bannister's Life and 
Writings of Paterson ; Caratares' State Papers, 
pp. 684, 635, 645, 655; Burnet's History of his 
own Time; Clerk of Penicuik's Memoirs (Scot- 
tish Hist. Soc.), xviii. 61 ; Darien Papers (Ban- 
natyne Club) ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 1 1th Rep. App. 
v. p. 304; Boyer's Political State, 1711, p. 470; 
Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, vol. ii. pt. iii. pp. 89-123 ; Laing's History 
of Scotland, iv. 249 sqq. ; Sinclair's Statistical 
Account of Scotland ; Scott's Tales of a Grand- 
father ^ed. Cadell, 1846), chap. lix. ; Chambers's 
Domestic Annals of Scotland, iii. 121, 124, 131 ; 
Chambers's Biogr. Diet. ed. Thomson, iii. 231-7; 
Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, ii. 657 sqq. ; 
Macaulay's Hist, of England, 1862, 8vo, vii. 123, 
viii. 196 sqq. ; Pagan's Birthplace and Parentage 
of William Paterson ; Burton's Scot Abroad, ii. 278 
sqq. ; McDowalPs Hist, of Dumfries, pp. 532-6 ; 
McKerlie's Lands and their Owners in Gallo- 
way, iii. 72, 280; McCulloch's Literature of 
Political Economy, p. 159 ; Lawson's History of 
Banking, pp. 67, 396-9; Francis's Hist, of the 
Bank of England, i. 44, 60, 71 ; Martin's Stories 
of Banks and Bankers, pp. 12-19; Rogers's 
First Nine Years of the Bank of England, pp. 
2, 22. 148. Paterson is the hero of Eliot War- 
burton's novel Darien, or the Merchant Prince, 
an historical romance, London, 1852; and to 
Paterson is dedicated Paul Coq's treatise La 
Monnaie de Banque ou 1'espece et le portefeuille, 
Paris, 1863, to which is prefixed a memoir, in 
which full justice is done to Paterson's supreme 
business talents.] W. A. S. H. 

PATERSON, WILLIAM (1755-1810), 
traveller and lieutenant-governor of New 
South Wales, was born on 1 7 Aug. 1755. He 
entered the army at an early age, but not 
before he had developed a strong liking for 
natural history, especially botany. The in- 
terest and patronage of Lady Strathmore 
enabled him to gratify these tastes, and be- 
fore entering upon active service he had 
made a series of exploring expeditions in the 
Hottentot country. He left England early 
in 1777, arrived at Capetown in May, and on 
16 Oct., in company with Captain Gordon, 
made his first expedition, returning to Cape 
Town on 13 Jan. 1778. His second expedi- 
tion lasted from May to 20 Nov. 1778. His 
third was into the district which he called 
Caffraria, and claimed as hitherto unknown, 
and it lasted from 23 Dec. 1778 to 23 March 
1779. His fourth journey occupied him from 
18 June to 21 Dec. the same year. He made 
j several fresh contributions to science, and is 



credited with having brought to England the 
first giraffe-skin ever seen there. The French 
traveller Le Vaillant several times refers to 
his researches in high terms. 

Soon after his return to England Paterson 
was gazetted to the 98th regiment (7 Oct. 
1781), and was sent to India, where he was 
at the siege of Caroor in 1783. In 1785 the 
98th regiment was disbanded, and on 24 Sept. 
1787 he became a lieutenant in the 73rd foot. 
In June 1789 he was one of the lieutenants 
chosen to recruit and command a company 
of the New South Wales corps, which was 
formed in that year for the purpose of pro- 
tecting the new convict settlement at Botany 
Bay. On 5 June 1789 he was appointed a 
captain in the corps. It seems probable that 
he was introduced to this enterprise by Sir 
Joseph Banks, to whom he dedicated his 
book on Caftraria. Banks took a keen per- 
sonal interest in all that concerned the infant 

Paterson had married, and did not go out 
with the first draft of the corps, but with 
Philip Gidley King [q. v.], afterwards go- 
vernor, on the Gorgon, his wife accompany- 
ing him. They arrived in New South Wales 
in October 1791. After a few days' stay in 
Sydney, Paterson was ordered to Norfolk 
Island, and was apparently stationed there 
at intervals till the end of 1793. The chief 
event in this period of Paterson's career was 
his exploration of the Hawkesbury river early 
in 1793 ; he ascended the rapids in small boats, 
where the governor had failed, and discovered 
and named the Grose river. He also found 
several new plants. The expedition lasted 
ten days. On 15 Feb. 1794 he was senior 
member of the court held at Sydney to inquire 
into the conduct of the mutinous detachment 
of the New South Wales corps at Norfolk 
Island. On 20 Feb. his name appears as tak- 
ing up six acres of land at Sydney. On 8 Dec. 
1794, on the departure of Grose, the major 
commandant of the corps, who had been acting 
as lieutenant-governor of the colony since the 
departure of Governor Arthur Phillips [q. v.], 
Paterson succeeded to the command of the 
corps and administration of the government. 
In February 1795 he sent Grimes, the colonial 
surveyor, to explore Port Stephens. His rule 
ended on 16 Sept. 1795. It is clear that he was 
alive to the requirements of the rising settle- 
ment, and Governor John Hunter (1738-1 821) 
[q.v.], soon after his arrival, in referring to 
Paterson's application for leave, speaks of him 
as l a very valuable officer.' Paterson, who 
doubtless bore much of the trouble which 
was given in 1796 by the New South Wales 
corps, did not actually depart till much later. 
He was in England during 1798, and was 

admitted a member of the Royal Society on 
17 May. He also joined the Royal Asiatic 
Society. In 1799 he returned to the colony 
in the Walker, and in connection with certain 
transactions as to the victualling on board that 
ship was censured by the secretary of state. 
He was now commandant of the corps, having 
received the step of major on 1 Sept. 1795, 
and that of lieutenant-colonel on 18 Jan. 
1798 ; he was at once involved in quarrels, 
and one of his earliest acts as colonel was 
to send his major, Johnston, to England 
under arrest ; in September 1801 he resisted 
an effort of some of the officers to insult 
Governor King; fought a duel with John 
McArthur [q. v.], and was so dangerously 
wounded that for a time all persons concerned 
were under arrest, in expectation of Paterson's 
death. Yet in 1802, when King withstood 
the action of the corps on the drink question, 
Paterson went with the malcontents, and 
was humiliated by the success of King's 
opposition. He seems at this time to have 
endeavo ured to keep in with both the opposing 
civil and military factions, and to have had 
the confidence of neither. In the serious 
insurrection of 1804, however, he and his 
corps stood by the governor and saved the 

On 7 June 1804 Paterson was sent by 
King to Port Dalrymple in Tasmania as lieu- 
tenant-governor, and instructed to form a 
post of occupancy at such point as he thought 
suitable. He occupied Port Dalrymple in 
November, and experienced many anxieties 
as to food supply, native unfriendliness, and 
convict insubordination. He was also drawn 
into disputes with David Collins at Hobart as 
to superiority of title and jurisdiction. The 
notorious Margarot was in August 1805 sent 
to complete his sentence under Paterson's 
special supervision. 

Paterson, who was made colonel by brevet 
on 25 April 1808, was still at Port Dalrymple 
when Major Johnston reported to him the 
deposition of Governor William Bligh [q. v.] 
In January 1809 he went to Sydney, and ad- 
ministered the government till the king's 
pleasure was known. He had approved the 
proceedings taken against Bligh by the officers 
of the New South Wales corps, and declined 
to entertain Bligh's appeals that he should 
restore him. Bligh had plotted to place 
Paterson under arrest on his arrival, and 
Paterson wrote indignantly to Lord Castle- 
reagh of Bligh's conduct. On 4 Feb. 1809 
he and Bligh signed the convention by which 
the latter consented to go home 'with the 
utmost despatch,' but Bligh had not gone 
further than Tasmania by March, and con- 
tinued to give trouble. Paterson was re- 



lieved on 31 Dec. 1809 by the arrival of the 
newgovernor,LachlanMacquarie [q.v.] His 
cor ps_now become the 102nd regiment was 
ordered home, and he left the colony in May 
1810, amid the enthusiastic farewells of the 
colonists. He died on the passage home, 
on board her majesty's ship Dromedary, on 
21 June 1810. 

Paterson was apparently more at home in 
exploration and study of science than as an 
administrator or even a soldier. ' The weak 
Colonel Paterson/ writes Eusden on one 
occasion, ' thought more of botanical col- 
lections than of extending the cords of British 
sovereignty.' He seems to have been of an 
amiable and undecided character, often giving 
offence to two opposing parties by his anxiety 
to please both. He was the most lavish of 
the early administrators in his grants to pri- 
vate persons of the land of the colony. 

Paterson river and mountain'in New South 
Wales and Paterson creek in Tasmania are 
named after him. and it is said that a Pater- 
son's Bay in the Cape Colony was for a time 
found on the maps. 

Paterson published ' A. Narrative of Four 
Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots 
and Catfraria in the years 1777-8-9,' London, 
1789, 4to. A second edition and a French 
translation appeared in 1790. His botanical 
collections are in the Natural History Museum 
at South Kensington. 

[War Office records and Army Lists, 1781- 
1810; Registers of Royal Soc. ; Poggendorff's 
Handworterbuch ; Gent. Mag. 1810, vol. Ixxx. 
pt. ii. p. 356 ; Rusden's Hist, of Australia, vol. 
i., see index to vol. iii. sub voce; Hist, of New 
South Wales from the Records, vol. ii.] 

C. A. H. 

PATESHULL, HUGH DE (d. 1241), 
bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, son, and 
apparently heir, of Simon de Pateshull (d. 
1217 ?) [q. v.], judge, was a clerk of the ex- 
chequer, and received the seal of the court, 
holding the office called somewhat later the 
chancellorship of the exchequer. He appears 
to have belonged to the baronial party in the 
reign of John, and, his father being then dead, 
received restitution of his lands in 2 Hen. III. 
He received several benefices, holding in 
Northamptonshire the churches of Church 
Stowe, Ettingdon, and Cottingham(BRiDGEs), 
and was a prebendary of St. Paul's, London. 
On 1 June 1234 he was, against his will, made 
treasurer of the kingdom in place of Peter de 
Rievaulx [q.v.], receiving a grant of a hundred 
marks as stipend. He bore a high character 
for honourable dealing, and discharged the 
duties of his office faithfully. The see of 
Lichfield having fallen vacant in 1238, and 
a double election having been made by the 

canons of Lichfield, who chose William ot 
Manchester, and the monks of Coventry, who 
chose Nicholas of Farnham [q.v.], and both the 
elect having declined the see, the king ordered 
a new election, and Hugh was chosen unani- 
mously about Christmas 1239. He took a 
moving farewell of the barons of the ex- 
chequer, telling them that he left the ex- 
chequer because God had called him to the 
cure of souls ; they all wept, and he kissed 
each of them (PAEis, Chronica Majora, iv. 2). 
He was consecrated at Newark, near Guild- 
ford, on 1 July 1240. He opposed the monks 
of Coventry, who formed one of his two chap- 
ters, probably with reference to the epi- 
scopal right of visitation (comp. ib, p. 171 with 
Annales Monastici, iii. 143, 152). In 1241 
he went a pilgrimage to the shrines of St. 
Edmund and other saints, and on its termi- 
nation attended a council of bishops held at 
Oxford. On his return thence he died at 
Potterspury, Northamptonshire, on 8 Dec., 
and was buried before the altar of St. Stephen 
in his cathedral at Lichfield, in which he had 
founded the prebend of Colwich, endowing 
it with the impropriation and advowson of 
Colwich in Staffordshire. 

[Foss's Judges, ii. 437 ; Matt. Paris's Chron. 
Maj.iii. 296, 542, iv. 2, 31, 171, 175 (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Ann. de Dunstap. ap. Ann. Monast. iii. 149, 152, 
157; Rot. Litt. Glaus, i. 340 (Record Publ.) ; 
Madox's Hist, of Excheq. ii. 35, 255 ; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, i. 90, 566, ii. 299 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, i. 547, 591, ii. 414, ed. Hardy.] W. H. 

judge and dean of London, was probably a 
native either of Pattishall, Northamptonshire 
(FULLEE), or Patshull, Staffordshire (Foss). 
Whether he was related to Simon de Pates- 
hull [q. v.] or Walter de Pateshull [q. v.] is 
not known. He appears as one of the clerks 
of King John in 1209 (Rotuli Chartarum, p. 
108), and in June 1215 received a safe-con- 
duct to go to the king at Windsor (Rotuli 
' Literarum Patentium, p. 142). In 1217 he 
sat as a justice at Westminster, and was a 
justice itinerant for Yorkshire and North- 
umberland, after which date he was con- 
stantly employed as a judge, his name 
appearing first in the commissions for seven 
shires in 1224 (DUGDALE). When in that 

Sjar the justices itinerant were attacked at 
unstable by order of Falkes de Breaute 
[q. v.], and Henry de Braybroc [q. v.] was 
seized, Pateshull, who was acting with 
Braybroc, escaped (WENDOVEE, iv. 94), and 
afterwards negotiated between Falkes and 
the king (Annals of Dunstable, sub an.) 
Grants of forty marks were made to him for 
the expenses of an iter in October 1221, and 
of fifteen and twenty-one marks for like ex- 



penses in July 1222, and he also had license 
from the king to keep fifty hogs in Windsor 
forest (Rotuli Literarum Clausarum, i. 471, 
504, 515). He held certain benefices in the 
archdeaconry of Northumberland (ib. ii. 203), 
the chapel of Berrow and, perhaps, its mother- 
church of Overbury, Worcestershire (Annals 
of Worcester, an. 1224) ; was a prebendary of 
London, and in 1227 archdeacon of Norfolk. 
In 1228 he was chosen dean of St. Paul's. 
He was struck with paralysis in 1229 ( Annals 
of Dunstable, sub an.), and died on 14 Nov. 
of that year. He was famed for his prudence 
and skill in law (MATT. WESTMON. p. 126). 
He was an indefatigable worker. A judge 
who was ordered to go as itinerant with him 
- in Yorkshire begged to be excused, on the 
ground that Pateshull was strong and so se- 
dulous and practised in labour as to exhaust 
the strength of all his fellows, and especially 
that of the writer and of William de Ralegh 
[q. v.] (Royal Letters, Henry III, i. 342). 

[Foss's Judges, ii. 438; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 
pp. 7, 8; Fuller's Worthies, ii. 166, ed. Nichols; 
Wendover,iv.94(Engl. Hist.Soc.); Ann.Mouast. 
i. 73, iii. 66, 87, iv. 416, 421, Royal Letters 
Hen. Ill, i. 328, 342 (both Rolls Ser.) ; Rot, 
Chart., p. 108, Rot. Litt. Pat. p. 142, Rot. Litt. 
Claus. i. 471, 504, 515, ii. 203 (all Record publ.) ; 
Madox's Hist, of Excheq. ii. 43, 257 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ii. 371, 482, ed. Hardy.] W. H. 

PATESHULL, PETER (fi. 1387), theo- 
logical writer, was a friar of the Augustinian 
house in London and took the degree of 
doctor of theology at Oxford. W T hen Pope 
Urban offered chaplaincies for sale, which ex- 
empted monks from their orders, Peter bought 
one from Walter of Diss. Much influenced 
by Wiclif 's ' De Realibus Universalibus,' he 
began to preach against his order. One of 
his sermons, in the church of St. Chris- 
topher, London, was interrupted by twelve 
friars of his house, and a riot ensued, which 
was quelled by the sheriffs and one of the 
friars. His followers recommended him to 
put his charges in writing. He did so, and 
nailed them to the door of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. He charged the friars with treachery 
to the king and country, and with gross 
immorality. Sir William Neville [q. v.], Sir 
Thomas Latimer, Sir Lewis Clifford, and 
others gave him encouragement. Thomas 
Walsingham (ad an. 1387) says he recanted 
on his deathbed. Leland says he attacked 
the sacraments of the church, the avarice, 
pride, and tyranny of the pope, and that his 
works were severely repressed by the papacy. 
Bale gives a list of Pateshull's writings, or- 
thodox and unorthodox, the latter of which 
were burnt ; but none are known to be 

[Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, ed. Riley, 
ii. 157 ; Capgrave's Chronicle of England, p. 244; 
Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannica; Bale's Scrip- 
torum Illustrium Catalogus. p. 509 ; Leland, 
De Scriptoribus, c. 437 ; Pits, De Illustribus 
Anglise Scriptoribus.] M. B. 

MON DE (d. 1217 ?), judge, probably a native 
of Pattishall, Northamptonshire, where his 
family, and possibly he, held the manor under 
the prior of D unstable, received charge of 
the castle of Northampton by the terms of 
the award between John and the chancellor 
William of Longchamp [q. v.] in 11.91, and 
appears as one of the king's justices in 1193. 
In 1195 he was sheriff of Northamptonshire, 
Essex, and Hertfordshire, and continued she- 
riff of Northamptonshire until 1204. During 
the reign of John he seems to have been chief 
justice of the common pleas division of the 
king's court, commissions being issued to him 
by name, ' with others his companions.' Mat- 
thew Paris speaks of him as chief justiciar 
of the whole kingdom (Chronica Majora, iii. 
296), but this seems a mistake. He was one 
of the justices for the Jews, and in 1199 re- 
ceived from the king two houses in North- 
ampton which had belonged to Benedict the 
Jew. John also gave him the manor of Ro- 
thersthorpe, near Northampton, and certain 
wood land. He probably held the manor of 
Bletsoe in Bedfordshire, having perhaps ac- 
quired it by marriage. A fine of a hundred 
marks incurred by him and another justice for 
having granted certain litigants a term with- 
out royal license was remitted in 1207. He 
appears to have been sent to Ireland by the 
king in 1210. He fell under the king's dis- 
pleasure in 1215, John apparently suspecting 
him of complicity in the baronial revolt, and 
his lands were seized ; but the abbot of Woburn 
defended him and made his peace with the 
king, who in December restored his lands 
(Patent Rolls, p. 94). He acted as judge in 
March 1216, and, as his son Hugh received 
restitution of his lands in 2 Hen. Ill, it is 
probable that Simon died in, or about, 1217. 
He had a son, Hugh de Pateshull [q. v.], 
bishop of Lichfield, and probably another 
Sir Simon de Pateshull [q. v.] Simon bore 
a high character for wisdom and honourable 

[Foss's Judges, ii. 100 ; Dugdale's Orig. Jurid., 
Chron. Ser. p. 5; Rot. Litt. Claus. i. 61, 113, 
114, 200, 244, ed. Hardy (Record Publ.); Rot. 
Ltt. Pat. p. 94, ed. Hardy (Record Publ.); Rot. 
Chart, pp 52,131, 1 84, ed. Hardy (Record Publ.); 
Mrtdox's History of the Exchequer, i. 235, ii. 
315, 317 ; Matt. Paris's Chronica Majora, iii. 
296, 542 (Rolls Ser.); Rog. Hov. iii. 136 (Rolls 
Ser.1] W. H. 


SIMON DE (d. 1274), judge and knight, was 
either a vounger son or a grandson ot bimon 
de Pateshull (d. 1217 ?) [q. v.l, judge and 
seems to have succeeded to the estates oi 
Bishop Hugh de Pateshull [q. v.], his brother 
or perhaps uncle, who died in 1241 ; for little 
more than a year after the bishop s death he 
was engaged in a suit against, the priory ot 
Dunstable, with reference to the lease oi 
Grimscote, in Cold Higham, Northampton- 
shire (Annales Monastici, iii. 161). He appears 
in 1257 as one of the king's justices, and as 
iustice for the Jews (Fvdem, i. 262). He 
held the manor of Bletsoe, by service of one 
knight's fee, and is called therefrom the lord 
of Bletsoe (Miracula Symonis de Montfort 
ap. RISHANGER, p. 106). In 1258 Ida, widow 
of William de Beauchamp of Bedford, in- 
vaded and did much damage to his manor of 
Crawley, Buckinghamshire. From .1260 to 
1262 he was sheriff of Northamptonshire. 
He joined the baronial party, and was with 
Simon de Montfort the younger in North- 
ampton when it was besieged by the king in 
1264 (Annales Monastici, iii. 229), and was 
in Kenilworth with other baronial leaders 
when it was besieged in 1265 (ib. p. 241). 
About Ascension day 1273 he was very sick, 
and, expecting his death, demanded and re- 
ceived the rites of the church ; he became 
speechless, but, a relic from the body of Earl 
Simon de Montfort having been applied to 
him, he recovered and went to Evesham to 
offer there (Miracula, u.s.) He died at Easter 
1274. He was succeeded by his son, Sir 
John de Pateshull, who paid a relief of forty- 
six shillings and sixpence for his land at Grims- 
cote to the priory of Dunstable, and died in 
1290. John's son Simon, called the younger, 
married Isabella, daughter and heiress of Sir 
John de Steyngreve (Cal. Genealoyicum, pp. 
504, 526 ; DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 144 ; the 
editor of Annales Monastici, ii. 401 n. makes 
Isabella the mother of Simon, and widow of 
John), and inherited his father-in-law's lands 
in Bedfordshire and Yorkshire in 1294. He 
died in 1295 before receiving knighthood, 
leaving a son, 

JOHN DE PATESHULL (1291 P-1349), who 
was about four years old at his father's 
death, and was in the king's wardship. He 
married Mabel, sister, and eventually co- 
heiress, of Otho, lord Grandison ; was sum- 
moned to a council of magnates in 1335 (Fce- 
dcra, ii. 916), and received a summons to the 
parliament of 13 42, but no later parliamentary 
summons, and his name occurs among the 
knights summoned to military service in 1345 
(if>. iii. 52). He died in 1349, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son William, who was born 


about 1322, did not receive a summons to 
parliament, and died without issue in 1360, 
leaving his four sisters, Sybill, wife of Sir 
Roger de Beauchamp; Alice, wife of Thomas 
Wake ; Mabel, wife of Walter de Faucon- 
berg, who inherited Pattishall ; and Kathe- 
rine, wife of Sir Robert de Tudenham, his 
coheirs, among whose descendants the barony 
is in abeyance. 

[Ann. de Dunstap. ap. Ann. Monast. iii. 161, 
215, 241, 319, 365, 401 (Rolls Ser.) ; Roberts's 
Cal. Geneal. pp. 504, 526 (Record Publ.) ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, i. 262, ii. 856, 916, 1013 (Record ed.) ; 
Rishanger's Chron. de Bellis, p. 106 (Camden 
Soc.); BLayds's Visit, of Bedfordshire, p. 52 (Harl. 
Soc.); Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 143 ; Courthope's 
Peerage, p. 373, ed. Nicolas; Bridges's North- 
amptonshire, i. 5, 260, 267.] W. H. 

judge, appears to have resided in Bedford- 
shire, and is described by Fuller as of Acces- 
tane. In 1218 he was a justice itinerant for 
Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and other 
shires. Being in 1224 sheriff of Bedford- 
shire and Buckinghamshire, an office that he 
held for four years, he ; in conjunction with 
Henry de Braybroc [q. v.], was ordered by 
the king to cause the castle of Bedford, the 
stronghold of Falkes de Breaute [q. v,], to be 
demolished. He died shortly before 20 Aug. 
1232 (Excerpta e Rotulis Finium, i. 225). 
Whether he was any relation to Simon de 
Pateshull [q. v.] or Martin de Pateshull 
[q. v.] is not known. 

[Foss'ri Judges, ii. 440; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 
p. 7; Rot. Litt. Claus. i. 581, 632, Excerpta e 
Rot. Fin. i. 225 (both Record publ.)] W. H. 

WARD (1813-1881), admiral, son of Com- 
mander Charles Patey, one of five brothers 
who served in the navy during the Napoleonic 
wars, and whose sons and grandsons have 
followed in their footsteps, was born in 1813, 
and entered the navy in 1824. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant on 6 Dec. 
1836, and after serving in the Caledonia and 
Princess Charlotte, flagships in the Mediter- 
ranean, was in 1840 first lieutenant of the 
Castor frigate, in which he took part in the 
operations on the coast of Syria, and in the 
bombardment of Acre. On the following 
day, 4 Nov. 1840, he was promoted to the 
rank of commander. He commanded the 
Resistance troopship, from March 1842, 
until advanced to post-rank on 18 May 
1846. In 1851 he was appointed to or- 
ganise the great rush of emigration from 
Liverpool to Australia, and was presented 
by the shipowners of Liverpool with a piece 
of plate in acknowledgment of his services. 



In December 1852 he commissioned the 
Amphion ; but in the following year a severe 
injury, for which he received a pension, 
compelled him to resign the command; nor 
had he any further service afloat. In 1857 
he was appointed superintendent of the packet 
service. On 9 Feb. 1864 he became a rear- 
admiral on the retired list, and was advanced 
in due course to be vice-admiral on 14 July 
1871, and admiral on 1 Aug. 1877. In 
1866 he was appointed administrator at 
Lagos, whence he was removed, after a few 
months, to the Gambia. In 1869 he be- 
came governor of St. Helena, and on the 
abolition of the office retired with a compen- 
sation grant in 1873. On 8 May 1874 he re- 
ceived the C.M.G. He died at Newton St. 
Loe, near Bath, on 25 March 1881, leaving 
one son in the civil service. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Navy Lists; 
Times, 29 March 1881.] J. K. L. 

PATEY, JANET MONACH (1842-1894), 
contralto singer, was born on 1 May 1842 in 
Holborn, London, where her father, a Scots- 
man named Whytock, was in business. She 
received her first instruction in singing from 
John Wass, and in 1860 made her first pub- 
lic appearance at Birmingham at a concert 
under the auspices of James Stimpson. She 
sang under the name of Ellen Andrews, and 
with much success, but was so overcome by 
nervousness that she lost her voice completely 
for six months afterwards. While under 
Wass's guidance she became a member of 
Leslie's choir. At one of his concerts she 
filled a vacancy caused by Mme. Sainton- 
Dolby's absence, and thus found an oppor- 
tunity for distinguishing herself. The pro- 
mise she exhibited was so marked that steps 
were taken immediately for furthering her 
musical education, and she became a pupil 
successively of Giro Pinsuti and Mme. Sims 
Reeves. In 1865 she made her first concert 
tour, travelling through the provinces with 
Mme. Lernmens-Sherrington and others. In 
the following year she married John George 
Patey, an operatic and oratorio singer of con- 
siderable reputation, and sang as principal 
contralto at the Worcester festival with a 
conspicuous success, which was repeated at 
Birmingham in 1867, and at Norwich in 
1869. Next year she stepped unopposed into 
the position of principal English contralto, 
left vacant by the retirement of Mme. Sain ton- 
Dolby. In 1871 she visited America with a 
number of distinguished vocalists, and on her 
return appeared with unfailing regularity at 
all the provincial festivals, and at the prin- 
cipal metropolitan and other concerts, with 
ever-increasing success. 

In 1875 she went to Paris, on the invita- 
ion of Lamoureux, the French musician, to 
take part in four performances on a grand 
cale of 'The Messiah' in French. There 
she received every mark of popular favour, 
and was engaged to sing at a conservatoire 
concert in the same year, when her per- 
formance of ' O rest in the Lord ' was so im- 
pressive as to lead the authorities to engage 
tier for a second concert. A medal, struck in 
commemoration of the event, was presented 
to the vocalist. In Paris Mme. Patey was 
favourably compared by the critics to the dis- 
tinguished singer, Mme. Alboni, and among 
Italian musicians she was generally known 
as the English Alboni. 

In 1890 Mme. Patey made a prolonged and 
triumphant tour in Australia, New Zealand, 
China, and Japan, and other countries. On 
her return to England she contemplated re- 
tirement from public life. At the end of 1893 
she began a farewell tour through the English 
rovinces. During its course she appeared at 
iheffield on 28 Feb. 1894; but the excitement 
of the enthusiastic reception accorded her 
brought on an attack of apoplexy, and she 
died in the concert-room. She was buried at 
Brompton cemetery on 3 March. 

Mme. Patey' s voice was a pure, sonorous 
and rich contralto, beautiful at its best in 
quality, and sufficiently extensive in compass 
to enable her to sing innumerable oratorio 
parts and ballads, in both of which she was 
for twenty-five years unrivalled. 

[Mme. Patey's death called forth warm eulogies 
from the press, the Times, besides a memorial 
notice (1 March 1894), devoting a leading article 
(2 March) to the immediate cause of her death ; 
and the other daily and weekly 'papers published 
memoirs. See also the American Art Journal, 
17 March; Musical Courier, New York ; Bir- 
mingham Weekly Post ; private information.] 

E. H. L. 


(d. 1666), divine, after apparently holding 
some benefice as a young man in the Eng- 
lish church (pref. to his Doctrine of Bap- 
tism], ' went out with other godly ministers 
to New England ' between 1630 and 1635. 
Soon after his migration he began to entertain 
doubts on the point of baptism, and 'resorted 
to many meetings [of the independents] to 
have good satisfaction of their doctrine and 
practice before joining with them in com- 
munion' (ib.} He heard one man preach 
fifteen sermons on the subject, and at 
the time ' knew not a single soul who op- 
posed infant baptism.' But after ' searching 
many authors night and day,' he at length 
experienced a mystical revelation of light 
which lasted for three days, and felt that a 



' true repentance was wrought in him. A 
warrant was out at the time to bring him 
before the general court of New England, 
and shortly after, when the first New Eng- 
land law was passed against baptists (13 Nov. 
1644), he returned to England. He was at once 
chosen as colleague or assistant to William 
Kiffin or Kifien [q. v.], pastor of the baptist 
church in Devonshire Square, London. He 
signed the 'Confession of Faith of those 
churches, which are commonly (though falsly) 
called anabaptists ; London, printed in the 
yeare of our Lord, 1644.' This was published 
mainly in answer to the ' Dippers Dipt,' &c., 
London, 1645, of Daniel Featley [q. v.] The 
preface to the second edition (1646) also bears 
Patient's signature, but before the third was 
published (1651) he had left London. Patient 
and Kiffen were unwarrantably accused by 
Thomas Edwards ( Gangrcena, i. 84) of laying 
hands on and anointing with oil one Palmer, 
a woman in Smithfield. 

Patient signed the ' Epistle Dedicatory ' 
to Daniel King's ' A Way to Sion,' London, 
1649, and he also subscribed an epistle en- 
titled ' Heart Bleedings for Professors' Abo- 
minations ' (London, 1650), from the baptist 
churches in London, directed specially against 
ranters and quakers. 

On 8 March 1649 Patient was chosen by 
parliament as one of the 'six able ministers' 
who were to be sent ' to dispense the gospel 
in the city of Dublin/ with a salary each of 
200/. a year, to be paid from the revenues of 
Ireland {Commons' Journals, vi. 379). Pa- 
tient accordingly accompanied the army to 
Ireland in June or July 1649, and was at- 
tached to General Ireton's headquarters. On 
15 April 1650 he writes from Kilkenny, 
shortly after its capitulation (28 March), of 
the kindness received from Cromwell, and of 
the success of his ministrations with Ireton's 
wife and Colonel Henry Cromwell [q. v.]; 
daughter and son of the Protector ( MILTON, 
State Papers, pp. G, 7). The following year 
he was with the army at Waterford, and 
soon afterwards settled in Dublin, where he 
became pastor of a baptist congregation, and 
chaplain to General John Jones (d. 1660) 
[q. v.], who had married Cromwell's sister 
(cf. JONES, Letters, Hist. Soc. of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, 1860-1, p. 216). He was ap- 
pointed by Jones, the deputy-governor, to 
preach before him and the council in the pro- 
testant cathedral of Christ Church, Dublin, 
every Sunday (NOBLE, House of Cromwell, ii. 
215). Crosby says he also founded the well- 
known baptist church at Clough Keating; 
but of this there appears no proof. 

A letter from Dublin on 5 April 1654 
(THURLOE, State Papers, ii. 213) speaks of 

an anabaptist congregation. ' of which Mr. 
Patience is pastor, from whose church those 
of profitable employment doe decline daily ; ' 
but Patient he^ds the list of 117 names ap- 
pended to an 'Address from the Baptised 
Christians in Dublin ' professing loyalty and 
attachment to the Protector, probably on 
the occasion of his refusing the title of king 
in 1657 (BROOK, Lives of the Puritans, iii. 
425). On 8 July 1659 Patient was described 
as ' chaplain to the general officers ' ( Col. State 
Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 13). He returned to 
England about 1660, and not long after went 
to Bristol as assistant to Henry Hynam (d. 
19 April 1679), minister of the first baptist 
church in the Pithay or Friars, now in King 
Street (FULLER, Rise and Progress of Dis- 
sent in Bristol, p. 215). During the mayor- 
alty of Sir John Knight [q. v.] at Bristol 
dissenters were sharply persecuted, and on 
4 Oct. 1663 Patient, with Thomas E wins and 
Edward Terrill [q. v.], was sent to prison for 
preaching. Patient remained prisoner at least 
three months, and at the next sessions was 
probably remanded for refusing to pay the 
fines imposed. 

In 1666 Patient returned to his former 
sphere in London, being set apart on 28 June 
1666 as co-pastor with William Kiffen at 
Devonshire Square Church. Hanserd Knollys 
and Kiffen performed the office of laying on 
of hands. The plague was raging all round 
the meeting-house, and within a month, on 
29 July 1666, Patient fell a victim to its 
ravages. His death, and burial on the succeed- 
ing day, are recorded with much solemnity in 
the church book of 1665. His will (P.C.C. 
132 Mico) was proved, on 2 Aug. 1667, by 
his widow, Sarah Patient, who was the sole 

Patient wrote ' The Doctrine of Baptism 
and the Distinction of the Covenants ' (an 
attack on infant baptism), London, 1654. 
This was answered in ' Caleb's Inheritance 
in Canaan. By E. W. [Edward Warren], a 
Member of the Army in Ireland,' London. 

[Brook's Lives of the Puritans, iii. 425, 426 ; 
Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting Churches, i. 431-3 ; 
Crosby's Hist, of Baptists, iii. 42, 43; Ivimey's 
Life of Kiffen, pp. 33, 35, 38, 93, and his Hist, 
of the English Baptists, ii. 326, 327, 328, 541, 
577 ; Records of Broad Mead, Bristol, 1846, pp. 
74, 75 ; Minute Book of Devonshire Square 
Church, per Kev. G. P. McKay, pastor; infor- 
mation from the Rev. E. B. Underbill; Confes- 
sions of Faith and other Documents, 1854, pp. 
17, 23, 310, 311-14, 326, 341 (two publications 
of the Hanserd Knollys Soc.); Fuller's Rise and 
Progress of Dissent in Bristol, pp. 38, 217, 218; 
Noble's House of Cromwell, ii. 215; Nickolls's 
Original Letters and Papers of State from the 




Collections of John Milton, 1743, pp. 6, 7 ; Pike's 
Ancient Meeting-Houses, pp. 34, 35 ; Wood's 
Condensed Hist, of the General Baptists, 1847, p. 
113; The Doctrine of Baptism, at Dr. Williams's 
Library, Gordon Square.] C. F. S. 

PATIN, WILLIAM (/. 1648-1580), 

historian. [See FATTEN".] 

1855), author, son of Peter Patmore, a dealer 
in plate and jewellery, was born in his father's 
house on Lu'dgate Hill in 1786. His mother 
was a daughter of the German painter 
Baeckermann, several of whose portraits are 
preserved in Hampton Court Palace. Patmore 
declined at an early age to accede to his father's 
wish that he should follow his own business. 
He adopted literature as a profession, became 
the intimate friend of William Hazlitt and 
Charles Lamb, and an active journalist and 
writer in London. In literary circles he was 
best known in connection with the ' New 
Monthly Magazine,' of which he was editor 
from Theodore Hook's death in 1841 until 
the periodical was acquired by W. Harrison 
Ains worth in 1853. Patmore was also a 
frequent contributor to the 'Liberal,' the 
' Westminster,' and ' Retrospective ' reviews, 
and to ' Blackwood ' and the ' London ' and 
' Monthly ' magazines in their early and best 
days. Several of Lamb's most characteristic 
letters were addressed to him, as were also 
the curious epistles subsequently collected 
by Hazlitt under the title of the 'Liber 
Amoris.' Patmore's two best-known works 
were: 1. 'Imitations of Celebrated Authors, 
or imaginary Rejected Articles,' London, 
1826, 8vo; a fourth edition appeared in 1844, 
with the title slightly modified and humorous 
preface omitted. The authors imitated were : 
Elia, Gobbet t, Byron, White, Horace and 
James Smith, William Hazlitt, Jeffrey, and 
Leigh Hunt. 2. ' My Friends and Acquaint- 
ances, being memorials, mind-portraits, and 
personal recollections of deceased celebrities 
of the nineteenth century, with selections from 
their unpublished letters,' London, 3 vols. 8 vo, 
1854. These gossiping volumes were filled 
with personal notabilia concerning Lamb, 
Campbell, Lady Blessington, R. Plumer 
Ward, H. and J. Smith, Hazlitt, Laman 
Blanchard, R. B. and Thomas Sheridan; and 
the critics of 1854 (especially in the 
' Athenaeum ' and ' North British Review,' 
May 1855) rebuked the author severely for 
their triviality and inconsequence ; while the 
fact that the praise so freely accorded to 
R. Plumer Ward was absolutely withheld 
from Campbell elicited a storm of comment 
in a correspondence which ran in the 
'Athenseum' for several months. Of the 


remainder of Patmore's works (several of 
which were issued anonymously and are 
difficult to trace) the more important were : 
3. ' Sir Thomas Laurence's Cabinet of Gems, 
with Biographical and Descriptive Me- 
morials,' 1837, fol. 4. ' Chatsworth, or the 
Romance of a Week,' 1844, 8vo. 5. 'Mar- 
riage in Mayfair,' a comedy, 1854, 8vo. He 
also wrote ' The Mirror of the Months,' 
1826, 8vo, and ' Finden's Gallery of Beauty, 
or the Court of Queen Victoria,' 1844, 8vo. 
Patmore died near Hampstead on 19 Dec. 
1855, aged 69. He married Miss Eliza Ro- 
bertson, and left, with other issue, Mr. 
Coventry Patmore, author of ' The Angel in 
the House.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1856, i. 206; Allibone's Diet, of 
English Literature; Lamb's Correspondence, ed. 
Ainger ; Hazlitt's Liber Amoris, ed. Le Gallienne ; 
Times, 23 Nov. 1892; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private 
information.] T. S. 


(1811-1874), author and diplomatist, son of 
Andrew Paton, saddler and government con- 
tractor, and Anne Gilchrist, his wife, was 
born at 75 Broughton Street, Edinburgh, on 
19 March 1811 (Edinburgh Parish Regis- 
ters). At the age of twenty-five he landed 
at Naples, and walked thence, with staff' and 
knapsack, to Vienna. Thereafter travelling up 
and down among the Eastern European states, 
and also in Syria and Egypt, he acquired an 
accurate and extensive insight into the man- 
ners, customs, and political life of the East, 
which, with descriptions of the countries 
themselves, he communicated to the public 
in an interesting series of books. In 1839- 
1840 he acted as private secretary to Colonel 
(afterwards Sir) George Hodges in Egypt, 
and was afterwards attached to the political 
department of the British staff" in Syria under 
Colonel Hugh Henry Rose (afterwards Baron 
Strathnairn) [q. v.], and was allowed the rank 
of deputy assistant-quartermaster-general. In 
1843 he was appointed acting consul-general 
in Servia, and in 1846 was unofficially em- 
ployed by Sir Robert Gordon, then ambas- 
sador at Vienna, to examine and report upon 
the ports belonging to Austria in the Adriatic'. 
In 1858 he became vice-consul at Missolonghi 
in Greece, but in the folio wing year was trans- 
ferred to Lubeck, and was on 12 May 1862 
appointed consul at Ragusa and at Bocca di 
Cattaro. He died on 5 April 1874. He 
married Eliza Calvert, and had issue. 

His works were : 1. ' The Modern Syrians, 
by an Oriental Student,' 8vo, London, 1844. 

2. ' Servia, or a Residence in Belgrade, &c., 
in 1843-4,' 8vo, 1845; 2nd edition, 1855. 

3. ' Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic,' 





2 vols. 8vo, 1849. 4. ' The Mamelukes : a 
Romance of Life in Grand Cairo/ 3 vols. 8vo, 
1851. It was republished in 1861 under the 
title ' Melusina : a New Arabian Nights' En- 
tertainment.' 5. * The Goth and the Hun, 
or Transylvania, Debreezin, Pesth, and 
Vienna in 1850,' 8 vo, 1851. 6. 'The Bul- 
garian, the Turk, and the German,' 8vo, 
1855. 7. 'Researches on the Danube and 
the Adriatic,' which is an adaptation of in- 
formation given in some of the previous 
works, 2 vols. 12rno, 1862. 8. < History of 
the Egyptian Revolution, from the Period 
of the Mamelukes to the Death of Mahom- 
med Ali,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1863. 9. ' Sketches 
of the Ugly Side of Human Nature/ 1867. 
10. ' Henry Beyle, otherwise De Stendhal/ 
8vo, 1874. 

[Prefaces to some of the above works ; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of English Literature ; Foreign 
Office List, January 1874 p. 153, January 1875 
p. 268.] H. P. 

PATON, DAVID (fl. 1650-1700), 
painter, executed portraits and medallions 
in the latter half of the seventeenth century. 
A portrait of General Thomas Dalyell or 
Dalziel [q. v.] at Binns, Linlithgowshire, is 
ascribed to him. Three groups, each con- 
taining five small medallion portraits (chiefly 
of members of the Hamilton family), which 
are at Hamilton Palace, Lanarkshire, bear 
his name and the date 1693. 

[Cat. of Loan Exhibition of Works of the Old 
Masters and Scottish National Portraits, 1883, 
1884: Bryan's Diet, of Painters, ii. 261.1 

H. P. 

PATON, GEORGE (1721-1807), Scottish 
bibliographer and antiquary, born in 172 1 , was 
the son of John Paton, a bookseller in Old Par- 
liament Square, Edinburgh, his mother being 
a granddaughter of George Mossrnan, printer 
to Queen Anne. After receiving a good edu- 
cation he became assistant to his father, and 
ultimately a partner with him in the business ; 
but about 1760 both were compelled to retire 
on account of having been engaged in a cau- 
tionary obligation which they were unable to 
meet. The son shortly afterwards obtained 
a clerkship in the custom-house, at first at 
a salary of only 30/., which was ultimately 
raised to 70/., but it was subsequently, in 
accordance with a new ordinance of govern- 
ment, reduced to 55. 

Notwithstanding his meagre income Paton 
succeeded by frugal living in acquiring an 
extensive antiquarian library and a valuable 
collection of antiquities. He is said to have 
been in the habit of going to his duties 
in the custom-house without tasting any- 
thing, and to have breakfasted between four 

and five in the afternoon on a cup of coffee 
and a slice of bread and butter. In the evening 
he usually adjourned, with others of similar 
literary tastes, to John Dowie's tavern, to take 
his bottle of ale and ' buffed herring/ or 
' roasted skate and onions.' As soon as the 
clock of St. Giles struck eleven he rose and 
retired to his house in Lady Stair's Close. 
Among others who used to meet him in the 
tavern was Constable the publisher, who 
states that he derived from him and David 
Herd ' a great deal of information on the 
subject of books in general, and the literature 
of Scotland in particular' (Archibald Con- 
stable and his Correspondents, i. 21). Both his 
library and his antiquarian and topographical 
knowledge were placed freely at. the service 
both of English and Scottish antiquaries. 

! Gough, in the preface to his second edition 
of ' British Topography /refers to the valuable 
assistance he had obtained * by the inde- 
fatigable attention of his very ingenious and 

; communicative friend, Mr. George Paton of 
the custom-house, Edinburgh.' Among others 

i who more or less were indebted to his com- 
munications were Lord Hailes, Bishop Percy, 
Ritson, Pennant, George Chalmers, and Davi d 
Herd. Two volumes selected from the ' Paton 
Correspondence/ preserved in the Advocates' 

, Library, Edinburgh, have been printed for 
private circulation the one consisting of 

i 'Letters from Joseph Ritson, Esq., to George 

i Paton/ 1829 ; and the other of ' Letters from 
Thomas Percy, John Callendar of Craigforth, 

| David Herd, and 'others to George Paton/ 
1830. Two large volumes of Paton's letters 
to Gough are also in the Advocates' Library, 
and have not been published. The only 

1 independent contribution of Paton to litera- 

I ture is the index to Lindsay of Pitscottie's 
' History of Scotland/ published in 1788. 
Although an indefatigable collector of books 
and antiquities, Paton saved 200/., but lost 
it after the age of seventy by the failure 
of the bank of Betham, Gardner, & Co. 
In 1800 Constable endeavoured to secure 
the influence of the Duke of Roxburghe 
on his behalf, but without success (ib. i. 
397-9). He died on 5 March 1807, at 
the age of eighty-seven. His books were 
sold the same year, the proceeds amount- 
ing to 1,358/., and his manuscripts, prints, 
coins, and antiquities were dispersed in 

There is a portrait of Paton in Kay's ' Edin- 
burgh Portraits.' A small portrait, a private 
plate, was executed in 1785, and a drawing of 
him in chalk is preserved by the Antiquarian 
Society of Edinburgh. Two portraits, by 
John Brown, are in the National Portrait 
Gallery, Edinburgh. 





[Kay's Edinburgh Portraits; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. x. 249, 509 ; Gent. Mag., 1807 
ii. 977, 1809 i. 348, 1812 i. 440; Archibald 
Constable and his Correspondents.] T. F. H. 

PATON, JAMES (d. 1596), bishop of 
Dimkeld, descended from the family of Bal- 
lilisk, Kinross-shire, was ordained minister of 
the parish of Muckart, Kinross-shire, in 1567. 
He purchased from the family of Douglas 
the small farm of Muchartmill, which the 
Earl of Argyll is said to have persuaded him 
to convey to him in return for the appoint- 
ment to the bishopric of Dunkeld, Paton also 
promising to give to the earl a certain share 
of the tithes (KEITH, Scottish Bishops, ed. 
Russel, p. 204). Paton succeeded Robert 
Crichton, who had joined the queen's party. 
It was Crichton, and not Paton, who, after 
the capture of the castle of Edinburgh in 
1573, was confined for some time in prison. 
Paton's letter of appointment to the bishopric 
was dated 16 Feb. 1572, and the letter of 
his consecration 25 July 1572. On 27 April 
1573 he took an election oath to King James 
as the only true and lawful sovereign (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl ii. 223-4). At a meeting of the 
general assembly on 26 Aug. he was delated 
for receiving the name and not exercising the 
office of a bishop within the bounds ; for not 
proceeding against papists, and chiefly the Earl 
of Atholl and divers others within his bounds ; 
for a simoniacal paction between him and the 
Earl of Argyll touching the bishopric, and 
for voting in parliament against the Act of 
Divorcement (CALDERWOOD, History, iii. 288). 
He confessed his oversight in not executing 
sentence of excommunication against Atholl 
and his wife, and was commanded to confess 
his fault publicly in the cathedral of Dun- 
keld on a Lord's day, in time of service (ib. 
p. 303). He first sat as a member of the 
privy councils March 1574-5. At a session 
of the assembly in August 1574 he promised 
to pronounce sentence of excommunication 
against John, earl of Atholl, within forty 
days ; nevertheless, at the meeting of the 
assembly in August 1575, the complaints 
against him were renewed, and a committee 
was appointed to reason with him (ib. pp. 
347-8). Finally, in April 1576, the assembly 
decreed that, having been found guilty of 
simony, he should be deprived of his office, 
against which decision Paton appealed to 
the lords of parliament (ib. p. 360). Decrees 
were further passed against him in 1580 
(&.p. 465) and 1582 (ib. p. 681), but he con- 
tinued to defy them. On 9 Feb. 1580-1 
the privy council decreed that ' as he had 
no function or charge in the Reformed Kirk 
of this realm/ and was thus less worthy 
to enjoy the patrimony of the bishopric, he 

should be required to provide out of it for the 
relief of his predecessor (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 
356-8). He was succeeded in the bishopric 
by Peter Rollock [q. v.] He died 20 July 
1596, and was buried at Muckart, where there 
is a tombstone to him with the following in- 
scription : ' Jacobus Paton de Middle Balli- 
lisk quondam episcopus de Dunkeld, qui 
obiit 20 Julii 1596.' He had a son Archi- 
bald, to whom the king made a gift, 20 May 
1574, of the altarage of St. Peter in Dunkeld 
for seven years, to enable him to study gram- 
mar in the school of Dunkeld. 

[Keith's Scottish Bishops; Scot's Fasti Eccles. 
Scot. ii. 776, 837 ; Melville's Diary (Bannatyne 
Club and Wodrow Society) ; Calderwood's and 
Spotiswood's Histories; Reg. Privy Council Scotl. 
vols. ii. iii.] T. F. H. 

PATON, JAMES (d. 1684), covenanter, 
was born at Meadowbank in the parish of 
Fenwick, Ayrshire, where his father had a 
farm. Until near manhood he was employed 
in agricultural pursuits. According to one 
account he went as a volunteer to Germany, 
and served with such distinction in the wars 
of Gustavus Adolphus that he was raised to 
the rank of captain. According to another, 
he was present with the Scots army at Mar- 
ston Moor. With the rank of captain, he 
fought with great gallantry against Mont- 
rose at Kilsyth, 15 Aug. 1645, and escaped 
uninjured during the flight. After the de- 
feat of Montrose at Philiphaugh on 13 Sept. 
he returned home to Fenwick. He took part 
with the people of Fenwick in opposing 
General Middleton in 1648. With other 
Scottish covenanters he, however, supported 
the king against Cromwell in 1650, and, 
accompanying him in 1651 into England, 
fought for him at the battle of Worcester on 
3 Sept. After the Restoration he fought, in 
command of a party of covenanting cavalry, 
on 28 Sept. 1666, at Rullion Green, where he 
had a personal encounter with Sir Thomas 
Dalyell [q. v.] He was also at the battle of 
Bothwell Bridge 22 June 1679: He was 
excepted out of the indemnities passed after 
both battles, but succeeded in lurking safely 
in various hiding places, until in 1684 he was 
taken in the house of a covenanter, Robert 
Howie. Dalyell on meeting him is said to 
have stated that he was both glad and sorry 
for him. The fact that he had fought for the 
king at Worcester atoned in Dalyell's eyes for 
much that was unjustifiable in his subsequent 
behaviour. He severely rebuked an insult 
that was offered him, and is supposed to have 
exerted special influence to procure his par- 
don. Lauder of Fountainhall mentions that 
Paton * carried himself very discreetly before 

D 2 



the justices ' (Historical Notices, p. 535). He 
was sentenced to be hanged at the Grass- 
market on 23 April, but was reprieved till 
9 May. He was then willing to have taken 
the test, but a quorum of the privy counci 1 
could not be obtained to reprieve him. 

[Howie's Scots Worthies ; Wodrow's Sufferings 
of the Church of Scotland ; Lauder of Foun 
tainhall's Historical Notices in the Bannatyn 


T. F. H. 

1889), general in the Indian army, son of 
Captain John Forbes Paton, Bengal engi- 
neers, born in 1821, was educated at the East 
India Company's military seminary at Ad- 
discombe, and in 1837 obtained a Bengal 
infantry cadetship. On 3 Oct. 1840 he was 
appointed lieutenant in the 14th Bengal native 
infantry, with which he served at the battle 
of Maharajpore in 1843, and in the Sikh 
war of 1845-6, being present at the battles 
of Ferozeshah and Sobraon (medal and two 
clasps), and in the expedition to Kat-Kangra 
under Brigadier Alexander Jack [q. v.] As 
a deputy assistant quartermaster-general he 
served in the Punjab campaign of 1848-9, 
and was present in the affair at Ramnuggur, 
the passage of the Chenab, and the battles 
at Sadoolapore and Chillianwallah, where 
he was severely wounded (medal and clasps). 
In 1850 he served with the expedition under 
Sir Charles James Napier against the Afri- 
dees, and was present at the forcing of the 
Kohat Pass, near Peshawur (medal). He 
became captain in his regiment on 8 Feb. 
1851, and received a brevet majority the day 
after for services in the Punjab in 1848-9. 
As brevet lieutenant-colonel and assistant 
quartermaster-general he served with the 
force sent to suppress the Gogaira insurrec- 
tion in 1857, where he commanded the field 
detachment from Lahore, which was three 
times engaged with the enemy. While Paton 
was thus employed, his regiment the 14th 
native infantry mutinied at Jhelum. He 
was appointed brevet colonel and deputy 
quartermaster-general in the Punjab in No- 
vember 1857. He joined the Bengal staff 
corps on its formation, and became a major- 
general on 29 Oct. 1866. He was quarter- 
master-general in Bengal in 1863-8, and was 
in temporary charge of a division of the 
Bengal army in 1870. 

Paton, who during his active career had 
been thirty times mentioned in despatches 
and orders, was made a C.B. in 1873. He 
became a general on the retired list on 1 Oct. 
1877. He married, in 1852, Wilhelmina 
Jane, daughter of the late Colonel Sir James 
Tennant, K.C.B., H.E.I.C.S. He died at his 

residence, 86 Oxford Terrace, London, W., 
on 28 Nov. 1889. 

Paton must not be confused with Colonel 
John Paton, a Bengal officer of earlier date, 
whose ' Tables of Routes and Stages in the 
Presidency of Fort William ' (3rd edition, 
Calcutta, 1821, fol.) went through several 

[Indian Registers and Army Lists, under dates'; 
Broad Arrow, 7 Dec. 1889, p. 687; Colonel Vibart's 
Addiscombe, 1894, p. 679.] H. M. C. 

PATON, MARY ANN, afterwards Mrs. 
WOODS (1802-1864), vocalist, the eldest 
daughter of George Paton, a writing-master 
at Edinburgh and an amateur player on the 
violin, was born in Edinburgh in October 
1802. Her mother, a Miss Crawford of Came- 
ron Bank, was a beautiful woman and a lover 
of music, and her grandmother, Ann Nicoll, 
had enjoyed the distinction of playing the 
violin before the Duke of Cumberland when 
on his way to Culloden. Mary Ann Paton 
and her sisters received a good musical train- 
ing, but the statement that Mary Ann com- 
posed songs for publication at the age of five 
may be doubted. At eight, however, she 
appeared at public concerts as a singer, per- 
former on the harp and pianoforte (Viotti's 
concerto in G), and recited Collins's ' Ode to 
the Passions ' and ' Alexander's Feast.' The 
family settled in London in 1811, and Miss 
Paton was heard there at the Nobility and 
some private concerts ; but it was soon de- 
cided that her health rendered a temporary 
retirement from public life desirable. After 
an interval of six years, during which Samuel 
Webbe, jun., gave her lessons on the harp 
and pianoforte, she began her career as a 
vocalist. In 1820 she appeared at Bath, and 
in 1821 at Huntingdon. 

In 1822 she joined the Hay market com- 
pany, and on 3 Aug. essayed the character 
and music of Susanna in the ' Marriage of 
Figaro.' This rather exacting part she per- 
formed to the satisfaction of critics, and she 
afterwards filled the roles of the Countess in 
the same opera, of Rosina in the l Barber of 
Seville,' of Lydia in ' Morning, Noon, and 
Night,' and of Polly in the ' Beggar's Opera.' 
Miss Paton afterwards distinguished herself 
at Covent Garden as Mandane in 'Artaxerxes,' 
Rosetta in ' Love in a Village,' Adriana in 
the 'Comedy of Errors,' and Clara in the 
Duenna.' The critics of the day warned her 
against exaggerated ornamentation, but her 
success was undoubted. A thoughtful ar- 
ticle written in 1823 says : ' She was gifted 
with extraordinary powers, not only as relates 
to the physical organ, but with an enthu- 
siasm, an intellectual vigour of no common 




kind. . . . Not yet twenty-one, yet her technical 
attainments, we are disposed to think, are 
nearly as great as those of any other vocalist 
in this country, with the slight reservations 
and allowances we shall make as we proceed. 
She is beautiful in her person and features 
. . .above the middle height, slender, and 
delicately formed ; her dark hair and eyes 
give animation and contrast to a clear com- 
plexion, and sensibility illuminates every 
change of sentiment that she has to express. 
. . . Her compass is A to D or E, eighteen or 
nineteen notes.' At that time her voice was 
not evenly produced. Her execution was 
facile, ' no difficulties appal or embarrass her. 
Even in Rossini's most rapid passages she 
multiplies the notes in a way few mature 
singers would attempt.' A plate is given to 
show her embellishments in Rossini's 'Tu 
che accendi.' ' Her manner, exuberantly 
florid, is the fault of her age, and in some 
sort, of her attainment. . . . She imitates 
Catalani . . .' 

Miss Paton's father had insisted on her 
breaking off an engagement with a young 
medical man named Blood, who went upon 
the stage for a short time under the name 
of Davis. Afterwards she became on 7 May 
1824 the wife of Lord William Pitt Lennox 
[q. v.], but from him she freed herself by 
divorce in the Scottish courts in 1831. In 
the same year she married Joseph Woods, 
a tenor singer. 

Her reputation as a dramatic singer was 
greatly enhanced when, in 1824, she took 
the part of Agatha in <Der Freischiitz.' A 
still greater triumph was her impersonation 
of Rezia in f Oberon,' of which Weber con- 
ducted the sixteen rehearsals, besides the 
performance on 12 April 1826, two months 
before his death. ' She was created for the 
part ; ' ' her enthusiasm for the music was 
great,' he wrote ; l she sang exquisitely even 
at the first rehearsal.' The ' Harmonicon ' 
declared that Miss Paton never sang with 
more ability and effect. From that time 
Miss Paton was considered at the head of 
her profession. She was not excelled by any 
contemporary in her mastery of the art of 

In 1831 she was engaged at the King's 
Theatre, where she sang in ' La Cenerentola' 
and other Italian operas. Returning to 
Drury Lane, she took the part in 1832 of 
Alice in * Robert le Diable.' She then went 
to reside at Woolley Moor, Yorkshire, with 
her husband. In 1840 they visited America 
for the first time. After their return Mrs. 
Woods retired to a convent for a year, but 
she reappeared at the Princess's Theatre and 
at concerts, in which her husband was also 

engaged. They finally settled at Bulcliffe 
Hall, near Chapelthorpe, and it was there 
that Mrs. Woods died, on 21 July 1864, aged 
62. She left a son, born in 1838. 

Her sisters were singers. Isabella made 
her d6but at Miss Paton's benefit at Covent 
Garden, 1824, as Letitia Hardy. Eliza sang 
at the Haymarket in 1833. 

[Diet, of Musicians, 1827, ii. 271 ; Georgian 
Era, iv. 309 ; Grove's Diet. ii. 672, iv. 745 ; 
Parke's Memoirs, ii. 203 ; Oxberry's Dramatic 
Biography, v. 19; Harmonicon, 1823, passim; 
Quarterly Musical Mag. v. 191 ; Weber's Life; 
Busby's Anecdotes, i. 46 ; Musical Recollections 
of the last Half Century, i. 68, 133; Aus Mos- 
cheles Leben, i. 120, 211 ; Clayton's Queens of 
Song, vol. ii.] L. M. M. 

PATON, RICHARD (1716 P-1791), ma- 
rine painter, was born in London about 1716. 
He is said to have been of humble birth, and 
to have been found as a poor boy on Tower 
Hill by Admiral Sir Charles Knowles [q. v.], 
who took him to sea. For many years he held 
an appointment in the excise office, and at 
the time of his decease was one of the general 
accountants. How he acquired his art train- 
ing is unknown. The earliest record of him 
as an artist is in 1762, when he exhibited 
with the Society of Artists two pictures, ' The 
Action of Admiral Boscawen off Cape Lagos,' 
engraved by William Woollett, and 'The 
Taking of the Foudroyant, in the Mediterra- 
nean, by the Monmouth,' which was etched by 
himself. These were followed from 1763 to 
1770 by nineteen other works; but in 1771, 
after a very angry correspondence, he re- 
signed his membership. About 1774 he 
painted four pictures representing the vic- 
tory of the Russian fleet under Count Orloff 
over the Turkish fleet at Cheshme Bay in 
1770, and soon afterwards five views of the 
royal dockyards, now at Hampton Court, in 
all of which the figures were painted by John 
Hamilton Mortimer, A.R. A. [q. v.] In 1776 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy views 
of Rochester and of Deptford dockyard, and 
between that year and 1780 thirteen other 
pictures of naval engagements and marine 

three of his pictures are in Greenwich 
Hospital : ' The Battle off Cape Barfleur be- 
tween the French and Combined English 
and Dutch Fleets, 19 May 1692 ; ' < The De- 
feat of the Spanish Fleet near Cape St. Vin- 
cent by Admiral Rodney, 16 Jan. 1780;' and 
' The Action off Sicily between the English 
and Spanish Fleets, 11 Aug. 1718.' In the 
Guildhall, London, are four pictures by him 
of the defence and relief of Gibraltar, and 
another of the lord mayor proceeding by water 
to Westminster, in which the figures are by 



Francis Wheatley, R.A. His works possess 
some merit, and were formerly very popular, 
as they represented most of the great sea-fights 
of his time. Some of them were etched by 
himself, and others were engraved by Wool- 
lett, Fittler, Canot, Lerpiniere, and James 

Paton died in Wardour Street, Soho, 
London, after a long and painful illness, on 
7 March 1791, aged 74. Edwards states 
that he was a man of respectable character, 
but rather assuming in his manners. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters, 1808, 
p. 165; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and En- 
gravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886-9, ii. 
261 ; Kedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the 
English School, 1878; Exhibition Catalogues of 
the Incorporated Society of Artists, 1762-1770 ; 
Eoyal Academy Exhibition Catalogues. 1776- 
1780.] B. E. a. 

PATON, WALLER HUGH (1828-1895), 
Scottish landscape-painter, son of Joseph 
Neil Paton and Catherine MacDiarmid, was 
born in Wooers-Alley, Dunfermline, on 
27 July 1828. In early years he assisted 
his father, who was a damask-designer in 
that town, but in 1848 he became interested 
in landscape-painting, and received lessons 
in water-colour from John Houston, R.S.A. 
In that year he exhibited his first picture, 
'The Antique Room, Wooers- Alley, by Fire- 
light,' which was hung in the Glasgow exhi- 
bition. Three years later his * Glen Massen ' 
was accepted by the Royal Scottish Aca- 
demy, of which corporation he was elected 
an associate in 1857, and a member in 1865. 
He contributed to the academy's exhibitions 
every year from 1851 till his death. In 1858 
he joined his brother, now Sir Noel, in prepar- 
ing illustrations for Aytoun's ' Lays of the 
Scottish Cavaliers,' ^published in 1863. From 

1859 onwards he resided in Edinburgh, but in 

1860 he stayed some time in London, making 
water-colour facsimiles of Turner's works at 
South Kensington, and in 1861 and 1868 he 
was on the continent with his brother and 
Mr. (now Sir) Donald Mackenzie Wallace. 
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
London, in 1862, and in that year he re- 
ceived a commission from her majesty to 
make a drawing of Holy rood Palace. He 
was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland (1869), an honorary member of the 
Liverpool Society of Water-colour Painters 
(1872), and a member of the Royal Scottish 
Society of Water-colour Painters (1878). 
During the last ten years of his life he was 
in bad health, and on 8 March 1895 he suc- 
cumbed to an attack of pleurisy, at his house, 
14 George Square, Edinburgh. "He was buried 
in the Grange cemetery there. 

In 1862 he married Margaret, eldest daugh- 
ter of A. J. Kinloch of Park and Maryculter, 
Aberdeenshire, and had by her four sons and 
three daughters. 

Paton was the first Scottish artist who 
painted a picture throughout in the open air. 
It was his custom to make water-colour 
sketches of his pictures ; these are preserved in 
four albums, in which he inserted notes. He 
found most of his subjects in the hill scenery 
of Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, and, in especial, 
Arran. The rich purple of the northern sunset 
was his prevailing colour eft'ect ; and he was 
pre-Raphaelite in his careful reproduction of 
natural detail, first seen most emphatically 
in ' The Raven's Hollow, or Slochd-a-Chrom- 
main.' His diploma picture, ' Lamlash Bay,' 
hangs in the National Gallery, Edinburgh. 
It has been often copied. 

[Scotsman and Glasgow Herald, 9 March 189o ; 
Catalogues and Reports of the Royal Scottish 
Academy and other exhibiting societies referred 
to above ; information kindly supplied by Paton's 
brother, Sir Noel Paton, R.S.A.] G. G. S. 

PATRICK (373-463), saint and bishop, 
born in 373, originally named Sucat (Welsh, 
Hygad, warlike), was son of Calpornius, a 
Scot,who was a deacon, and the son of Potitus, 
a priest. To this pedigree the Armagh copy of 
the i Confession ' and the ' Hymn of Fiacc ' add 
that the father of Potitus was Odissus, a 
deacon. The father, Calpornius, was a man 
of wealth and a decurion or magistrate of 
Ailclyde, now Dumbarton, then a British 
fortress garrisoned by Roman troops. He 
had a country house on the western coast, 
and there the boy Sucat was staying in 
389, when he was captured in a raid of 
the Picts and Scots. The Roman troops, 
who had occupied the territory from 369, 
had been withdrawn in 387. Sucat was 
carried ofF to the north of Ireland, and sold 
to Miliuc, chieftain of North Dalaradia in 
the county of Antrim. There he endured 
many hardships, tending cattle on the moun- 
tains and in the woods in the inclement 
winters of that region. When at home he 
had been careless in religious matters, but 
now a spiritual change passed over him, and 
lie became earnest in prayer. After six years 
of bondage he had a dream, in which he was 
told that he should return to Scotland, his 
native country ; and another, informing him 
that his ship was ready at a port about two 
hundred miles away. Leaving his master, he 
made his way to the port, found a ship getting 
under way, and was, with some reluctance, 
taken on board. The cargo was partly com- 
posed of the valuable Irish wolf-dogs which 
were a monopoly among the Irish princes, and 
were in great demand in the east, and, as the 




servant of Miliuc, Sucat had learned the way 
of managing them. After a voyage of three 
days the vessel reached its destination in the 
Loire, then the depot for the trade of the 
British Isles (RIDGEWAY). Thence the party I 
set out by the trade route across the forest [ 
or ( desert,' as he calls it, to Narbo or Mar- 
seilles, where trade with the east was carried ! 
on. Arrived at the end of their journey, \ 
Patrick's engagement was at an end, and he 1 
was free to devote himself to the missionary ! 
life on which his heart was set. 

On parting with his shipmates he was in 
the neighbourhood of Aries, and within 
reach of Auxerre and Tours, and could thus | 
take advantage of the schools of Gaul to 
remedy the deficiencies of his education. 
He does not mention with whom he studied. 
According to the ( Tripartite Life,' he went 
first to Bishop Germanus at Auxerre, and then 
to Martin at Tours. This is also the account 
in the ' Fifth ' life in Colgan, as well as in Joce- 
lyn. But it involves a gross anachronism, for 
Martin died many years before Germanus be- 
came bishop of Auxerre. Dr. Todd is evidently 
right in regarding Germanus's name as an in- 
terpolation. Martin of Tours without doubt 
was the master under whom Patrick studied. 
He is frequently mentioned in Irish litera- 
ture ; his gospel is said to have been pre- 
served at Derry, and his life, by Sulpicius 
Severus, accompanies that of Patrick in the 
1 Book of Armagh ; ' of Germanus little or 
nothing was known in Ireland. The time 
Patrick spent with St. Martin is stated by | 
Colgan and the * Third ' and ' Fifth ' lives in his 
collection as four years, which corresponds 
with his own account in the ' Confession,' 
that his stay abroad was only ' a few 

When Patrick returned to his parents in \ 
Britain, his mind was full of the project of | 
preaching to the Irish. In a dream a man 
named Victorious appeared to him and handed 
him a letter, inscribed ' The voice of the 
people of Ireland ; ' he seemed to hear voices 
from the west of Ireland, saying, ' Come, holy 
youth, and henceforth walk among us.' His 
parents and elders urgently advised him not 
to venture among the heathen Irish. Much 
affected by their entreaties, a further trial 
awaited him. He had told a friend, in con- 
fidence, of a fault committed at the age of 
fifteen, and this was made an objection 
to his consecration as bishop, apparently be- 
fore a British synod. He was thirty years 
old when the charge was revived against 
him, and had thus just arrived at the age 
for consecration. 

Here his personal narrative in the * Con- 
fession ' fails us. Of the extant ' lives,' the 

' Tripartite,' which is in Irish, is the most 
complete, and, with some additions and 
corrections from the ' life ' by Muirchu in 
the * Book of Armagh,' supplies the most 
trustworthy information accessible. We 
thus learn that he went abroad to be con- 
secrated a bishop by Amatorex or Amator, 
who, according to Probus and the scholiast 
on Fiacc's hymn, was bishop of Auxerre, 
who died in 418. On his consecration, he 
assumed the name of Patrick or Patricius. 
Returning to Britain, he stayed there for an 
uncertain period. At its close he set out for 
Ireland, accompanied by a missionary party, 
The date is matter of controversy. Dr. 
W r hitley Stokes calculates that he came 
( about 397; ' but as he was born in 373, was 
thirty years of age before his mission com- 
menced, and did not come directly to Ireland 
after his consecration, we shall be safer in 
adopting 405, the date given by Nennius. 
The erroneous postponement of the event to 
432 has led to much confusion. 

Landing at the mouth of the Vartry river 
in the county of Wicklow, and meeting with 
a hostile reception, he re-embarked, and, sail- 
ing along the east coast, touched at Inis- 
patrick, from which he passed on to Strang- 
ford Lough, where he landed. Dichu, the 
local chieftain, granted him a building known 
as the ' Sabhall ' or barn. Here he continued 
' a long time, sowing belief until he brought 
all the Ulstermen by the net of the Gospel 
to the harbour of life.' Among these was 
Mochaei [q. v.], whom he eventually ordained, 
giving him a book of the Gospel, a ' menis- 
tir,' and a crozier, named the Eitech. The 
menistir, from the Latin ministerium, was, 
according to Dr. Lanigan, a case containing 
' a copy of the Gospels and the vessels for 
the sacred ministry.' On similar occasions 
he sometimes gave l the seven books of the 
law,' i.e. the ' Heptateuch,' or ' the four books 
of the Gospel.' A journey to Tara and a 
conflict with the king and his Druids a 
story abounding in ' fables partly prodigious 
and partly ridiculous ' (LANIGAN) are said 
to have taken place at the first Easter after 
Patrick's arrival in Ireland ; but a calcula- 
tion (ToDD) shows that thus seven months 
only would be allowed for the conversion of 
all Ulster, which must have been the work 
of years. The visit to Tara could not have 
taken place until after 428. 

Patrick insisted on a strict discipline among 
his followers. Bishop Mel, one of his party, 
was left at Ardagh in the county of Long- 
ford, and was accompanied by a consort- 
sister, who resided with him. Unfavourable 
rumours of the relations between them reach- 
ing Patrick's ears, he came to make inquiry, 



when the lady presented herself carrying 
burning embers in her chasuble, as an evi- 
dence of her innocence. Nevertheless Patrick 
is credited with having formulated a canon 
at a synod which he is said to have held with 
his disciples Auxilius and Isserninus about 
450, to the effect that 'men and women should 
be apart, so that the name of the Lord may 
not be blasphemed.' At Magh Sleacht, on 
the borders of Cavan, was the idol Cenn 
Cruaich (British Pennocrucium ?), covered 
with gold and silver, with twelve lesser 
idols around it, covered with brass. It 
had fallen aslant, and the smaller figures 
had sunk into the ground up to their 
heads, an evidence of the decline of idolatry. 
Having founded a church here, he passed 
over the Shannon into Roscommon. There 
he purchased some land, which he paid for 
with a mass of gold, from which the place 
became known as Tir brotha, ' the land of 
the ingot.' One of the causes which con- 
tributed to the success of his mission was 
that he paid his way, as he mentions more 
than once in his * Confession.' He evidently 
came well provided with funds, and the ' Tri- 
partite,' exaggerating this, tells us that one 
of his prayers before he entered on his mis- 
sion was that the Lord would grant him ' as 
much gold and silver as the nine companions 
could carry, to be given to the Gael [Irish] 
for believing ' ! He was particular in re- 
turning gifts laid on the altar, he tells us, 
his object being to make it clear that he 
was completely disinterested. In the county 
of Roscommon he had an interview with 
two of the king's daughters, who, finding 
him and his party engaged in prayer by the 
side of a well in the early morning, asked 
them many questions about the God of the 
Christians. Ultimately they were instructed 
and baptised and received the Eucharist. 
They are said to have tasted of death, i.e. a 
death unto sin. The writer of the ' Tripar- 
tite,' however, took the words literally, and 
describes their immediate death and burial. 

In Magh Selga were three pillar-stones, 
probably objects of heathen worship, which 
Patrick appropriated to Christian use, by in- 
scribing them with the words Jesus, Soter, 
and Salvator, in memory of the three lan- 
guages on the cross. 

Passing on to Mayo, ' he left two salmon 
alive in the well of Aghagower, and they will 
abide there for ever.' Such sacred fish were 
popularly believed to be not uncommon in Ire- 
land. Thence he ascended Croagh Patrick in 
the county of Mayo, the scene of the legend of 
his banishing the reptiles related by Jocelyn. 
The latter terms it ' St. Patrick's Purgatory,' 
because any one who underwent the penance 

there was ' purged ' from all his sins, and would 
not ' enter hell.' The name was at a later 
date given to a cave on the island in Lough 
! Derg, which was known throughout Europe, 
i and quite superseded the original place of 
penance. The practice of well- worship which 
| he found prevalent he endeavoured to dis- 
courage, though he failed to suppress it. 

In Tirawley Patrick had an interview 
with the twelve sons of Awley respecting 
the division of their inheritance on their 
father's death. This is placed by Tirechan 
in the second year of his mission, which, ac- 
cording to the popular and erroneous date, 
would be 434 ; but in this and other matters 
that writer cannot be relied on. The ' Annals 
of the Four Masters ' place Awley's death at 
449. In Sligo Bron and MacRime, two 
bishops, apparently ordained by his followers, 
who were permitted to confer orders, came to 
him, and he wrote an ' Alphabet ' for them, 
probably an elementary treatise. On one occa- 
sion, while he was in retirement, * his house- 
hold were conferringorders and sowing faith/ 
and displeased him by consecrating an un- 
suitable person. Cetiacus and Sachellus at 
another time ordained ' bishops, priests, and 
deacons' without consulting Patrick, and 
were censured by him. One of Patrick's 
followers, Bishop MacCarthenn, held the 
office of ' champion,' part of his duty being 
to carry the saint on his back over difficult ( 
places. MacCarthenn was afterwards placed 
at Clogher as bishop, and Patrick gave him 
the * domnach airgid,' which Jocelyn terms a 
chrismatory. This curious relic is now in the 
Museum of Science and Art in Dublin. The 
conditions laid down by him for the episco- 
pate in the case of Fiacc, bishop of Sletty, are 
that the candidate must be ' of good appear- 
ance, well born, a man with one wife unto 
whom hath been born only one child.' On 
Fiacc's consecration he bestowed on him a 
crozier, a menistir, and a ' polaire,' or writing 

Patrick's religious observances are thus 
described : ' All the Psalms and Hymns and 
the Apocalypse, and all Spiritual Canticles 
of the Scripture, he chanted every day,' and 
from vespers on the eve of Sunday until 
the third hour on Monday he would not 

The change which Christianity produced 
in the demeanour of the fierce Irish chief- 
tains gave rise to the quaint story of Eoghan, 
son of Niall, whose appearance he improved 
at his request, after his conversion, by chang- 
ing his features and making him taller. 

It has been asserted that he spent seven 
years in Munster, but Dr. Lanigan could 
find no evidence of it ; while Professor 



Zimmer believes he only paid a flying visit 
thither. Local tradition attributes the chris- 
tianising of the southern coast to others, and 
particularly to Ailbe, Ciaran (Jl. 500-560) 
[q. v.], Declan [q. v.], and Ibhar [q. v.] 

It seems to have been at an early period 
that Patrick founded his first mission settle- 
ment near Armagh. Feeling the want of a 
centre for his work, he applied to Daire, the 
chieftain of the place, for a site on the hill. 
Daire refused this, but gave him a small fort 
on the low ground, where Patrick erected 
some circular or beehive houses. This was 
known as the Fort of Macha, and here he and 
his companions had their headquarters ' for a 
long time.' Ultimately Daire granted him 
Ardmacha, the hill or height of Macha, now 
Armagh, on which he built his church, which 
has since been the seat of the primacy. Ac- 
cording to Bishop Reeves, ' a long train of 
political and religious events ' probably inter- 
vened between these two grants. Sechnall 
or Secundinus, one of his chief assistants, who 
resided chiefly at the Fort of Macha, composed 
a panegyric on him, which is still extant, It 
is an alphabetical poem in Latin, descriptive 
of his character and teaching, and, like the 
1 Confession ' and ' Letter to Coroticus,' quite 
free from legendary matter. 

It was probably in Down or Antrim that 
the massacre of his Christian converts by 
Ceretic or Coroticus, king of Ailclyde, took 
place. In his letter to Coroticus he ex- 
presses deep indignation at the cruel out- 
rage, and recounts the denunciations of scrip- 
ture against the enemies of God. 

There is a strange conflict of opinion as to 
the year of Patrick's death. The popular date 
is 493, but its only foundation is the assump- 
tion that, having come in 432, he laboured 
sixty years; but 432 not being admissible, 
the date of 493 must be abandoned. Tire- 
chan and Giraldus Cambrensis give 458, 
the Bollandists 460, and Lanigan 465. The 
date*accepte/l by Mr. Stokes is 463, and is 
doubtless correct. The difference of opinion 
as to his place of burial is equally great. The 
places named are Saul, Downpatrick, Armagh, 
and Glastonbury , while several authorities say 
he was like Moses, as no one knew where he 
was buried. We may take the evidence of St. 
Bernard on this point as decisive. He was the 
friend and biographer of Malachy, archbishop 
of Armagh, and must have had the best infor- 
mation. His account is that the remains of St. 
Patrick were at Armagh in his time, i.e. the 
twelfth century ; and there is evidence that 
they were there long before that date. His 
grave was termed by Latin writers Lipsana 
Patricii, i.e. the tomb of Patrick, and by the 
Irish Ferta, ' the tomb,' a name afterwards 

given to the Fort of Macha, in which it was 
situated. Pilgrimages were made to it, and 
the psalms to be recited on such occasions 
are mentioned in the 'Book of Armagh.' 
The sacred objects associated with him were 
also preserved there ; they were his bell, his 
crosier, called the ' Bachall Isa,' or staff of 
Jesus, and a copy of the New Testament be- 
lieved to be his. The bell is in the Museum 
of Science and Art in Dublin ; the crosier 
was burnt at the Reformation ; the 'Book of 
Armagh ' is in Trinity College. 

Patrick's extant works are the ' Epistles/ 
consisting of the ' Confession' and the letter to 
Coroticus, and an Irish hymn, all of which 
are considered genuine. The canons of a 
synod attributed to him, Auxilius and 
Isserninus, have been published ; but they 
are admittedly interpolated, and in their pre- 
sent shape cannot be earlier than the eighth 
century. Two single canons are also attri- 
buted to him one relating to unity, the other 
to appeals to Rome ; the latter corresponds 
with a longer one in the ' Book of Armagh,' 
and is attributed to the eighth century by 
Mr. Haddan : a more exact calculation proves 
its date to be between 664 and 790 (His- 
tory of the Church of Ireland). A tradition 
names him as one of nine appointed to revise 
the pagan laws of Ireland, the result of their 
labours being the ' Senchus Mor ; ' but the 
form in which that collection now exists 
belongs to a later age. 

The systematic misstatements in the early 
' lives ' respecting the date of his mission were 
clearly introduced in order to give greater 
importance to Patrick's position. When the 
Irish came in contact with Augustine of 
Canterbury and his clergy, in the beginning 
of the seventh century, they seem to have felt 
that the learning and culture of those men 
who came from the capital of the world with 
the prestige of a papal mission threw into 
the shade their humble and unlearned saint. 
Hence a spirit of national pride led a party 
in the Irish church to ascribe to him a learn- 
ing he never claimed, and a Reman mission 
of which he knew nothing. Further, the 
Roman clergy were urgent in pressing their 
observance of Easter on the Irish church, 
and to this end it was important that Patrick 
should be supposed to have come from Rome. 
The special mission of Adamnan to Ireland 
in 697 on the Easter question gave a further 
impulse to this movement (ZIMMER). Pa- 
trick's stay in Gaul and his studies there were 
exaggerated and his travels extended to the 
islands of the Tyrrhene Sea and Italy. 

The new importance attributed to him de- 
manded a higher position for his see, and this 
is one of the objects with which the 'Book of 



Armagh ' was compiled, as Dr. Petrie lias 
shown, in 807. When the false theory of 
Patrick's Roman mission was fully developed, 
it was necessary to assign it to a later date 
than the authentic facts of Patrick's career 
warranted. For Prosper's l Chronicle ? autho- 
ritatively stated that Pope Celestine sent 
Palladius, whose mission failed, as * first 
bishop ' (' primus episcopus ') in 431 to the 
Irish, who at the time were believers in 
Christ (< ad Scotos in Christum credentes '). 
Patricks Roman champions consequently 
averred that Pope Celestine also sent him, 
and, if that were so, since Celestine died in 
432, that year must have been the date of 
Patrick's acceptance of his credentials. But 
the early biographers of Patrick perceived 
the further difficulty that if Prosper's account 
of Palladius were to be adopted, it followed 
that Ireland was a Christian country when 
Palladius arrived in 431, and that the con- 
version of Ireland could not therefore, on this 
evidence, be attributed to him, and still less 
to Patrick. To evade this inference another 
device was resorted to. Prosper's words 
were misquoted by Muirchu in the 'Book 
of Armagh,' who affirms that Palladius came 
1 to convert the island ' (' ad insulam con- 
vertendam'), and he having failed in the 
attempt, the work remained for Patrick. No 
one has hitherto noticed this perversion of 
Prosper's words. 

In order to meet another difficulty arising 
from the wilful postponement of his mission 
some thirty years, occupation had to be found 
for him during that period. According to one 
account he was engaged in study, in contra- 
diction to his own words; another says he 
was wandering in the islands of the Tyrrhene 
Sea a strange occupation for a missionary 
passionately eager for the conversion of Ire- 
land. In a like spirit the necessity of adding 
an additional tutor was acknowledged, for 
St. Martin flourished too early to act as 
Patrick's tutor at so late a period as 430 or 
thereabouts, and therefore Germanus was 
interpolated (ToDD) ; but, unfortunately for 
the credit of the writer, he is placed before, 
instead of after, Martin. Again, if the com- 
mencement of his mission was to be postponed 
from 405 to 432, Amator, who died in 418, 
was too early as his consecrator, and there- 
fore Celestine is joined with Amator, despite 
the date of the latter's death. 

Subsequently the ' Confession,' the ' Epistle 
to Coroticus,' and the early life by Muirchu, 
were all tampered with, chiefly by way of 
liberal excision, in order to bring them into 
conformity with the elaborated version of the 
life of the apostle, according to which his 
varied foreign experiences deferred his arrival 

in Ireland till he was sixty years old. A com- 
parison of the Armagh copy of the ' Confession ' 
with the four others preserved in France and 
England shows it to have been mutilated in a 
most thoroughgoing fashion for this purpose. 
Such were the methods adopted by the party 
who favoured the new tradition to destroy 
the evidence against it. Similarly, in the 
first draft of the ' Chronicle ' of Marianus 
Scotus (1072), Patrick was not said to have 
followed Palladius, but Marianus afterwards 
interpolated words to show that Patrick began 
his mission as Palladius's successor. The 
contrast between these misstatements and 
the genuine records led, at one time, to the 
belief that two persons were confused to- 
gether one the simple missionary of the 
Confession,' the other the great thaumaturge 
of whom so many marvels were told. Thus 
two Patricks came into existence, and two 
burial-places had to be invented, whence 
sprang the inconsistencies that characterise 
the traditional accounts of his tomb. The two 
Patricks appear for the first time in the ' Hymn 
of Fiacc,' where they are said to have died at 
the same time (WINDISCH). In this we see 
the idea in its rudimentary stage. A little 
later they are distinguished as Patrick Senior, 
or the elder Patrick, and Patrick the Apostle. 
Separate days were soon assigned to them ; 
but the apostle, with his ever-growing tale 
of miracles, became the popular favourite, 
while Patrick Senior gradually faded from 
view, and in the later literature is never 
heard of. 

Notwithstanding the insurmountable dif- 
ficulties which the apocryphal story of Patrick 
involves, it was successfully palmed off on 
the Irish people by an active party in Ire- 
land. This was rendered possible by the 
Danish tyranny and the exodus of learned 
men, for there was no one to criticise it until 
the revival of learning in the twelfth century, 
and then it was too firmly established to be 
overthrown. Patrick is usually termed 
apostle of Ireland; but as his labours did not 
extend to the entire country, it would per- 
haps be more correct to style him, with the 
'Annals of Ulster' and the poet Ninnine, 
'Chief Apostle of Ireland.' His day is 
17 March. But he was never canonised at 
Rome, and his acceptance as a saint is the 
outcome of popular tradition. 

[The Epistles of St. Patrick and other docu- 
ments in the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick 
(Rolls Ser.) ; St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, 
by J. H. Todd, D.D. ; Vita S. Patricii ex Libro 
Armachano, ed. E. P. Edmundus Hogan, S. J., 
Brussels, 1882; on the Patrician Documents, by 
Sir Samuel Perguson (Trans. Royal Irish Acad. 
vol. xxvii. No. 6) ; Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 




p. 30, n. IS; Jocelyn's Vita Patricii ; Boll. Act. 
Sanct. at March 17 ; Epistles and Hymn of St. 
Patrick, translated by Kev. T. Olden, 3rd edit. ; 
The Church of Ireland (series of National 
Churches) by the same, chap. ii. App. A ; On 
the Burial Place of St. Patrick, by the same ; 
Proceedings of Eoyal Irish Academy, 3rd ser. vol. 
ii. No. 4 ; On the Consortia of the First Order of 
Irish Saints, by the same ; Proceedings of Eoyal 
Irish Academy, 3rd ser. vol. iii. No. 3; Lani- 
gan's Eccl. Hist. vol. i. ; Zimmer's Keltische 
Studien, ii. 183; Professor Eidgway's Greek 
Trade-Eoutes to Britain (Folk-Lore Journal, 
No. 1); Irische Texte von Ernest "Windisch 
(Leipzig, 1880), p. 22 n. ; Ussher's Works, vol. 
vi. ; Martyrology of Donegal, p. 153; Skene's 
Celtic Scotland, vol. i. ; Memoir of Adamnan ; 
Eeeves's Columba, pp. xl-lxviii ; Nennius's His- 
toria Britonum; Todd Lectures, vol. iii. by 
Eev. B. McCarthy, D.D. (Eoyal Irish Academy, 
1892), p. 19; Petrie's History and Antiquities 
of Tara Hill (Trans. Eoyal Irish Academy), vol. 
xviii.] T. 0. 

PATRICK (d. 1084), bishop of Dublin, 
also known as Gillapattraicc, was an ostman 
of good family, who became a priest. In 1074 
the clergy and people of Dublin chose him 
to fill the see of that city, vacant by the 
death of Donatus. He received consecration 
at St. Paul's Church, London, from Lanfranc, 
archbishop of Canterbury, to whom he made 
a vow of spiritual obedience. It was part 
of William I's Irish policy to bring the Irish 
church under the control of the archbishop of 
Canterbury. For many years after Patrick's 
time the bishops of Dublin were consecrated 
by archbishops of Canterbury. Lanfranc 
mentioned Patrick with commendation as his 
fellow bishop in letters addressed to Godred 
and Tirdelvac, whom he styled kings of Ire- 
land. Patrick was drowned in October 1084, 
on a voyage to England. In a letter from 
Dublin to Lanfranc, Patrick, after his de- 
cease, was referred to as a good and pious 

[Ware's Ireland, ed. Harris, pp. 306-8 ; 
Sylloge veterum epistolarum, 1632; Lanfranci 
Opera, 1648 ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691 ; 
Annals of Ireland, 1851 ; Lanigan's Ecclesias- 
tical History, 1822, iii. 434-5, 457-8; Ba- 
ronius, Annales (1745), xvii. 606-7 ; Wilkins's 
Concilia, i. 361 ; Freeman's Norman Conquest, 
iv. 528-9; Annals of the Four Masters, ii. 981 ; 
Dalton's Archbishops of Dublin, 1838 ; Gilbert's 
Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey (Eolls Ser.), 
1884.] J. T. G-. 

PATRICK, JOHN (1632-1695), protes- 
tant controversialist, baptised on 14 April 
1632 at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, was se- 
cond son of Henry Patrick and Mary Naylor, 
and was grandson of Simon Patrick (d. 1613) 
[q. v.] He was educated at the school of 

Houghton Regis, and admitted toPeterhouse, 
Cambridge, on 7 Aug. 1661. He subsequently 
became a scholar on the foundation of Dr. 
Barnard Hall, and graduated B. A. 1665 and 
M.A. 1671. In September 1665 lie was ill 
of the plague (SIMON PATRICK, Autobio- 
graphy, p. 53). For a time he served the 
cure of Battersea on behalf of his brother, 
Simon Patrick (1626-1707) [q. v.], after- 
wards bishop of Ely (ib. p. 66). On the 
death of Shircross, preacher of the Charter- 
house, Patrick obtained the post, through 
his brother's influence, on 8 Dec. 1671 (ib. 
p. 66; SMTTHE, Hist, of the Charterhouse, 
p. 240). This office Patrick held, with other 
dignities, till his death. From 1 July 1685 
till January 1695-6 he was prebendary of 
the first stall of Peterborough Cathedral. 
On 29 July 1690 he was installed precentor 
of Chichester. On 19 Jan. 1688-9 .he seems 
to have preached before the Prince of Orange 
on the union of the protestant churches; 
the prince ordered the sermon to be printed 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. v. 93, vii. 

Patrick died on 19 Dec. 1695, and was 
buried in the Charterhouse chapel. By his 
will he left to his brother Simon ' a noble 
library, which cost him above 1,000/., and 
all that he was worth, except some legacies 
to some particular friends ' (SIMON PATRICK, 
Autobiogr. p. 174). 

John, like his brother, by whose reputation 
he has been unduly dwarfed, was among the 
foremost champions of the protestant against 
the catholic cause in the days of James II. 
His works, almost all anonymous, are note- 
worthy. They are: 1. 'Re flexions upon the 
Devotions of the Roman Church, with the 
Prayers, Hymns, and Lessons themselves 
taken out of their authentick Book. In 
three parts,' London, 1674 (anon.) ; re- 
printed, London, 1687 (parts ii. and iii. do 
not appear to be extant). 2. 'A Century of 
Select Psalms and Portions of the Psalms 
of David, especially those of Praise, turned 
into metre and fitted to the church tunes in 
parish churches, for the use of the Charter- 
house, London/ London, 1679, 8vo ; later 
editions, 1684, 12mo ; 1688, 12mo ; 1691, 
12mo; 1692, 16mo; 1694, 12mo; 1698, 12mo ; 
1701, 12mo ; 1710, 12mo; 1724, 12mo; 1742, 
12mo. These psalms were in high repute 
among many dissenting congregations ( WIL- 
SON, Dissenting Churches, iv. 35). 3. 'Tran- 
substantiation no Doctrine of the Primitive 
Fathers, being a defence of the Public Letter 
herein against " The Papist Misrepresented 
and Represented," part ii. cap. iii.' (anon.), 
London, 1687 [see under GOTER, JOHN]. 
4. ' A Full View of the Doctrines and Prac- 




tices of the Ancient. Church relating to the 
Eucharist wholly different from those of the 
present Roman Church, and inconsistent with 
the Belief of Transubstantiation ' (anon.), 
London, 1688. In a preface the^ author ac- 
knowledges the authorship of No. 3 supra. 
Reprinted in (Gibson's) 'Preservative against 
Popery,' 1738, fol. (vol. ii. tit, vii. pp. 176- 
252), and in John Cummings's edition of the 
' Preservative,' London, 1848 (ix. 89-299). 
The argument of Patrick's treatise has been 
recently reissued in ' The Witness of the 
Roman Missal against the Roman and Ritual- 
istic Doctrine of the Mass/ by Joseph Foxley, 
M.A., London, 1878. 5. ' The Virgin Mary 
misrepresented by the Roman Church in 
the traditions of that Church concerning her 
Life and Glory, and in the Devotions paid 
to her as the Mother of God ; part i. wherein 
two of her feasts, her Conception and Na- 
tivity, are considered,' London, 1688; re- 
printed in the ' Preservative against Popery,' 

Patrick contributed to ' Plutarch's Morals 
translated from the Greek by several hands,' 
1684-94 (cf. for Patrick's work i. 109 sq., 
ii. 112 sq., iii. 19 sq.) He also issued an 
abridgment of Chillingworth's ( Religion of 
Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation' (anon.), 
London, 1687, with some additional dis- 
courses of Chillingworth, printed from manu- 
scripts in the hands of Archbishop Tenison. 
Patrick is said to have undertaken the work 
at the instigation of Tillotson, Burnet, and 
Stillingfleet ; it was reprinted in 1845. 

[Graduati Cantabrigienses ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
12th Rep. v. 99, vi. 233, 7th Rep. p. 500; Acker- 
mann's Hist, of Colleges of Winchester, Eton, 
Westminster, and the Charterhouse, part iv. 
p. 28; Notes aud Queries, 2nd ser. vi. 297, 1st 
ser. iii. 214 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Stark's History of 
Gainsborough ; Gurnhill's Ljffe and Death Book 
of Gainsborough ; McClintock and Strong's 
Cyclop, of Bibl. and Eccl. Lit. ; information 
kindly supplied by James Porter, master of 
Peterhouse, and by the Rev. R. E.Warner, rector 
of Gainsborough.] W. A. S. 

PATRICK, RICHARD (1769-1815), 
classical scholar and divine, was son of 
Richard Patrick of Kingston-upon-Hull, 
Yorkshire, where he was born in 1769. He 
was educated in the public school there, and 
entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, on 
26 Oct. 1786 as a sizar. He graduated 
B.A. in 1791, and M.A. in 1808, and in 
the following year was vicar of Sculcoates, 
Hull. He also acted as chaplain to Anne, 
widow of George, first marquis Townshend. 
He died at his vicarage in February 1815, 
aged forty-five. Patrick published at least 
one sermon (Hull, 1809), and contributed to 

' The Classical Journal ' ' Remarks on Sir 
George Staunton's Penal Code of China' 
(1810, ii. 381) ; 'The Chinese World' (1811, 
iii. 16) ; f Notes on part of the poem of Fes- 
tus Avienus,' ' an account of a voyage to 
Cornwall, Ireland, and Albion, performed by 
Himilco, the celebrated Carthagenian ad- 
miral ' (iii. 141 sqq.) ; ' A Chart of Ten Nu- 
merals ' (iv. 105 sq.), followed by a descrip- 
tive essay. The latter was reprinted sepa- 
rately as ' A Chart of Ten Numerals in Two 
Hundred Tongues, with a Descriptive Essay/ 
London, 1812. It is an attempt, on a basis 
of comparative philology, at classifying the 
races of the earth. To E. H. Barker's edition 
of Cicero's ' De Senectute ' and ' De Amicitia ' 
of 1811 Patrick contributed ( an appendix, 
in which will be found remarks on the 
origin of the Latin conjunctions and pre- 
positions ; also some curious matter on the 
affinity of different languages, oriental and 
northern, to the Latin, including two essays 
on the origin and the extinction of the Latin 

[Information kindly sent by A. G. Peskett, 
master of Magdalene College, Cambr. ; Classical 
Journal, vols.ii.-iv.; Luard'sGrad.Cantabr. ; Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816.1 

W. A. S. 

PATRICK, SAMUEL (1684-1748), 
scholar, born in 1684, was for some years 
usher (i.e. second master) at the Charter- 
house. Late in life he was granted, it is said, 
the degree of LL.D. from St. Andrews Uni- 
versity and took holy orders, but received no 
preferment. He died at Kentish Town on 
20 March 1748. 

Patrick appears to have been a sort of 
Dominie Sampson, deeply read in the classics 
and ignorant and oblivious of most other 
matters. He established some reputation as 
a scholar by his ' Terence's Comedies trans- 
lated into English prose as near as the pro- 
priety of the two languages will admit,' Lon- 
don, 1745, 2 vols. 8vo, and his edition of 
Ainsworth's 'Latin Dictionary,' London, 
1746, 4to. He also edited < M. B. Hederici 
Lexicon Manuale Grsecum,' London, 1727, 
4to ; ' C. Cellarii Geographia Antiqua/ 6th 
edit. London, 1731, 8vo, and collaborated 
with George Thompson in the preparation of 
his ' Apparatus ad Linguam Grsecam ordine 
novo digestus/ London, 1732. Recensions 
of the ' Clavis Homerica,' London, 1771, and 
the ' Colloquia ' of Erasmus, London, 1773, 
also purport to be by him. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ; Scots Mag. 1 748, p. 153 ; 
London Mag. 1748, p. 141 ; Gent. Mag. 1748, 
p. 139 ; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope, 
* 307.] J. M. R. 




PATRICK, SIMON (d. 1613), translator, 
matriculated as a pensioner at Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, on 21 May 1561, and was a mem- 
ber at Elizabeth's visitation in August 1564. 
His grandson, Simon Patrick (1626-1707) 
[q.v.], bishop of Ely, describes him in his auto- 
biography as ' a gentleman of good quality,' 
in possession of ' an estate of between four 
and five hundred pounds a year,' who, being 
1 a person of religion and learning,' travelled 
1 in his younger days,' and ' translated two 
books in the beginning of the last century 
out of the french tongue, of which he was a 
perfect master.' His estate was at Caistor, 
Lincolnshire, where, in 1587, he lost his first 
wife, Mary, and in 1601 his second wife, 
Dorothea ; his third survived him. He was 
the father of fifteen children, of whom Henry 
was the father of the bishop and of John 
Patrick [q.v.] His will, in the preroga- 
tive court of Canterbury, is dated 12 Sept. 

Patrick published : 1. < The Estate of the 
Church, with the discourse of times, from the 
Apostles untill this present : Also of the lives 
of all the Emperours, Popes of Rome, and 
Turkes : As also of the kings of France, Eng- 
land, Scotland, Spaine, Portugall, Denmarke, 
c. With all the memorable accidents of 
their times. Translated out of French,' Lon- 
don, 1602, 4to. The dedication to Sir William 
Wray of Glentworth, Lincolnshire, is dated 
1564. The book is a translation of Jean Cres- 
pinV Etat de 1'Eglise des le temps des apotres 
jusqu'a 1560,'&c. 2. A discourse upon the 
meanes of wel governing and maintaining in 

S3od peace, a kingdome, or other principalitie. 
ivided into three parts, namely, The Coun- 
sell, the Religion, and the Policie, which a 
Prince ought to hold and follow. Against 
Nicholas Machiavell the Florentine. Trans- 
lated into English by Simon Patericke,' 
London, 1602 and 1608, fol. This is dedi- 
cated, August 1577, to 'the most famous 
yong gentlemen, Francis Hastings and Ed- 
ward Bacon.' It is entered in the ' Sta- 
tioners' Register' to Adam Islip, 9 Nov. 
1602. It is a translation of Innocent Gen- 
tillet's ' Discours sur les moyens de bien 
gouverner,' &c., originally published in 
Latin in 1571, and translated into French in 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 496 ; Bishop 
Patrick's Works, ed. Taylor, vol. i. p. cxxix, vol. 
ix. p. 107; Biographie Universelle, 1856 xvi. 196, 
1852 ix. 478.] E. B. 

PATRICK, SIMON (1626-1707), bishop 
of Ely, born at' Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, 
on 8 Sept. 1626, was eldest son of Henry 
Patrick, a thriving mercer, by his wife, Mary 

Naylor (see pedigree in Proc. Lincolnshire 
Architect. Soc. 1866, p. 274). John Patrick 
[q. v.] was his brother. He was educated 
at the Gainsborough grammar school under 
Merry weather, ' an excellent Latinist ' (PA- 
TRICK, Autobiography}, and was intended for 
business, probably his father's. But from his 
boyhood he determined to be a scholar ; and, 
apparently with little or no money to help 
him, made his way to Cambridge, entering 
Queens' College. He found a kind friend in 
the master, Dr. Herbert Palmer [q. v.], ' who,' 
he tells us in his ' Autobiography,' ' sent for 
me to transcribe some things he intended for 
the press, and soon after made me the college 
scribe, which brought me in a great deal of 
money, many leases being to be renewed. 
It was not long before I had one of the best 
scholarships in the college bestowed upon me.' 
His tutor was a John Wells, who ' showed 
extraordinary affection' for him. But the 
man who influenced him most was John 
Smith (1618-1652) [q. v.], the Cambridge 
platonist, then a young fellow of Queens'. 
After graduating B.A. in 1647-8 Patrick 
received presbyterian orders; but, having 
read the works of Hammond and Thorndike, 
he became convinced that episcopal ordina- 
tion was necessary. He proceeded MA. in 
1651, and in 1654 he sought out the ejected 
bishop of Norwich, Dr. Joseph Hall [q. v.], 
who privately ordained him in his parlour 
at Higham. In 1655 he became domestic 
chaplain to Sir Walter St. John at Batter- 
sea, and in 1658 (when he took the degree 
of B.D.) was appointed vicar of Battersea 
through the influence of Sir Walter. In 
1661 he was elected master of Queens' Col- 
lege by the majority of fellows, but a royal 
mandate in favour of Anthony Sparrow [q. v.] 
overrode Patrick's election. In 1662 he was 
presented by William, earl of Bedford, to the 
rectorv of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and 
there Patrick remained for nearly thirty years. 
He was an excellent parish priest, and greatly 
endeared himself to his parishioners by re- 
maining at his post all through the great 
plague of London in 1665. He had services 
in his church four times every day, and the 
offerings were so large that he was embar- 
rassed as to how to dispose of the money ; 
he warned the churchwardens that the offer- 
tories were not intended to relieve the rates. 
His success brought him offers of prefer- 
ment. In 1666 he took the degree of D.D., 
and by the advice of Dr. Willis was incor- 
porated of Christ Church, Oxford (July). In 
1669 the bishop of Lincoln (Dr. Fuller) 
offered him the archdeaconry of Huntingdon, 
which he declined, f not thinking himself 
worthy of it.' In 1671 he was made a royal 


4 6 


chaplain 'whether he would or no ; ' and in 
1672 Charles II gave him a prebend at West- 
minster. In 1679 he accepted the deanery 
of Peterborough, holding it with his living; 
but when later in the same year Lord- 
chancellor Finch offered him the rectory of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, then reputed to 
be the best living in England, he declined 
it on -the plea that 'his parish had been so 
extraordinary kind to him that he could not 
with decency remove from there to another ; 
he recommended Dr. Tenison/ who was ap- 
pointed. In 1686 James II selected him 
and Dr. Jane to hold a conference with 
two Roman catholic priests, Fathers Gif- 
ford and Godwin, for the benefit of Lord- 
treasurer Rochester, whom the king desired 
to convert to his own faith. In 1687 he 
founded, in conjunction with his neigh- 
bour, Dr. Tenison, excellent schools in Lon- 
don, with the object of keeping the rising 
generation true to the English church. In 
the same year he was among the most 
prominent of those who resisted the king's 
efforts to procure the reading of the declara- 
tion of indulgence in church. On the revo- 
lution of 1688 he took the oath of allegiance 
to the new sovereigns, though he respected 
the conscientious scruples of those who de- 
clined to take it. Bishop Burnet recom- 
mended him to King William as ' a man 
of an eminently shining life, who would be 
a great ornament to the episcopal order.' 
On 13 Oct. 1689 he was consecrated bishop 
of Chichester, and was made at the same 
time a member of the ecclesiastical commis- 
sion which was appointed to revise the 
prayer-book ; but the recommendations of 
the commission were happily rejected by 
convocation. On 22 April 1691 he was 
translated to Ely. In both dioceses, but espe- 
cially at Ely, where he remained for sixteen 
years, he made his mark. He was one of the 
chief instruments in that revival of church 
life which marked the late years of the seven- 
teenth century. He took a warm interest in the 
two great societies for the Promotion of Chris- 
tian Knowledge and the Propagation of the 
Gospel, both of which were founded during 
his episcopate. Of the former he was one 
of the five original founders, and of the latter 
he was so effective a supporter that it is 
supposed to have been in compliment to him 
that all bishops of Ely are ex-officio members. 
He died on 31 May 1707, and was buried on 
7 June in Ely Cathedral. 

Bishop Patrick was a voluminous writer 
in polemical theology, scriptural exegesis, 
and editicatory literature. One of his most 
interesting works was ' The Parable of the 
Pilgrim,' which was published in 1664. The 

insertion of the date 1663 in the original 
letter to the friend to whom it was written 
shows that it was completed by that year. 
It is constructed on similar lines to Bun- 
yan's ' Pilgrim's Progress,' but the dates 
show that Patrick was no borrower from 
Bunyan. Although Patrick's work never 
attained the popularity of the ' Pilgrim's 
Progress,' it passed through several editions. 
Thomas Scott, in his edition of the ' Pilgrim's 
Progress, commends Patrick's allegory. ' The 
Parable of the Pilgrim,' with an account of 
Patrick, by the Rev. T. Chamberlayne, was 
republished in ' The Englishman's Library ' 
in 1839. 

In polemical theology Patrick's chief efforts 
were produced in defence of the church of 
England against the Roman catholics. 
' Search the Scriptures, a Treatise shewing 
that all Christians ought to read the Holy 
Books' (1685, 1693), was his first work in 
this direction. ' A Full View of the Doctrines 
and Practices of the Ancient Church relating 
to the Eucharist ' and the ' Texts examined 
which Papists cite out of the Bible to prove 
the Supremacy of St. Peter and the Pope 
over the whole Church' both appeared in 
1688. They are reprinted in Bishop Gib- 
son's ' Preservative against Popery,' 1738. 
Patrick had already been engaged in contro- 
versy with adversaries from the opposite 
quarter. In 1 669 he published ' A Friendly 
Debate between a Conformist and a Non-con- 
formist,' in which he defended the Five Mile 
Act. He followed this up by a ' Continua- 
tion/ a ' Further Continuation/ and an ap- 
pendix to the third part, which contained 
replies to adverse criticism of the l Friendly 

An industrious and sensible commenta- 
tor on the Old Testament, Patrick issued 
a long series of volumes of paraphrases. 
'The Book of Job paraphrased' appeared 
in 1679 ; ' The Books of Psalms paraphrased ' 
in 1680 (2nd edit. 1691); 'The Proverbs 
of Solomon/ 1683, 8vo; ' The Book of Eccle- 
siastes and the Song of Solomon/ London, 
1685, 8vo. Subsequently Patrick's com- 
plete paraphrase and commentary on all the 
books of the Bible from Genesis to Solomon's 
Song (inclusive) were published, in 10 vols. 
4to, between 1695 and 1710. They were in- 
cluded in the popular 'Critical Commentary 
on the Old and New Testaments and Apo- 
crypha/ which combined with Patrick's work 
that of Lowth, W T hitby, Arnold, and Low- 
man, London, 1809, 4to ; later editions ap- 
peared in 1822, 1841, 1849, 1850, 1853, 1857. 

Patrick's chief works, besides those already 
described, were: 1. 'A Funeral Sermon 
preached at the Burial of John Smith/ 1652, 




4to (bound up with the 'Select Discourses' | 
of that preacher). 2. 'Aqua Genitalis : a Dis- I 
course on Baptism,' 1659, 12mo ; 1667, 8vo ; 
and 1670, 4to ; an amplification of a sermon 
preached at All Hallows' Church, Lombard | 
Street, on the occasion of the baptism of ! 
the infant son ' of a minister in Lombard 
Street ' [see VAUGHAN]. 3. ' Mensa Mystica,' f 
London, 1660, 1673, 4to, a treatise on the Eu- I 
charist ; like the preceding, written in a more j 
florid style than Patrick afterwards adopted 
when parochial experience had taught him | 
the value of simplicity. 4. 'The Heart's 
Ease, or a Remedy against Trouble, written 
for Lady St. John/ 1660, 1671, 1665, 1699, ! 
1839, and 1849. 5. ' A Brief Account of j 
the New Sect of Latitudinarians, together \ 
with some Reflections upon the New Philo- [ 
sophy, by S. P. of Cambridge, in answer to 
a Friend at Oxford,' 1662 (anon.) ; assigned ! 
to Patrick on both internal and external evi- 
dence. 6. ' A Book for Beginners, or a 
Help to Young Communicants,' 1662, which 
reached a seventeenth edition in 1713. 7. 'An 
Exposition of the Ten Commandments and 
the Lord's Prayer/ 1665, 1668, 1672. 
8. 'The Christian Sacrifice/ 1671, which 
reached a fifth edition 'corrected' in 1679, 
1684, 1687, 1841 (ed. the Rev. W. B. Haw- 
kins). 9. ' The Devout Christian instructed 
how to pray/ 1672 ; a book of family prayers, 
with private prayers for all emergencies. 
10. 'Advice to a Friend/ 1673; one of the 
most beautiful of all Patrick's writings, and 
worthy of being bound up, as it was in 
Pickering's ' Christian Classics ' in 1847, 
with Jeremy Taylor's ' Contemplations of the 
State of Man in this Life and that which is 
to come.' 11. 'The Witnesses of Chris- 
tianity, or the Certainty of our Faith and 
Hope'' (2 pts.), 1675-7, 1703. 12. 'The 
Glorious Epiphany/ 1675, 8vo. 13. ' A Trea- 
tise of Repentance and Fasting, especially 
of the Lent Fast/ 1686, Oxford, 1840. 14. 'A 
Discourse concerning Prayer/ 1686, 1705, 
1838, and 1849. 15. ' The Work of the 
Ministry represented to the Clergy of Ely/ 
1698, a new edition by W. B. Hawkins in 
1841. 16. < The Dignity of the Christian 
Priesthood/ 1704. He also translated Gro- 
tius's 'Truth of the Christian Religion/ 
1680, and issued in 1681 a corrected version 
of Simon Gunton's ' History of the Church of 

Besides these works, which were published 
in his lifetime, there appeared in 1719, twelve 
years after his death, a volume of attractive 
'Poems upon Divine and Moral Subjects, 
Original and Translations, by Bishop Patrick 
and other Eminent Hands.' His verse trans- 
lation of Aquinas ' Upon the Morning we are 

to receive the Holy Communion/ and his 
English version of the ' Alleluia ! Dulce Car- 
men' are especially noticeable. In 1863 was 
published by Harvey Goodwin, for the first 
time, the ' Appearing of Jesus Christ/ 
Patrick's ' Autobiography ' was first pub- 
lished from his own manuscript at Oxford* 1 
in 1839. 

' Fifteen Sermons upon Contentment and 
Resignation ' appeared, ' with an exact [but 
not exhaustive] catalogue of his works/ in 
1719. His chief works were collected (with 
the autobiography, but excluding the com- 
mentary and ' The Appearing of Jesus Christ ') 
in nine volumes by the Rev. Alexander Taylor 
in 1858. 

Kneller painted a portrait which was en- 
graved both by Vandergucht and R. White. 
A portrait by an unknown artist is at Lam- 

[Bishop Patrick's Works, passim, especially 
his Autobiography ; Hunt's Religious Thought 
in England; Overton's Life in the English 
Church ; Burnet's History of his own Time ; 
Chamberlayne's Memoir of Bishop Patrick in 
his edition of the Parable of the Pilgrim ; private 
information from Canon Warner, formerly vicar 
of Gainsborough.] J. H. 0. 

bishop of Chichester, was a native of York- 
shire, and was educated at Oxford, where he 
entered the Carmelite order. The letter 
which the Oxford friars addressed to John 
of Gaunt on 18 Feb. 1382 against the fol- 
lowers of Wiclif was sent by Patrington's 
hands. Patrington was one of the leading 
opponents of the lollards at Oxford, and, as 
a bachelor of divinity, signed the decrees of 
'the earthquake council' held at London 
in May 1382. He was one of those whom the 
chancellor, Robert Rigge [q. v.], was forbidden 
to molest on account of their activity against 
the lollards. On 14 Jan. 1389 Patrington, 
who was now doctor of divinity, had license 
to read and preach at Lincoln Cathedral in the 
absence of the chancellor. About this time he 
appears to have removed from Oxford to Lon- 
don, where he acquired a great reputation as 
a preacher. In 1399 he was chosen twenty- 
second provincial of the Carmelites in Eng- 
land at an assembly held at Sutton (Harl. 
MS. 3838, f. 90). According to Lezana, 
however (ap. VILLIERS DE ST. ETIEN^E), 
he was declared provincial of Lombardy in 
a general chapter held at Bologna in 1405, 
and named provincial of England in another 
chapter in 1411. Patrington enjoyed the 
favour of Henry IV, and also of Henry V, 
who shortly after his accession made 
him his confessor, and on 24 Nov. 1413 
granted him an annuity of 69/. 10s. 6d. 



In 1414 Patrington was employed as a com- 
missary at Oxford against the lollards. On 
1 Feb. 1415 he was provided to the bishopric 
of St. David's. On 6 April he received 
a grant of the temporalities of that see 
during the vacancy (Fcedera, ix. 217). On 
9 June he was consecrated by Archbishop 
Chichele at Maidstone, and on 16 June 
the temporalities were formally restored. 
Patrington is said to have afterwards gone 
to the council of Constance. In 1416 
he was offered the bishopric of Chiches- 
ter, but was at first reluctant to leave St. 
David's because it was poor. However, on 
27 Aug. 1416 he received the custody of the 
temporalities of Chichester (ib. ix. 384). On 
8 Nov. 1417 he had letters of protection, 
as he was going abroad with the king (ib. 
ix. 509). On 15 Dec. 1417 he was papally 
provided to Chichester. But he must have 
died very shortly after, or even before 
this, for his will, dated 16 Nov. 1417, was 
proved on 29 Dec., and application was 
made for leave to elect a successor at 
Chichester on 3 Jan. 1418 (ib. ix. 537). 
Bale and Weever, however, give the date 
of his death as 22 Sept. 1417. He is said to 
have been buried in the choir of the White- 
friars Church at London. Weever quotes 
his epitaph, beginning : 
Hie frater Stephanus de Patrington requiescit ; 
Nomine reque fuit norma, corona, pater. 

Walsingham describes him as a man learned 
in the Trivium and Quadrivium (Hist. Angl. 
ii. 300). Thomas Netter [q. v.] owed his 
early advancement to Patrington. 

Patrington is credited with the usual lec- 
tures on the sentences, determinations, and 
quaestiones, besides sermons and a commen- 
tary on the Epistle to Titus. He is also 
said to have written against the lollards, and 
especially against Nicholas of Hereford [see 
NICHOLAS]. Other writings ascribed to liim 
are: 1. ' De Sacerdotali functions.' 2. < Contra 
statutum parliament!,' in opposition to the 
law against the admission of any one under 
twenty-one years of age to the mendicant 
orders. 3. ' In Fabulas yEsopi.' 4. Com- 
mentarii in Theodulum,' i.e. a gloss on the 
pastoral poem 'Ecloga' of Theodulus Italus. 
Dr. Shirley has suggested that Patrington 
may have been the original author of the 
narrative which formed the basis of the ' Fasci- 
culi Zizaniorum ' [see under NETTER, THOMAS]. 
With this possible exception, none of his 
writings appear to have survived. 

[Bale's Heliades in Harl. MS. 3838, if. 
336, 90, 193-4; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 
681 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. i. 244, 296 ; 
Weever's Funerall Monuments, pp. 437-8; 

Villiers de St. Etienne's Bibl. Carmel. ii. 764-6; 
Godwin, De Prsesulibus Angliee, pp. 509, 582, 
ed. Eichardson; Kymer's Fcedera, orig. ed.; 
Fasciculi Zizaniorum, pp. 289, 295, 316, and 
Preface, p. Ixvii.] C. L. K. 

PATTEN, GEORGE (1801-1865), por- 
trait and historical painter, born on 29 June 
1801, was son of William Patten, a minia- 
ture-painter, whose works were exhibited at 
the Royal Academy between 1791 and 1844, 
and who died on 22 Aug. 1843. He received 
his early training in art from his father, and 
in 1816 became a student in the Royal Aca- 
demy, where he first exhibited a miniature 
of his father in 1819. In 1828 he took the 
unusual course of again entering the schools 
of the academy, in order that he might make 
himself proficient in oil-paint ing, the practice 
of which he adopted in 1830, in preference to 
that of miniature-painting. In 1837 he went 
to Italy, visiting Rome, Venice, and Parma ; 
and on his return to England he was elected 
an associate of the Royal Academy. Early 
in 1840 he went to Germany to paint a por- 
trait of Prince Albert, which was exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, and engraved by 
Charles Eden Wagstaff. He was afterwards 
appointed portrait-painter in ordinary to the 
Prince Consort, and obtained a considerable 
amount of patronage in the painting of pre- 
sentation portraits, many of which appeared 
in the exhibitions of the Royal Academy. 
Among these were portraits of Richard Cob- 
den, Lord Francis Egerton (afterwards Earl 
of Ellesmere), Dr. Hugh M'Neile, the Hon. 
and Rev. Baptist W. Noel, and Paganini the 
violinist, exhibited in 1833, and remarkable 
as having been the only portrait ever painted 
of the famous musician. He exhibited his 
own portrait in 1858. He painted also a 
number of mythological and fancy, and a few 
scriptural, subjects, among which were ' A 
Nymph and Child,' exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1831 ; ' A Bacchante' in 1833; 
' Maternal Affection ' and 'Cymon and Iphi- 
genia ' in 1834; * Bacchus and Ino' in 1836; 
* The Passions,' suggested by the well-known 
ode by Collins, in 1838 ; l Hymen burning the 
Arrows of Cupid ' and ' Eve ' in 1842 ; < Dante's 
Descent with Virgil to the Inferno' in 1843; 
' The Madness of Hercules ' in 1844 ; ' The 
Mouse's Petition ' in 1845 ; ' Pandora ' in 1846 ; 
' Cupid taught by the Graces ' and f Flora 
and Zephyrus ' in 1848 ; ' The Destruction 
of Idolatry in England ' in 1849 ; ' Susannah 
and the Elders 'and ' Bacchus discovering the 
use of the Grape ' in 1850 ; ' Love defending 
Beauty from the Assaults of Time ' in 1851 ; 
'Apollo and Clytie ' in 1857 ; 'The Bower of 
Bliss'in 1858 ; < The Prophet Isaiah' in 1860 ; 
and < The Youthful Apollo preparing to en- 




gage in a musical contest with Paris,' the last 
of his exhibited works, in 1864. Several of 
these appeared also at the British Institution, 
together with l Returning Home,' in 1833 ; 
'A Bacchante' in 1834; ' Venus caressing her 
favourite Dove ' in 1836 ; a Wood-Nymph ' 
in 1838; 'The Graces 'in 1840; and 'Bacchus 
consoling Ariadne for the Loss of Theseus' in 
1841. They were painted with a good deal 
of spirit, but his later works did not fulfil his 
earlier promise. 

During the latter part of his life Patten 
resided at Goodrich Cross, Ross, Hereford- 
shire, but before his death he returned to 
Winchmore Hill, Middlesex, and died sud- 
denly at Hill House, his residence there, on 
11 March 1865, aged sixty-three. 

[Art Journal, 1865, p. 139; Sandby's Hist, 
of the Eoyal Academy of Arts, 1862, ii. 211 ; 
Koyal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1819- 
1864 ; British Institution Exhibition Catalogues 
(Living Artists), 183*2-43.] K. E. a. 


WINMAELEIGH (1802-1892). [See WILSON- 

PATTEN, ROBERT (Jl. 1715), historian 
of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715, was at one 
time curate at Penrith, C umberland , but when 
the rising of 1715 took place was in a similar 
capacity at Allendale in Northumberland. 
He led thence a party of keelmen to join the 
insurgents, and in crossing Rothbury Com- 
mon met a number of Scotsmen on their way 
home to enlist for ' King James,' i.e. the 
Old Pretender [see JAMES FEANCIS EDWAED 
STUART]. He persuaded them to accompany 
him. On his arrival at Wooler he was 
warmly welcomed by General Thomas For- 
ster [q. v.] and James Ratcliffe, third earl of 
Derwentwater [q. v.], and was forthwith ap- 
pointed the general's own chaplain. March- 
ing with the expedition to Kelso, where the 
main body of the Jacobites joined them, he 
preached to the whole army a sermon, spe- 
cially intended to inspirit them for their en- 
terprise, from Deut. xxi. 17 : ' The right of the 
first-born is his.' 

Besides officiating as chaplain to the Ja- 
cobite forces, he took an active part in mili- 
tary service. When the expedition reached 
Penrith, he was, on account of his local know- 
ledge, engaged in an attempt to intercept 
William Nicolson [q. v.], bishop of Carlisle, 
at his residence, Rose Castle. He also acted 
at times as a spy. At Preston in Lanca- 
shire, where on 13 Nov. 1715 the insur- 
gents were defeated, Patten had his horse 
shot under him. He was there made pri- 
soner, and carried under a close guard to 
London. In the leisure of his confinement 


he made up his mind to turn king's evidence, 
and his offer was accepted (cf. DOEAN, Ja- 
cobite London, i. 118). It was in gratitude 
for his preservation that in the interests of 
King George he wrote his history. It was 
published in two editions in the same year' 
(1717), the second being enlarged. It is en- 
titled 'A History of the late Rebellion, with 
Original Papers and the Characters of th e prin- 
cipal Noblemen and Gentlemen concerned in 
it ; by the Rev. Mr. Robert Patten, formerly 
Chaplain to Mr. Forster.' Two subsequent 
editions, the third and fourth, were published 
in 1745. Patten figures as ' Creeping Bob ' 
in Sir Walter Besant's ' Dorothy Forster,' an 
historical novel of the Northumbrian share 
in the rising. 

[Patten's History as above; Lancashire Me- 
morials, Chetham Soc.] H. P. 

PATTEN, THOMAS (1714-1790), divine, 
the son of Thomas Patten, a grocer in Man- 
chester, was born on 5 Oct. 1714, and edu- 
cated at the Manchester grammar school, 
afterwards at Brasenose and Corpus Christi 
Colleges, Oxford. He graduated B. A. in 1733, 
M.A. on 17 Feb. 1736-7, B.D. in 1744, and 
D.D. in 1754 ; was for a time fellow and 
tutor of Corpus, and afterwards rector of 
Childrey, Berkshire. He was a friend of Dr. 
Johnson and of Thomas Wilson of Clitheroe, 
and was probably the means of the latter 
dedicating his ' Archaeological Dictionary ' to 
Johnson. He was esteemed as ( a sound and 
excellent churchman,' a poet and scholar, and 
an exemplary parish priest. He was married 
at Rostherne, Cheshire, on 25 April 1765, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Peter Brooke of Mere, 
high sheriff of Cheshire, and died at Childrey 
on 20 Feb. 1790. 

He published: 1. 'The Christi an Apology: 
a Sermon preached before the University of 
Oxford,' 1755. To this a reply was pub- 
lished by the Rev. Ralph Heathcote [q. v.] 
2. ' The Sufficiency of the External Evidence 
farther supported against the Reply of the 
Rev. Mr. Heathcote/ 1756. 3. < The Oppo- 
sition between the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
and what is called the Religion of Nature : 
a Sermon,' Oxford, 1759. 4. 'King David 
vindicated from a late Misrepresentation of 
his Character,' 1762 [see POETEUS, BEILBY]. 
5. ' A Letter to Lord North concerning Sub- 
scription to the XXXIX Articles,' 1773. 

[Raines's Vicars of Rochdale (Chetham Soc.), 
i. 168 ; Byrom's Remains (Chetham Soc.), ii. 
503 ; Wilson's Miscell. Correspondence (Chetham 
Soc.), p. 127 ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. Hill, iv. 
162; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Fowler's Corpus 
Christi College (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), p. 282 ; Foster's 
Lancashire Pedigrees; Finlay son's Brooke Genea- 
logy, 1869, p. 18 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] C. W. S. 




(d. 1486), bishop of Winchester. [See 

PATTEN, WILLIAM (ft. 1548-1580), 
historian and teller of the exchequer, was 
eldest son and third child of Richard Patten 
(d. 1536), a clothworker of London. The 
father was a son of Richard Patten of Boslow, 
Derbyshire, and a nephew of William Patten, 
alias Waynflete, bishop of Winchester. Wil- 
liam's mother, Grace, daughter of John Bas- 
kerville, died before her husband (GREGSON, 
Portfolio of Fragments, pp. 190-4, and Chet- 
ham Soc. Publ. Ixxxviii. 229). Patten appa- 
rently accompanied the expedition into Scot- 
land in 1548, and the Earl of Warwick, lieu- 
tenant of the host, made him * one of the 
judges of the Marshelsey.' William Cecil 
(afterwards Lord Burghley) [q. v.] went with 
him, and both, according to Patten, took notes 
day by day. Patten prepared an account of 
the expedition for publication, and obtained 
some aid from Cecil's diary. The work 
appeared as ' The Expedicion into Scotland 
of the most woorthely fortunate Prince 
Edward, Duke of Somerset, uncle unto our 
most noble Sovereign Lord yekinges maiestie, 
Edward the VI, goovernour of hys hyghnes 
persone,and protectour of hys graces realmes, 
dominions, and subjects: made in the first 
yere of his maiesties most prosperous reign, 
and set out by way of diarie by W. Patten, 
Londoner. Imprinted in London the last 
day of June, in the 2nd year of the reign of 
Edward VI.' It was reprinted in Dalzell's 
' Fragments of Scottish History,' Edinburgh, 
1798, and in Arber's ' English Garner,' iii. 
51-155, 1880. Patten's narrative was largely 
quoted by Holinshed, and was followed in 
Sir John Hayward's 'Life and Reign of 
Edward VI' (see Lit. Re mains of Edward VI, 
Roxburghe Club, pp. 215 seq. ; STRYPE, Eccl. 
Mem. n. ii. 180). 

In 1550 < William Patten, Esq.' was granted 
by Thomas Penny, prebendary of St. Paul's, 
the lease of the manor of Stoke Newington, 
and in 1565 the lease was renewed for ninety- 
nine years, to commence from Michaelmas, 
1576, at 19 " per annum. This property Patten 
assigned about 1571 to John Dudley (see 
WILLIAM ROBIXSOX, Stoke Newington, p. 28 ; 
and ELLIS, Campagna of London, p. 109). 
While lord of the manor of Stoke New- 
ington Patten repaired the parish church, 
which was in a ruinous state (1563) (ib. 
p. 199). Patten subsequently became one of 
the tellers of the receipt of the queen's 
exchequer at Westminster, receiver-general 
of her revenues in the county of York, cus- 
tumer of London outward, and a justice of 

peace for Middlesex (State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. xi. 101, 3 June 1563). On 19 Nov. 
1580 (ib. cxliv. 32) he wrote to inform Wal- 
singham as to the farming of the royal mines. 
No later mention of him is known (cf. Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 215; Hatfield 
Calendar, ii. 108). 

By his wife Anne, a daughter of one of 
the heiresses of Richard Johnson of Boston, 
Lincolnshire, Patten had seven children. An 
engraving of Patten, by J. Mills, is in Robin- 
son's { Stoke Newington,' p. 28. 

A contemporary named Patten was appa- 
rently rector of Newington, on William Pat- 
ten's presentation (see State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. Addenda, xi. 46), and was doubtless 
William's nephew. He wrote anonymously 
' The Calendars of Scripture, whearin the 
Hebru, Chaldean, Arabian, Phenician, Syrian, 
Persian, Greek, and Latin names of nations, 
contreys, men, weemen, idols, cities, hils, 
rivers, and of other places in the holly 
byble mentioned by order of letters, is set 
and turned into oour English toung,' 1575. 
Tanner wrongly ascribes this work to the 
elder Patten. It was compiled from works 
by Francis Ximenes and John Arquery of 
Bordeaux (cf. printer's preface, dated 19 April 

[Authorities quoted; Strype's Annals, n. i.744, 
Eccl.Mem. n. ii. 280 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert,!. 525 ; "West's 
Catalogue, p. 203 ; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of 
Anonym, and Pseudon. Lit. i. 301 ; information 
from the Eev. Prebendary Shelford, rector of 
Stoke Newington.] W. A. S. 

catholic controversialist, was a medical prac- 
titioner in the reign of James I, and was 
appointed physician in ordinary to Charles I. 
He wrote * The Image of Bothe Churches, 
Hiervsalem and Babel, Vnitie and Confu- 
sion, Obedienc [sic] and Sedition. By P. 
D. M.,' Tournay (Adrian Quinque), 1623, 
8vo, pp. 461 ; London, 1653, 12mo, pp. 643. 
Dedicated to Charles, prince of Wales. Gee, 
in his ' Foot out of the Snare,' 1624, men- 
tions the work as by ' M. Pateson, now in 
London, a bitter and seditious book.' The 
authorship is also ascribed to Pattenson in 
the preface to Foulis's l History of the Romish 
Treasons and Usurpations,' 1671 ; and by 
Wood, who states that the contents of the 
work were 'mostly collected from the an- 
swers of Anti-Cotton, and John Brierley, 
Priest ' (Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 139). 
Charles Butler highly commends the work, 
remarking that ' in a short compass it com- 
prises much useful information, and many- 
excellent observations, arranged methodi- 



cally, in a style always perspicuous, and 
generally elegant ' (Hist. Memoirs of the 
English Catholics, 3rd edit. iv. 453). 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 427; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. iii. 407, 469, 3rd ser. ix. 38.] 

T. C. 

1835), divine, born at Alnwick, Northum- 
berland, on 29 Jan. 1804, was son of Robert- 
Patterson of Croft House, Alnwick, who died 
while John was a child. His education de- 
volved therefore upon his mother, a daughter 
of John Brown of Haddington (1722-1787) 
fq. v.], editor of the ' Self-Interpreting Bible.' 
Mrs. Patterson was with her children in Edin- 
burgh from 1810 to 1814, and her son at- 
tended a classical academy there. From 
1815 to 1818 they lived in Haddington, Pat- 
terson making rapid progress in scholarship. 
Then they returned to Edinburgh, and for 
a year he was at the high school, under James 
Pillans [q. v.], achieving singular distinc- 

From 1820 to 1824 Patterson studied in 
the arts classes of Edinburgh University, 
excelling both in the class-rooms and the 
debating society, and displaying an unusual 
facility in composing Greek and Latin hexa- 
meters, and creditable English, verse. Com- 
pleting at Edinburgh his course for the minis- 
try of the church of Scotland, he secured in 
1827 the prize of one hundred guineas offered 
by the commissioners for visiting the univer- 
sities and colleges of Scotland for an essay 
' On the National Character of the Athenians 
andtheCauses of those Peculiarities by which 
it was distinguished.' This essay, which is 
marked by learning and considerable literary 
merit, was published in 1828. 

In the spring of that year Patterson became 
tutor to Lord Cranstoun, whom he accom- 
panied to Oxford. His diary and letters of 
this time exhibit an earnestness and wisdom 
remarkable in so young a man. At the 
Christmas recess of 1828-9 he was licensed 
to preach by the presbytery of Kirkcud- 
bright ; in 1829 he was presented to the 
vacant parish of Falkirk, and he was ordained 
to his charge by the presbvtery of Linlithgow 
on 26 Feb. 1830. Here" he proved himself 
an able, faithful, and zealous pastor. He 
died of overwork at his mother's house in 
Edinburgh on 29 June 1835, and was buried 
in the vestibule of Falkirk parish church. 
He was survived by his widow a daughter 
of George Atkin of Morpeth, Northumber- 
landand an infant son. 

Contributions which Patterson made to 
periodicals while he was between the ages 

of sixteen and twenty-four displayed true 
literary instinct and vigour of intellect. In 
1824-5 he provided classical translations for 
Williams's ' Views in Greece ; ' he contri- 
buted the memoir of Dr. John Brown to a 
Glasgow edition of the ' Self-Interpreting 
Bible ; ' he edited ' Beauties of Jeremy Tay- 
lor/ with introductory essay, in 1835, and he 
furnished notes to the ' Self-Interpreting 
Bible ' of 1836. His main literary achieve- 
ment is the university prize essay on the 
Athenians, which was reissued, with a me- 
moir, in 1860. Patterson's discourses, with 
prefatory biography, were published in two 
volumes in 1837. A volume of 'Lectures 
on St. John xiv.-xvi. ' appeared in 1840, 2nd 
edit. 1859. 

[Memoirs as in text ; information from Pat- 
terson's son, Mr. K. J. B. Patterson, L-ingside, 
Glasgow.] T. B. 

PATTERSON, ROBERT (1802-1872), 
naturalist, eldest son of Robert Patterson, a 
Belfast merchant, by Catharine, daughter of 
David Jonathan Clarke, K.C., of Dublin and 
Portarlington, and widow of a Mr. Keine of 
Dublin, was born in Belfast on 18 April 1802. 
He received his education there chiefly at the 
academy and at the Royal Academical Insti- 
tution. In 1818 he was apprenticed to his 
father's business. His leisure he devoted to 
the study of natural history, and especially to 
the investigation of the fauna and flora of the 
country around Belfast. In 1821 he joined 
seven other gentlemen in founding the f Na- 
tural History Society of Belfast/ which, under 
the name of ' The Belfast Natural History and 
Philosophical Society /still pursues a vigorous 
career. In connection with this society Pat- 
terson delivered numerous lectures, some of 
which were published. He was its president 
for many years, and took a foremost part in the 
erection of its museum in 1830-1. His con- 
nection with it for half a century was com- 
memorated in 1871 by the presentation to 
him of an illuminated address in recognition 
of his labours ' in popularising the general 
study of natural history and in advancing it 
to its rightful place as a recognised branch 
of school education.' 

His first work, 'Letters on the Insects 
mentioned by Shakespere/ the substance of 
which had been given in a series of lectures 
before the Belfast Natural History Society, 
appeared in 1838. In 1846 he published his 
1 Zoology for Schools, first part/ which was 
followed in 1848 by the second part, and 
later on by two small volumes, ' First Steps 
to Zoology: part i. Invertebrate Animals; 
part ii. Vertebrate Animals.' In 1853 ap- 
peared his large coloured 'Zoological Dia- 

E :! 



grams.' All these works had a very wide 
circulation, and gave a valuable stimulus to 
the study of zoology in schools. Patterson 
was also a frequent contributor to several 
scientific journals. In the Zoologist' he in 
1843 published a dissertation on 'The Rep- 
tiles mentioned by Shakespere.' He wrote 
also for the ' Magazine of Natural History,' 
and contributed papers to the Royal Irish 
Academy, several of which are preserved in 
its ' Transactions.' 

Patterson was one of the earliest and most 
zealous members of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and in 1839 
was appointed one of the secretaries of the 
section of natural history, an office which he 
held till 1844. When the association met 
in Belfast in 1852, he acted as local treasurer. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
and of several other learned bodies. 

In Belfast, where he enjoyed universal re- 
spect, Patterson meanwhile took an active 
part in the working of various local institu- 
tions. He was one of the founders of the j 
' Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals,' and a specially zealous promoter j 
of the interests of the ' Belfast Society for j 
Promoting Knowledge,' of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, and of his old school, the Royal 
Academical Institution. For twelve years, 
1858-70, he was one of the Belfast harbour 
commissioners. In 1865 he retired from busi- 
ness. He died on 14 Feb. 1872 at his resi- 
dence. College Square, Belfast. He was 
buried in the city cemetery, where a hand- 
some granite monument marks his grave. In 
the first presbyterian (unitarian) church, of 
which he was an attached member, there is 
also a mural tablet erected to his memory 
by his sons. 

Patterson married, in 1833, Mary Eliza- 
beth, youngest daughter of William Hugh 
Ferrar, stipendiary magistrate of Belfast. By 
her he had eleven children, six daughters and 
five sons. The latter all engaged in commerce 
in Belfast. An excellent work by one of 
them, Mr. Robert Lloyd Patterson, on ' The 
Birds, Fishes, and Cetacea of Belfast Lough,' 
is well known. Another, Mr. W. H. Patter- 
son, M.R.I.A., compiled a f Glossary of the 
Provincialisms of the Counties of Antrim and 
Down,' which was published by the English 
Dialect Society. 

[Information supplied by Mr. Richard Patter- 
son, J.P., and Mr. R. L. Patterson, J.P., sons of 
the subject of this notice ; oVntuary notice in the 
Northern Whig of 15 Feb. 1872 ; person^ know- 
ledge.] T. H. 


(1821-1886), journalist and miscellaneous 
writer, was born in Edinburgh in December 

1821, and educated for a civil engineer at 
the high school of that city. When quite 
young he entered the printing-office of his 
cousin, John Ball antyne, as a press corrector. 
In 1852 he left the printing business to be- 
come editor of the ' Edinburgh Advertiser.' 
In 1858 he removed to London as editor 
afterwards proprietor of the 'Press,' and in 
1865 he was appointed editor of the 'Globe ' 
newspaper; but he resigned the post in 186$ 
to join the board of referees appointed by par- 
liament to investigate and report upon the best 
means of purification of coal-gas in London. 
Chemistry had always been one of his favou- 
rite studies, and his scientific knowledge en- 
abled him to take a leading part in the pro- 
ceedings of the referees, which resulted in the 
discovery of the process still in use for the 
elimination of sulphur and ammonia impuri- 
ties from gas. 

In 1872 he proceeded to Glasgow as editor 
of the ' Glasgow News,' but his health broke 
down and he returned to London in 1874, 
where he resumed his literary work, contri- 
buting articles on politics, finance, science, 
and history to various magazines. In early 
life he contributed articles to ' Chambers's 
Edinburgh Journal,' and latterly he wrote for 
the ' Quarterly,' ' Blackwood,'* Bentley,' and 
the ' Dublin University Magazine.' 

He had gained a reputation as a financial 
expert, and was consulted by both the Bank 
of England and the Bank of France on finan- 
cial and currency questions, and was elected 
a fellow, and afterwards a member of coun- 
cil, of the Statistical Society. He died at 
Hammersmith on 13 Dec. 1886. He had mar- 
ried, in 1848, Georgina, daughter of Captain 
Thomson of Perth. 

Patterson was the author of : 1. 'The New 
Revolution ; or the Napoleonic Policy in 
Europe,' Edinburgh and London, 1860 (a 
work which attracted considerable attention, 
owing to the singular fulfilment, soon after 
publication, of several of its predictions). 
2. ' Essays in History and Art,' Edinburgh, 
1862 (reprinted from ( Blackwood's Maga- 
zine '). 3. ' The Economy of Capital ; or Gold 
and Trade,' Edinburgh, 1865. 4. < The Science 
of Finance,' Edinburgh, 1868. 5. ' Railway 
Finance,' Edinburgh, 1868. 6. < The State, 
the Poor, and the Country, including Sug- 
gestions on the Irish Question,' Edinburgh, 
1870. 7. ' Gas and Lighting ' (British Manu- 
facturing Industries Series), London, 1876. 
8. ' The New Golden Age and the Influence 
of the Precious Metals upon the World,' 
2 vols., Edinburgh, 1882. He was also the 
author of the following pamphlets : * Indian 
Politics : two essays on Self-Government in 
India and the Indian Land Question,' 2 pts. 





1864, 8vo; ' Municipal Finance ; the Gas and 
Water Supply of London,' 1867, 8vo; ' Gas 
Purification in London, including- a Complete 
Solution of the Sulphur Question,' Edinburgh, 
1873, 2nd edit. 1874; 'Robespierre: a Lyrical 
Drama,' 1877, 8vo ; and 'Light Theories: 
Suggestions for a New System of Cosmical 

[Irving's Eminent Scotsmen ; obituary notices 
in the Timesand the Athenaeum, December 1886 ; 
information supplied by the family.] G. S-H. 

PATTERSON, WILLIAM (1755-1810), 

traveller. [See PATERSON.] 

PATTESON, SIE JOHN (1790-1861), 
judge, second son of the Rev. Henry Patte- 
son of Drinkstone, Suffolk, by his wife, 
Sophia, daughter of Richard Ayton Lee, a 
London banker, was born at Coney Weston, 
Suffolk, on 11 Feb. 1790. He was at first 
educated at a school kept by his father's 
curate, a Mr. Merest, but afterwards went 
to Eton. His name first appears in the 
school lists in 1802, and in 1808 he was 
elected on the foundation. Dr. Sumner, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, was 
his tutor. At Eton he proved himself not 
merely a good scholar, but the best swimmer 
and one of the best scullers and cricketers 
in the school. In 1809 he went to Cam- 
bridge with a scholarship at King's, which, 
under the then existing privileges of king's 
scholars, entitled him to graduate without 
examination. He accordingly graduated 
B.A. in 1813, and M.A. in 1816. His uni- 
versity career was, however, distinguished. 
When the Davies university scholarship for 
classics was established, he was, in 1810, the 
first to win it, and in 1812 he was elected a 
fellow of his college. He hesitated for a short 
time between holy orders, law, and medi- 
cine ; but in 1813 he came to London and 
entered at the Middle Temple. In 1 815 he 
went on the midland circuit as marshal to 
Mr. Justice Chambre, read in the chambers 
of Godfrey Sykes, an eminent pleader, and of 
Joseph Littledale [q.v.], afterwards a judge. 
In 1821 he began practice on his own account 
as a special pleader, and was called to the bar 
in the same year. He joined the northern cir- 
cuit, and there, even against competitors such 
as Alderson and Parke, came to the front by 
dint of his skill in pleading. He was soon 
engaged in assisting Littledale in his work 
as counsel to the treasury. His progress was 
rapid. His best argument is said to have been in 
Rennell v.the Bishop of Lincoln (reported in 
7 Barnewell and Cresswell, p. 113). He was one 
of the legal commissioners on the reform of the 
Welsh judicature, whose report led to the act 
of 1830, by which three additional j udges were 

appointed one in the king's bench, one in 
the common pleas, and one in the exchequer ; 
and, though he had never been a king's coun- 
sel, Lord Lyndhurst, in November, appointed 
him to the newjudgeship in the court of 
king's bench, and he was knighted. For up- 
wards of twenty years he was one of the 
strongest, most practical, and most learned 
judges in that court. He had a vast memory 
and erudition, a lucid mind, gifts of clear ex- 
pression and an unfailing courtesy. 'Take 
him altogether,' says Sir Joseph Arnould, 
he was ' one of the very best and ablest 
judges that ever sat in Westminster Hall' 
(Life of Lord Denman, i. 419). Deafness 
at length compelled him to tender his re- 
signation at the end of January 1852. On 
2 Feb. 1852 he was sworn of the privy 
council, and for some years was able to serve 
as a member of its judicial committee. He 
also acted as a commissioner to examine 
into the state of the city of London in 1853, 
was frequently chosen arbitrator in govern- 
ment questions such as disputes between the 
crown and duchy of Cornwall, and between 
the Post Office and the Great Western Rail- 
way and his award terminated a long-stand- 
ing rating dispute between the university and 
the town of Cambridge. Failing health at 
last put an end to all j udicial work, and he died 
on 28 June 1861 at Feniton Court, Honiton, 
Devonshire, a seat which he had purchased 
in 1841. 

Patteson was twice married : first, on 
23 Feb. 1818, to his cousin Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of George Lee of Dickleburgh, Norfolk, 
by whom he had one daughter ; and after her 
death on 3 April 1820, he married, on 22 April 
1824, Frances Duke, daughter of Captain 
James Coleridge of Ottery St. Mary, Devon- 
shire, and sister of Sir John Taylor Coleridge 
[q. v.J, who died on 27 Nov. 1842. One of 
his sons by her was John Coleridge Patteson 
[q. v.], bishop of Melanesia. 

Patteson edited, in 1824, Serjeant Wil- 
liams's ' Notes on Saunders's Reports,' and 
the comments which he added are of very 
high authority. 

[Law Magazine, xii. 197 ; Law Times, xxxvi. 
434, 446 ; Yonge's Life of J. C. Patteson ; 
Foss's Judges of England.] J. A. H. 


(1827-1871), first missionary bishop in 
Melanesia, was elder son of Sir John Patte- 
son [q. v.] the judge, by his second wife, 
Frances Duke Coleridge. He was brought 
up at Feniton Court, where his family re- 
sided, so as to be near the home of his 
mother's relatives at Ottery St. Mary. After 
three years at the grammar school at Ottery, 




Patteson was placed in 1838 at Eton, under 
his uncle, the Rev. E. Coleridge, son-in- 
law of Dr. Keate, the former headmaster. 
At Eton, where Patteson remained till 1845, 
he was not in the first rank as a scholar, but 
he had great facility in writing Latin verses, 
and was 'sent up' twenty-five times. He 
was captain of the cricket eleven, a good 
speaker in the debating society, and showed 
much strength of character. From 1845 
to 1848 he was a commoner of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, under Dr. Richard Jenkyns 
[q. v.] He was not interested in academic 
studies, and only obtained a second class ; but 
he was brought into contact with Benjamin 
Jowett, afterwards master of Balliol, Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller, John Campbell Shairp 
[q. v.], Edwin Palmer, afterwards archdeacon 
of Oxford, James Riddell [q. v.], the Rev. 
John James Hornby, afterwards provost of 
Eton, and Mr. Charles Savile Roundell, who 
became his lifelong friends. After taking 
his degree in October 1849 he travelled in 
Switzerland and Italy, learned German at 
Dresden, and devoted himself to Hebrew and 
Arabic. His mind and character largely de- 
veloped; his intellectual and artistic tastes, 
which had hitherto been languid, were stimu- 
lated into activity, and his remarkable gift 
for languages declared itself. Returning to 
Oxford in 1852, he became fellow of Merton, 
spent the year 1852-3 in the college, where 
the settlement of a scheme of reform, con- 
sequent on the report of the university com- 
mission, was greatly aided by his wisdom 
and liberal temper. He was ordained in 
September 1853 to the curacy of Alphing- 
ton, a part of Ottery St. Mary, of which he 
was practically in sole charge. His influ- 
ence was beginning to be strongly felt, when 
the visit of George Augustus Selwyn [q. v.], 
bishop of New Zealand, in the summer of 
1854, determined his choice of a missionary 
career. He left England with the bishop in 
March 1855, and landed at Auckland in May. 
On Ascension day 1856 Patteson's first 
voyage to Melanesia began. The scheme of 
the mission, which had already been begun 
by Bishop Selwyn, was to take boys, with 
their parents' consent, from the islands, to 
instruct them daring the summer at the 
mission school in New Zealand, and to bring 
them back the next year to their homes. 
The school was at first at St. John's, some 
six miles from Auckland ; then at Kohima- 
rima, on an inlet of the harbour ; and later 
at Norfolk Island. This island had the ad- 
vantage of a warmer climate, of proximity to 
the Melanesian islands, and of being the home 
of thePitcairners, who, as descended from the 
mutineers of the Bounty and their Tahitian 

wives, had special qualifications for mis- 
sion-work. Patteson devoted himself to the 
Melanesian boyc;, teaching them at once the 
rudiments of knowledge, of civilisation, and 
of religion, which they imparted to their 
families and friends on their return. He 
refused to regard the natives as an inferior 
race, and he treated his classes as though 
they were formed of Eton boys. His Mela- 
nesian pupils appreciated his attitude, and 
his remarkable linguistic powers greatly aided 
him. He had studied the Maori language 
on his voyage out, and, although in Melanesia 
hardly any two islands have the same lan- 
guage, his special talent and the quickness of 
the boys overcame the difficulty. He selected 
the language of the island of Mota as most 
typical in point of idiom, and employed it 
in the school. 

In 1861 he was consecrated bishop, and 
took the sole direction of the mission, fixing 
his residence at Mota. The mission was sup- 
ported partly from his own funds he re- 
tained his fellowship at Merton to the end, 
and he made over to the mission the money 
left him by his father in 1861 partly by 
the Eton Melanesian Society, and partly by 
an association formed in Australia, which he 
visited from time to time. The members of 
the mission received no salaries, their wants 
being provided for by the mission funds. 
His influence grew rapidly. He was joined 
in 1863 by Mr. Codrington, fellow of 'Wad- 
ham College, Oxford; workers from St. 
Augustine's, Canterbury, and from among- 
the Pitcairners, placed themselves under him ; 
and some of his own pupils became mis- 
sionaries. The first of these who was ordained 
was George Sarawia, who had been for some 
time in charge of the mission at Mota. Patteson 
worked incessantly from 5.30 A.M. to 10 P.M., 
teaching, organising, and conducting divine 
worship. One moment would find him build- 
ing a house, another navigating his ship, or 
swimming or cooking, or teaching his scholars 
to tend sheep or pigs, or cutting out garments 
for either sex, or arranging a marriage and 
preparing for its celebration, or leading the 
cheer for the bride and bridegroom. He de- 
precated all haste in making conversions. 
At the same time his labours as a linguist 
were not neglected. He soon spoke readily 
no less than twenty-three languages. By de- 
grees the swarm of Melanesian dialects broke 
up into groups and families, and proved 
to be varying forms of one language. He 
used the most patient endeavours to fix the 
meaning of words, and came to the convic- 
tion that the simplicity of structure in the 
languages was compensated by strict rules, 
which enabled them to express all modifica- 



tions of time and place a conviction which 
he held also as to Hebrew, to the study of 
which he often reverted. He made and 
printed general vocabularies in three of the 
languages, and lists of interrogatives, pre- 
positions, and conjunctions in eleven; and 
translated into the Mota tongue, which he 
regarded as most typical, the third and fourth 
gospels and other parts of scripture. He 
stopped, however, deliberately short in the 
scientific part of the work, mainly because 
his time was absorbed by the mission. He 
turned resolutely to the use of the lan- 
guages for the purpose of teaching. ' These 
languages/ he said, ' are very poor in words 
belonging to civilised, literary, and religious 
life, but exceedingly rich in all that pertains 
to the needs and habits of men circumstanced 
as they are. I draw this inference : Don't 
be in a hurry to translate, and don't attempt 
to use words as (assumed) equivalents of 
abstract ideas. Don't devise modes of ex- 
pression unknown to the language as at 
present in use. They can't understand, and 
therefore don't use words to express defini- 
tions.' Under Patteson's rule the character 
of the natives was completely transformed. 
Their savagery disappeared, there was no more 
war ; and, after twenty years, out of a popu- 
lation of eight hundred in the chief island, 
Mota, all but forty were baptised. To this 
result Patteson's pupil, George Sarawia, the 
first Melanesian clergyman, largely contri- 

His interest in all that was going on at 
home was vividly maintained. He wrote 
regularly to his father while he lived, and to 
his sisters ; he read largely ; he kept up com- 
munication with many of his old friends ; he 
corresponded with Professor Max Miiller as 
to the Melanesian languages. He embraced 
enthusiastically Bishop Selwyn's plan of 
church government, under which every office- 
holder signed a pledge that he would resign 
his office when called upon to do so by the 
church synod or a court appointed by it ; and 
believed that by this instrument the eccle- 
siastical body could, not only in the colonies, 
but in England itself, act beneficially in in- 
dependence of the national organisation. In 
theological matters his sympathies were en- 
larged by his experience. Though sympa- 
thising with Pusey and Keble, and owing 
much to the latter, he criticised their ten- 
dencies and distinctly dissented from their 
views on the Lord's Supper. 

His life was often in danger, for though 
the natives respected him they were change- 
able and suspicious and without restraint. 
At Santa Cruz in 1864 he was attacked as 
he left the shore, and though he escaped, 

two of his companions, Edwin Nobbs and 
Fisher Young, were struck by the poisoned 
arrows, and died of tetanus. But these 
dangers were greatly increased by the abuses 
of the labour traffic in the Pacific. The 
planters in Fiji and Queensland required 
native labourers, and many of the islanders 
were willing to go to the plantations for a 
few years ; but unscrupulous traders lured 
away the islanders under false pretences, 
practically enslaved them, and at times used 
the bishop's name to attract victims. The 
bishop had never condemned the traffic, 
believing that it might be carried on honestly 
and with benefit to all parties ; but he de- 
sired that it should be subjected, as it was 
after his death, to regulation by the British 
government. He found that many of the 
islands were depopulated by this new slave 
trade, and he had joined in bringing some 
notorious offenders to justice. 

He visited the island of Nukapu on 16 Sept. 
1871, not knowing that an outrage had been 
committed on its inhabitants by some Eng- 
lishmen a few months before. He had once 
before been there, and he landed alone and 
unarmed. His friends, who were waiting 
for him in the ship's boat at the reef out- 
side the island, found themselves attacked 
by a flight of arrows, which wounded two 
of them ; and soon after a canoe floated 
out from the shore, in which was the dead 
body of the bishop, with a frond of palm tied 
in five knots. This was known to imply that 
he had been killed in revenge for five of the 
inhabitants. One of his companions, the 
Rev. Joseph Atkin, died of tetanus a few 
days afterwards. The members of the mis- 
sion prayed that there should be no retalia- 
tion ; but, unhappily, Captain Markham of 
the Kosario having gone to Nukapu to make 
inquiries, the natives, believing that he had 
come to avenge the bishop, fired on him, and 
drew upon themselves the penalty of this act. 
The death of the bishop, however, roused the 
Christian conscience in England. Its men- 
tion in the queen's speech at the opening of 
parliament led to the regulation of the labour 
traffic ; the mission was extended, and gained 
a new ground of appeal to the hearts of the 
Melanesians ; and his successor, Bishop John 
Selwyn, was able to show the men of Nukapu 
that they had, through a fatal error, slain their 
best friend. A cross erected by him on the 
spot where Patteson fell attests the martyr- 
dom of the missionary bishop and the recon- 
ciling power of his death. 

[Life by Miss Charlotte M. Yonge, 2 vols- 
1873, new edit. 1878; Life by Miss Frances 
Awdry under the title ' The Story of a Fellow 
Soldier,' 1875; Men of the Keign ; Heaton's 



Australian Dates and Men of the Time; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; personal re- 
miniscences.] W. H. F. 

PATTI, CARLOTTA (1835-1889), vo- 
calist, born at Florence on 30 Oct. 1835, was 
the daughter of a singer named Salvator 
Patti, a native of Catania (d. 1869), and of 
his wife, Catherine Chiesa, a Roman, whose 
first husband was Signer Barilli. Eight 
years senior to her more famous sister, Mine. 
Adelina Patti (b. 1843), Carlotta, after being 
grounded in the rudiments of music by her 
mother, began its serious study by learning 
the pianoforte under Heinrich Herz (1806- 
1888). But finding herself the possessor of 
a voice of more than ordinary capacity, she 
renounced the pianoforte in order to devote 
herself entirely to singing. 

After the removal of her family to the 
United States she made her first appearance 
in 1861 as a concert singer at the Academy 
of Music in New York, with pronounced suc- 
cess ; and in the following year she joined, 
with her brother Carlo (1842-1873), a vio- 
linist, Max Strakosch's concert party, then 
touring in North America. Coming next to 
England, Carlotta made her d6but in this 
country on 16 April 1863 at a concert at 
Covent Garden Theatre, when she attracted 
considerable attention; and on 9 May she 
created almost a furore at the Crystal Palace. 
After taking part in some fifty concerts, as 
well as singing before the court, Carlotta 
Patti spent a large part of the next six years 
in various continental tours, singing at Vienna 
in 1865, and again in 1867 at the Carl Theatre. 
During one of these tours a wealthy Walla- 
chian noble amateur once sent a coach-and- 
four with four men to meet the diva ; and when 
she complimented him on the good taste of 
his equipage, he replied, ' If it please you, 
madame, pray keep it, coach and men, in 
remembrance of the occasion.' The offer 
was declined. 

In 1869 Mile. Patti returned to America, 
and became the leading attraction of Stra- 
kosch's company, gaining especial praise for 
her singing of the part of the Queen of the 
Night in ' Die Zauberflote.' In the spring 
of 1870 she was in South America, where, at 
Buenos Ayres, she made almost her only ap- 
pearance on the stage, singing in Rossini's 
' Barber ' and in ' Don Pasquale.' A concert 
given later in the same country for the benefit 
of the sufferers in the "Franco-Prussian war 
realised a profit of sixty thousand francs. 
In 1872 she was singing with Mario in the 
United States, but from time to time she re- 
appeared in Europe, and sang at the London 
Philharmonic and other concerts. 

On 3 Sept. 1879 Mile. Patti married M. 

Ernest de Munck, solo violoncellist to the 
Grand Duke of Saxe- Weimar ; and from that 
date to her death, which took place from 
cancer, at her house in the Rue Pierre- 
Charron at Paris, on 27 June 1889, she retired 
from public life, though much of her time was 
devoted to teaching. 

Mile. Patti possessed a voice of quite ab- 
normal compass, which is said to have ex- 
tended to G in altissimo, but, though of great 
brilliancy, it was deficient in sympathy. Her 
style and execution were excellent and 
finished, and it was almost entirely due to 
lameness, the result of an accident, that she 
never attempted to take a more prominent 
place among operatic singers. 

[The Times and other daily papers, 29 June 
1889; the Musical World from 1869 to 1889, 
which closely followed in its reports from 
America and the Continent the performances 
of Mile. Patti ; Hanslick's Aus dem Concertsaal, 
Vienna, 1870, pp. 356, 441 ; Grove's Diet, of 
Music ; information kindly supplied by M. E. 
de Munck.] R, H. L. 

1858), metallurgical chemist, born on 25 Dec. 
1796, at Alston, Cumberland, was the son 
of Thomas Pattinson, a retail trader of that 
town, and his wife Margaret Lee. Both his 
parents were members of the Society of 
Friends. Hugh was educated at small pri- 
vate schools, but from an early age assisted 
his father, who died on 19 May 1812. He 
succeeded in acquiring a knowledge of elec- 
tricity, and when only seventeen constructed 
some electrical apparatus ; he also studied 
chemistry, especially in connection with me- 

About 1821 he became clerk and assistant 
to Anthony Clapham, a soap-boiler in New- 
castle. In 1 825 he obtained the post of assay- 
master to the lords of the manor at Alston 
(the Greenwich Hospital Commissioners), 
and returned to his native place. In January 
1829 Pattinson first discovered an easy and 
economic method of separating the silverfrom 
lead-ore, but owing to want of fund? was not 
then able to complete his researches. In 
1831 he was appointed manager to the lead 
works of Mr. Went worth Beaumont ; here, 
after further experiments, he perfected his 
process for desilverising lead, and finally 
patented it in 1833. The following year he 
resigned his post of manager, and, in part- 
nership with John Lee and George Burnett, 
established chemical works at Felling and 
(afterwards) at Washington, near Gateshead. 

Pattinson's process for the desilverisation 
of lead was a most valuable discovery, and 
permitted of the successful working of pre- 
viously neglected lead-mines. Before this 




invention it had always been thought that 
cupellation, the method of directly extract- 
ing silver from lead, could not be profitably 
conducted in the case of lead containing less 
than eight ounces of silver in the ton ; but 
by his process silver can profitably be ex- 
tracted from lead when present only in the 
proportion of two or three ounces to the ton 
of lead. Pattinson's process has led to the 
invention of the German verb l pattinsoniren,' 
and French substantive ' pattinsonage ' (for a 
full description of the process, with diagrams, 
see Percy's ' Metallurgy,' Lead, pp. 121-44). 
Almost equally important were two others of 
his discoveries: (1) a simple method for ob- 
taining white lead by a process (patented 
1841) which gave rise to the formation of the 
then new compound, oxychloride of lead; and 
(2) a new process (patented 1841) for manu- 
facturing ' magnesia alba.' Pattinson also first 
announced the discovery, from observations 
which had been made at a neighbouring col- 
liery in 1840, that steam issuing from an 
orifice becomes electrical, a phenomenon sub- 
sequently turned to account by Mr. (after- 
wards Lord) Armstrong in his hydro-electrical 

Pattinson had joined in 1822 the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Newcastle. He 
was vice-president of the chemical section 
of the British Association in 1838. a fellow 
of the Geological Society and of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, and was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society in June 1852. 

Pattinson visited America in 1839-40 to 
investigate a proffered mining speculation, 
which, however, turned out worthless, and 
he, with his party, had to decamp by night to 
escape the threatened violence of the dis- 
appointed proprietors. In 1858 he retired 
from business, and, in order to master astro- 
nomy, devoted himself to the study of ma- 
thematics and physics. The 7|-inch equa- 
torial telescope which he erected at his resi- 
dence, Scot's House, near Gateshead, was used 
by Piazzi Smyth. Pattinson died at Scot's 
House on 11 Nov. 1858. 

He was the author of eight papers on lead- 
mining and electrical phenomena that ap- 
peared in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' the 
' Transactions of the Northumberland Natu- 
ral History Society,' and in the ' Reports of 
the British Association.' 

On 25 Dec. 1815 he married Phoebe, daugh- 
ter of John Walton of ' The Nest,' Alston, 
having two days before been baptised into the 
church of England at the Angel Inn, when he 
took the additional Christian name of Lee in 
honour of his mother. 

[Percy's Metallurgy, 'Lead,' pp. 121-44; 
Lonsdale's Worthies of Cumberland, 1873, pp. 

273-320, with portrait; information kindly sup- 
plied by his daughter, Mrs. Newall ; English 
Cyclopaedia ; Roy. Soc. Cat.] B. B. W. 

known as SISTER DORA (1832-1878), philan- 
thropist, was tenth and youngest daughter 
of Mark James Pattison, rector of Haukswell, 
near Richmond, Yorkshire, who died on 
30 Dec. 1865. Mark Pattison [q. v.] was her 
brother. Born at Haukswell on 16 Jan. 1832, 
she resided with her parents till her twenty- 
ninth year, when, with philanthropic aims, 
she became village schoolmistress in the 
parish of Little Woolston, near Bletchley, 
Buckinghamshire. There she remained for 
three years, till 1864. In the autumn of 
1864 she became, in opposition to her father's 
wish, a member of the sisterhood of the 
Good Samaritan at Coatham, near Redcar, 
Yorkshire, and adopted the name of Sister 
Dora. In accordance with the rules of the 
order, she became a cook in the kitchen. In 
the early part of 1865 she was sent to Walsall 
to help in nursing at a small cottage hospital 
which had been established by the sister- 
hood there. In December 1865 the mother 
superior at Coatham cruelly refused her per- 
mission to attend her father's deathbed. 
She now set to work to become a good sur- 
gical nurse, and she was soon exceptionally 
skilled in the treatment of wounds and frac- 
tures. The patients were chiefly men and 
boys disabled by coal-pit accidents, or 
wounded by machinery in workshops. In 
1867 a new hospital was built, of which she 
had sole charge. Her power of work was 
very great ; her naturally exuberant spirits 
never deserted her, and a deep sense of re- 
ligion completely controlled her conduct. 
Her courage was as notable as her enthu- 
siasm. She did not scruple to attend the 
most virulent cases of smallpox, and regu- 
larly attended the post-mortem examinations. 
In this way she acquired an accurate know- 
ledge of anatomy, and could perform minor 
operations with dexterity. For a time she 
studied at the Birmingham Ophthalmic Hos- 
pital. She also trained lady nurses at Wal- 
sall. Grateful for her many services to 
them, the men of the South Staffordshire 
railway line in 1871 presented her with a 
carriage and a pony. During 1874 Sister 
Dora left the community of the Good Sama- 
ritan, and in February 1877 she resigned 
her connection with the cottage hospital of 
the sisterhood in order to take charge of the 
Municipal Epidemic Hospital in Walsall. 
The cases were chiefly smallpox. Full as 
her hands were, she found time to take part 
in missions to the unfortunate, and was 
never weary of trying to improve the con- 



duct of her poor neighbours. In the winter 
of 1876 she was attacked with cancer, but 
continued at the hospital until it was tem- 
porarily closed on 21 June 1878. On her 
deathbed Monsignor Capel visited her and 
vainly attempted to persuade her to be bap- 
tised into the church of Rome. She died 
at Walsall on 24 Dec. 1878, and was buried 
on 28 Dec. 

In remembrance of, and in gratitude for, 
her self-sacrifice, her portrait was placed in 
the board-room of the hospital, a fund was 
raised for sending patients to convalescent 
hospitals (an object which she had com- 
menced collecting for), a memorial window 
was placed in the parish church, and her 
statue, by Williamson, was unveiled at Wal- 
sall on 11 Oct. 1886. 

[Margaret Lonsdale's Sister Dora, 1880 (with 
portrait), People's Edition, 1887 (with portrait 
and view of monument) ; Ridsdale's Sister Dora, 
1880 , Sister Dora and her Statue, Walsall, 1886 
(with portrait and views of tombstone and 
monument); Memoirs of Mark Pattison, 1885, 
p. 3, &c.] G. C. B. 


(1791-1851), anatomist, born in 1791, young- 
est son of John Pattison of Kelvin Grove, Glas- 
gow, was admitted a member of the faculty of 
physicians and surgeons of Glasgow in 1813. 
He acted in 1818 as assistant to Allan Burns, 
the lecturer on anatomy, physiology, and 
surgery at the Andersonian Institute in that 
city, but he only held the office for a year, 
and was succeeded by Dr. William Macken- 
zie [q. v.] He proceeded to Philadelphia in 
1818, and there lectured privately on ana- 
tomy. In 1820 he was appointed to the 
chair of anatomy, physiology, and surgery in 
the university of Marylandin Baltimore, a 
post he filled for five years and resigned on 
the ground of ill- health. During this period 
he edited the second edition of Burns's ' Ob- 
servations on the Surgical Anatomy of the 
Head and Neck,' which was published in 
1823. Pattison returned to England in July 
1827. He was appointed, and for a short 
time occupied the important" position of, pro- 
fessor of anatomy at the university of Lon- 
don (now University College), acting at the 
same time as surgeon to the University Dis- 
pensary, which preceded the foundation of 
the North London Hospital. These posts 
he was compelled to relinquish in 1831, 
and in the same year he became professor 
of anatomy in the Jeafterson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, where he received the 
degree of doctor of medicine. He was ap- 
pointed professor of anatomy in the univer- 
sity of New York on the reorganisation of 

its medical department in 1840, a post he 
retained till his death on 12 Nov. 1851. He 
was author of ' Experimental Observations 
on the Operation of Lithotomy,' Philadel- 
phia, 1820; and of much controversial mate- 
rial of ephemeral interest. He edited in 
1820 the l American Recorder,' and the 
'Register and Library of Medical and Chirur- 
gical Science,' Washington, 1833-6; and 
was co-editor of the ' American Medical Li- 
brary and Intelligencer,' Philadelphia, 1836. 
He translated Masse's ' Anatomical Atlas.' 
He left a widow, but no children. 

[New York Journal of Medicine, 1852, new 
ser. viii. 143 ; Lancet, London, 1830-1. ii. 693, 
721, 753, 785; Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 196; addi- 
tional-information kindly contributed by Pro- 
fessor H. E. Clarke of Glasgow.] D'A. P. 

PATTISON, MARK (1813-1884), rector 
of Lincoln College, Oxford, and author, was 
son of Mark James Pattison (d. 1865), for 
many years rector of Haukswell, Yorkshire, 
by Jane, daughter of Francis Winn of Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire, banker. Born on 10 Oct. 
1813 at Hornby in the North Riding, where 
his father was then curate in charge, Mark 
was the eldest of twelve children, ten of 
them daughters, the youngest being well 
known as Sister Dora [see PATTISON, DO- 
ROTHY]. His father, a strict evangelical, 
but a fair scholar, gave him, first at Hornby 
and afterwards at Haukswell, all his educa- 
tion before he proceeded to the university, 
and grounded him well in Latin, Greek, and 
mathematics. Literature and learning were 
his delight from an early age. But in his 
youth he was by no means a bookworm, and 
up to middle age he was a good rider, an 
enthusiastic fisherman, and an eager student 
of natural history. Brought up in a retired 
village, among a large family of sisters, and 
mixing very little with other 'boys, he became 
morbidly shy, sensitive, and self-conscious. 
On 5 April 1832 he matriculated from Oriel 
College, Oxford, and found himself in a world 
which was wholly different from what he 
had expected, and where he was surpassed iri 
everything and on every occasion by those 
whom he felt to be in all real respects his 
inferiors. His undergraduate course at Oriel 
was at an unfortunate time. Edward Haw- 
kins (1789-1882) [q. v.] had succeeded Ed- 
ward Copleston [q. v.] as provost, and had got 
rid of Newman, Hurrell Fronde, and Robert 
Wilberforce, the tutors to whom the repu- 
tation of the college was largely owing, and 
had replaced them by less able but more sub- 
servient men. The college lectures taught 
Pattison nothing (cf. MOZLEY, Reminiscences, 
i. 237). In his second year he was ' put into 




Aristotle's Rhetoric ; but such a lecture ! 
the tutor incapable of explaining any diffi- 
culty, and barely able to translate the Greek, 
even with the aid of a crib ' (PATTISON, Me- 
moirs, p. 130). He missed the first class, 
which had been the object of his and his 
father's ambition. In the class list of Easter 
term 1836 his name appeared in the second 
class in classical honours. In fact, though 
wholly devoted to study, his reading had 
been at once too discursive and too thorough. 
Instead of confining his attention to the 
rigidly orthodox and narrow list of books 
usually taken up, he ' frittered away time 
over outlying books Lysias, Cicero de Legi- 
bus, Terence, and other feather-weights 
which counted for nothing in the schools, 
but with which I had the whim to load my 
list' (Memoirs, p. 150). Nor had he con- 
fined his reading to classics. During his 
undergraduate course he had been a dili- 
gent student of English literature, had spent 
much time upon the Pope-Addison-Swift 
circle, and had laid the foundation of his 
interest in eighteenth-century speculation. 

Pattison graduated B.A. in 1836 and M.A. 
in 1840. In the meantime he had abandoned 
the narrow evangelical views in which he 
had been brought up, and had fallen under 
the influence of Newman. For some time in 
1838-9 he lived with other young men in 
Newman's house in St. Aldate's, and aided 
in the translation of Thomas Aquinas's ' Ca- 
tena Aurea on the Gospels.' ' St. Matthew ' 
was Pattison's work. 

In April 1838 he stood for a fellowship at 
Oriel, in June at University, in November 
at Balliol, but each time without success. 
He was in despair. His ' darling hope of 
leading a life of study as a fellow seemed 
completely blocked.' At last, in November 
1839, he was elected to a fellowship at Lin- 
coln. ' No moment in all my life has ever j 
been so sweet as that Friday morning, 8 Nov.,' 
when his election was announced (Memoirs, 
p. 183). At Lincoln he at first found himself 
even less at home than at Oriel. It was a 
rigidly anti-Puseyite college, characterised 
indeed by no evangelical fervour, but of the 
type known some years later as ' low and slow.' 
In all respects the college was at a low ebb. 
Pattison became more and more devoted 
to Newman, and was for some years ' a 
pronounced Puseyite, daily reciting the 
hours of the Roman, breviary, and once get- 
ting so low by fostering a morbid state of 
conscience as to go to confession to Dr. 
Pusey ' (ib. p. 189). In 1841 he was ordained 
deacon, and in 1843 priest. He obtained the 
Denver theological prize in 1841, and again 
in 1842, the subjects being respectively ' The 

Sufficiency of Holy Scriptures for the Salva- 
tion of Man ' and ' Original or Birth Sin and 
the Necessity of New Birth unto Life.' In 

1842 his translation of Aquinas on St. Mat- 
thew was printed. This was followed by two 

j lives of English saints (Stephen Langton and 

I St. Edmund) in the series edited by New- 

| man, neither of them of great merit, but at 

] least free from the trivialities and childish 

miracles which appear so frequently in the 


In 1842 he wrote his first purely literary 
article on 'Earliest English Poetry,' for 
which he spent months of study. It ap- 
peared in the ' British Critic.' 

His appointment to a college tutorship in 

1843 gave him a serious object in life, ' be- 
yond holding up one of the banners of the 
Puseyite party.' It was necessary to devote 
his mind to Aristotle, logic, and the classics 
generally, which he had for some time neg- 
lected. The preparation for his lectures took 
up most of his time, and a series of literary 
articles in the ' Christian Remembrancer ' 
(' Miss Bremer's Novels,' 1844 ; ' Gregory of 
Tours,' 'Wordsworth's Diary in France,' 
1845; 'Church Poetry,' 'The Oxford Bede,' 
'Thiers's Consulate and Empire,' 'The 
Sugar Duties,' 1846 ; ' Hugh Miller's First 
Impressions of England,' 1847; 'Mill's Po- 
litical Economy,' 1848 ; ' Lord Holland's 
Foreign Reminiscences,' 1851) occupied the 
remainder, and thus carried him out of the 
narrow ecclesiastical range of thought and 
practice in which he had for some years 
lived. Hence the secession of Newman to 
the church of Rome in 1845 was less of a 
shock to him than to many of his associates. 
Yet he thinks he ' might have dropped off to 
Rome in some moment of mental and physi- 
cal depression, or under the pressure of some 
arguing convert,' in 1847 (ib. p. 221). But 
he had become devoted to his work as a col- 
lege tutor, and was growing conscious of the 
possession of that magnetic influence which 
first affected his pupils, afterwards the col- 
lege generally, and latterly so many out- 
siders with whom he came in contact. His 
appointment as examiner in the school of 
liter ce humaniores in the spring of 1848 
seems to have been the turning-point of his 

His success as an examiner surprised him, 
and proved both to himself and to the uni- 
versity that his powers and his learning were 
not only equal to, but greater than, those of 
men of much higher reputation. Tracta- 
rianism gradually left him, and he became 
less and less influenced by theological opinion, 
for which in his latter years he had little re- 
gard except as it affected practical life or 



was considered as a branch of learning. To 
liberal opinions in politics ho had always in- 
clined, and these became more firmly fixed, 
but he was never an ardent politician. 

His term of office as examiner gave an im- 
petus to his study of Aristotle, and he soon 
acquired a reputation as the most successful 
college tutor and the ablest lecturer on the 
' Ethics 'in Oxford. For the three years (1848- 
1851) he was, moreover, absolute ruler of 
his college, which during that time was one 
of the best managed in the university. They 
were the happiest years of his life. He was 
an ideal teacher, grudging no amount of 
time or labour to his pupils, teaching them 
how to think, and drawing out and develop- 
ing their mental faculties. He excited the 
warmest affection on their part, and their 
success in the schools, if not always com- 
mensurate with their or his wishes, was con- 
siderable. For several years he invited two 
or three undergraduates to join him for some 
weeks in the long vacation at the lakes, in 
Scotland, or elsewhere, and he assisted them 
in their studies without fee. 

Dr. Radford, the rector of Lincoln, died 
in October 1851. The fellows taking actual 
part in the election of his successor were 
nine in number two others were abroad. 
Of these nine, three resident fellows who re- 
presented the intellectual element of the col- 
lege warmly supported Pattison ; a fourth 
non-resident signified his intention to do 
the same, and this, with his own vote, gave 
him a majority. But he was not popular in 
the common-room, where his habit of retir- 
ing at eight o'clock, and spending the rest 
of the evening in tutorial work or private 
study, was resented by those who were ac- 
customed to devote the whole evening to 
port wine and whist. A discreditable in- 
trigue induced the non-resident fellow at 
the last moment to support an obscure 
candidate whose single merit was that he 
would keep out Pattison, and probably, if 
successful, would reduce the college to the 
happy condition of mental torpor out of 
which it had of late been raised. But 
though this defection prevented Pattison's 
election, it did not result in that of the rival 
candidate ; and in the end, as a choice of 
evils, the Rev. James Thompson, B.D., an 
equally unknown man, without any special 
qualification for the headship of a learned 
society, was elected, mainly through the | 
votes of Pattison and his friends (Memoirs, ' 
pp. 272-88 ; Letter to the Rev. J. Thompson, 
by J. L. Kettle, London, 1851 ; Letter to the 
Rev. J. Thompson, by Rev. T. E. Espin, Ox- 
ford, 1851; Letter to Rev. T.E. Espin, from 
J. L. Kettle, London, 1851). To Pattison 

the blow was crushing. It seemed to him 
the downfall of all his hopes and ambitions, 
no doubt partly personal, but chiefly for the 
prosperity and success of the college in which 
his whole heart and pride had been for some 
years invested. But in the account of his 
feelings, which he wrote thirty years after- 
wards, he does himself injustice. He did not 
fall into the state of mental and moral de- 
gradation which he there graphically de- 
scribes, and the language which he uses of 
his state is greatly exaggerated. The routine 
of tuition may have become as weary as he 
represents it, but, while his great depression 
was obvious to all who came in contact with 
him at this time, his lectures on Aristotle 
and on Thucydides were as able, as sug- 
gestive, and as stimulating as ever, and, ex- 
cept for the interruption of a serious illness, 
the result, no doubt, of the shock which he 
had sustained, his interest in his pupils and 
his efforts to aid them in their studies and 
to promote their success in the schools were 
as great as ever. An ill-natured but unsuc- 
cessful attempt to deprive him of his fellow- 
ship for not proceeding to the degree of B.D. 
within the statutable period added to his 
vexation (he took the degree in 1851). In 
his ' Diary ' in August 1853 he writes : ' My 
life seems to have come to an end, my strength 
gone, my energies paralysed, and all my hopes 
dispersed' (Memoirs, p. 298). But, in fact, 
matters had already begun to mend. In the 
spring of 1853 he' had been nominated a 
second time examiner in literce humaniores. 
He again took to fishing, and to this pursuit, 
and to frequent excursions in the north of 
England and Scotland, he attributed the re- 
storation of his mental equilibrium and his 
old energy. ' Slowly the old original ideal 
of life, which had been thrust aside by the 
force of circumstance, but never obliterated, 
began to resume its place. As tone and 
energy returned, the idea of devoting myself 
to literature strengthened and developed ' (ib. 
p. 308). 

It was the ' Ephemerides ' of Isaac Casau- 
bon, printed at the Clarendon Press in 1851, 
that specially drew him out of his depression 
and launched him on the field of inquiry 
that was to be his main occupation for the 
remaining thirty years of his life. He wrote 
(in 1852) an article on Casaubon which alone 
proves how he exaggerated in his * Memoirs ' 
the mental prostration of the period ; it ap- 
peared in the ' Quarterly Review ' in 1853. 
Its success made him contemplate a history 
of learning from the Renaissance downwards ; 
but he soon found this scheme was too ex- 
tensive, and he contracted his views to the 
history of classical learning. Of this plan 




he executed only fragments. He was spe- 
cially attracted by Scaliger as the greatest 
scholar of modern times. In 1855 he was 
already contemplating writing 1 Scaliger's life, 
and had made much preparation for it, when 
the appearance of Bernays's ' Joseph Justus 
Scaliger ' induced him for a time to lay aside 
the design. But his enthusiastic admiration 
for ' the most richly stored intellect that ever 
spent itself in acquiring knowledge ' in- 
creased. He saw in Scaliger the central figure 
of his age, and imposed it upon himself ' as 
a solemn duty to rescue his memory from 
the load of falsehood and infamy under which 
the unscrupulous Jesuit faction had contrived 
to bury it.' In some respects Pattison singu- 
larly resembled his hero. The same thorough- 
ness, the same hatred of half learning and of 
shams of every kind, the same love of learning 
for its own sake, the same reverence for 
truth, and, it must be added, the same caustic 
tongue, characterised both. He was con- 
stantly amassing materials for Scaliger's life, 
and after Bernays's death he formally re- 
sumed his project, and had made good pro- 
ress with the work at the time of his own 
eath. To those who, like Dr. Johnson, love 
most the biographical part of literature, the 
loss of Pattison's life of Scaliger is simply 
irreparable. All that we have of this work, 
to which he devoted thirty years of his life, 
is an article in the 'Quarterly' and three 
fragments printed after his death with his 
collected essays. 

But his troubles were not yet at an end. 
It was never easy for him to work with those 
with whom he was altogether out of sym- 
pathy. Differences arose between him and 
the new rector, and at the end of 1855 he 
threw up his tutorship. But though this 
caused him much vexation at the time, the 
result was perhaps beneficial, as it enabled 
him to devote himself entirely to study and 
to literature. His reputation as a philo- 
sophical tutor was so great that when it was 
known that he was willing for a term or two 
to take private pupils, the best men in the 
university desired to read with him. He now 
began to make long tours in Germany, occa- 
sionally spending weeks together at one of 
the universities, and attending the lectures 
of a philosophical or theological professor. 
In 1858 he was for three months the Berlin 
correspondent of the ' Times,' and in 1859 
was appointed one of the assistant commis- 
sioners to report upon continental education. 
The results of his inquiries appeared in a 
blue-book in 1861 (' Education Commission ; 
Report of the Assistant Commissioners on the 
State of Popular Education in Continental 
Europe.' Vol. iv. (pp. 161-267) contains Pat- 

tison's report on the state of elementary edu- 
cation in Germany). 

Always earnest in promoting university 
reform, he contributed to ' Oxford Essays ' 
(1855) an article on * Oxford Studies,' now 
rather of historical and literary than of prac- 
tical interest, partly owing to the changes 
since effected, partly because the maturer 
view of its author is contained in his * Sug- 
gestions on Academical Organisation ' (1808), 
and in the essay which he contributed to the 
volume 'On the Endowment of Research' 
(1876). In these three writings he puts for- 
ward his views on university reform. He 
desired to see the university no longer a 
mere continuation-school for boys of a larger 
growth, diligently crammed with a view to 
passing examinations, but a place of real edu- 
cation, aiming at ' a breadth of cultivation, a 
scientific formation of mind, a concert of the 
intellectual faculties;' and, further, an insti- 
tution organised to promote learning and re- 
search, so as to carry out ' the principle that 
the end and aim of the highest education 
must be the devotion of the mind to some one 
branch of science.' In 1860 he contributed 
to ' Essays and Reviews ' ' Tendencies of 
Religious Thought in England, 1688-1750.' 
Learned, temperate, and impartial, the vehe- 
ment and bitter haters of the book and its 
contributors could find little fault with his 
article, except the fact that it had appeared 
in company with the others. 

On the 'death of Dr. Thompson in 1861, 
Pattison obtained the prize he had contended 
for ten years earlier, and was elected rector 
of Lincoln. In 1870 he accepted for the third 
time the office of public examiner, then an 
unusual post for the 'head of a house 'to fill. 
He was also a delegate of the press and of the 
Bodleian Library, but in 1878 he declined 
the vice-chancellorship. Although for a time 
after his election the rector lectured on the 
' Ethics,' he took a less active part in the ad- 
ministration of the college than might have 
been expected. The habits of ten years had 
disinclined him for administrative detail. He 
showed a keen interest in those undergra- 
duates who possessed a love of study or a 
desire to succeed in the schools, but he did 
not much concern himself with the college 
generally or with the undergraduates. 

In the meantime his literary activity was 
great. His articles in the ' Quarterly ' on 
'Huet' (1855), 'Montaigne' (1856), 'Joseph 
Scaliger' (I860), 'The Stephenses' (1865); 
in the ' National Review ' on ' Bishop War- 
burton' and ' Learning in the Church of Eng- 
land ' (1863) ; in the ' North British ' on ' F. A. 
Wolf (1865), were marked by that thorough 
knowledge, that maturity of judgment, and 



that grasp of the subject-matter which are 
amono- the characteristics of his writings. 
For some time he wrote the article ' Religion 
and Philosophy ' in the literary chronicle of the 
1 Westminster Review ; ' and though he ceased 
to do so at the end of 1855, he continued to 
furnish occasional notices of theological and 
historical books to that ' Review,' to which 
he also contributed the following more serious 
articles : * The Present State of Theology in 
Germany' and * Buckle's Civilisation in Eng- 
land,' 1857; 'Calvin at Geneva' and ' The 
Calas Tragedy,' 1858; '.Early Intercourse of 
England and Germany, '1861 ; 'Popular Edu- 
cation in Prussia,' 1862 ; < Mackay's Tubingen 
School,' 1863. To the ' Saturday Review ' he 
was a frequent contributor for some years 
after its commencement in 1855, and con- 
tinued to write occasionally down to 1877, 
his severe but not unfair review of W. E. 
Jelf s edition of ' Aristotle's Ethics,' 8 March 
1856, bringing down upon him a. foolishly 
irate letter from Jelf [see JELF, WILLIAM 
EDWAKD]. He also wrote in the 'British 
Quarterly' ('Pope and his Editors, 1872), 
the 'North American' ('The Thing that 
might be,' 1881), ' Eraser's Magazine ' ('The 
Birmingham Congress,' 1857 ; ' Antecedents 
of the Reformation,' 1859; 'Philanthropic 
Societies in the Reign of Queen Anne,' 
1860), ' Macmillan' (' A Chapter of Univer- 
sity History' and 'Milton/ 1875), the 'Con- 
temporary' ('The Religion of Positivism,' 
1876), ' Fortnightly' (' The Age of Reason,' 
' Note on Evolution and Positivism,' and 
'Books and Critics,' 1877; 'Industrial Short- 
comings,' 1880; 'EtienneDolet,' 1881), 'New 
Quarterly Magazine' ('Middle-class Educa- 
tion,' 1879), and the ' Academy,' where his 
reviews of Newman's ' Grammar of Assent ' 
and Mozley's ' Reminiscences ' have not only 
a literary, but a personal interest. He was 
an occasional contributor to the ' Times ' 
('Hatin's Histoire de la Presse,' 19 Nov. 
1860; 'Courthope's Pope,' 27 Jan. 1882; 

< Muretus,' 23 Aug. 1882), to 'Mind' ('Phi- 
losophy in Oxford,' 1876), to the 'Journal of 
Education,' and to the short-lived ' Reader,' 
and so late as May 1883 wrote a review of 
Mr. Henry Craik's ' Life of Swift ' for the 
1 Guardian' newspaper. (His diaries refer 
to other reviews and magazine articles which 
it has not been found possible to identify with 

At the same time Pattison edited with 
notes, for the Clarendon Press, in 1869 Pope's 

< Essay on Man ' (2nd edit. 1872), and in 1872 
Pope's ' Satires and Epistles' (2nd edit. 1874). 
In the ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica' are to be found seven biographical 
notices by Pattison on Bentley, Casaubon, 

Erasmus, Grotius, Lipsius, More, and Mac- 
aulay, ' all terse, luminous, and finished ' ( J. 
MOKLEY in Macmillan's Magazine, vol. li.) 
In 1879 he wrote a life of Milton for the 
' English Men of Letters ' series (reprinted, 
with considerable alterations, 1880, 1883, 
1885, and 1887), and in 1883 he published 
an edition of Milton's ' Sonnets.' In 1875 his 
most important work appeared the life of 
' Isaac Casaubon ' (2nd edit. 1892, with index). 
Though he only devoted himself to Casaubon 
upon finding his intention to write the life 
of Scaliger anticipated by Bernays, he threw 
himself con amore into the work, and the 
result is that he has given to the world the 
best biography in our language of a scholar, 
as he in common with Casaubon and Scaliger 
understood the word. 

But Pattison was by no means a recluse. 
For some years after his marriage in 1861 
his house was a centre of all that was best 
in Oxford society. Under a singularly stiff 
and freezing manner to strangers and to those 
whom he disliked, he concealed a most kindly 
| nature, full of geniality and sympathy, and 
I a great love of congenial, and especially of 
female, society. But it was in his intercourse 
with his pupils, and generally with those 
younger than himself, that he was seen to 
most advantage. His conversation was 
marked by a delicate irony. His words 
were few and deliberate, but pregnant with 
meaning, and above all stimulating, and their 
effect was heightened by perhaps too frequent 
and, especially to undergraduates, somewhat 
embarrassing flashes of silence. His aim was 
always to draw out by the Socratic method 
what was best in the mind of the person he 
conversed with, and he seemed to be seeking 
information and suggestions for his own use. 
To the last he was open to new personal im- 
pressions, was most grateful for information 
on subjects which were of interest to him, 
and was always full of generous admiration 
for good work, or even for work which, if not 
really good, was painstaking or marked by 

The Social Science Association found in 
him one of its earliest supporters ; and he 
was for some years, to the surprise and even 
amusement of some of his friends, a regular 
attendant at the conferences, a sympathetic 
listener to the papers, and a diligent fre- 
quenter of the soir6es. At the meeting at 
Birmingham in 1868 he read a paper on uni- 
versity reform, and at Liverpool in 1876 he 
was president of the section of education. 
In 1862 he was elected a member of the 
Athenaeum Club by the committee under the 
special rule admitting distinguished persons. 
For many years he was a member of the com- 



mittee of the London Library, and regularly 
attended its meetings. But he was singularly 
inefficient on a board or committee, where his 
want of self-reliance was painfully apparent, 
and where his disinclination to express a posi- 
tive opinion or to vote often caused great em- 
barrassment, and sometimes inconvenience, 
to his colleagues, who would on many sub- 
jects have attached the utmost importance 
to any definite statement of his views. His 
occasional addresses, on such varied subjects 
as 'Locke' at the Royal Institution, ' What 
is a College ? ' before the Ascham Society, 
'Coal Scuttles' at the School of Art at Oxford 
(November 1876), 'The Art of Teaching' at 
Bloomsbury, ' Modern Books and Critics ' at 
Birmingham, drew large audiences. Several 
of them afterwards appeared as magazine 
articles. He occasionally took clerical duty 
for a few weeks in the summer in some 
country village, but it cannot be said that 
his ministrations were well adapted to 
country congregations. 

Pattison's health, which had been for some 
time feeble, completely broke down in No- 
vember 1 883. But he rallied, and was able 
to visit London in the spring, and to be pre- 
sent his last public appearance at a meet- 
ing of the Hellenic Society. In June he was 
removed to Harrogate, where he died on 
30 July 1884. He was buried, as he desired, 
in the neighbouring churchyard of Harlow 

In 1861 Pattison married Emilia Frances, 
daughter of Captain Strong, H.E.I. C.S., a 
lady much younger than himself, who has 
achieved distinction as a writer on art. There 
was no issue of the marriage. Mrs. Pattison 
survived her husband, and, on 3 Oct. 1885, 
married the Right Hon. Sir Charles W. 
Dilke, bart., M.P. 

In the last few months of 1883 Pattison 
dictated his ' Memoirs,' which, however, only 
come down to 1860. They are largely based 
upon diaries which he deposited in the Bod- 
leian Library. His later diaries are in the 
possession of his representatives. The ' Me- 
moirs ' were published by Mrs. Pattison in 
1885. The book is one of deep and painful in- 
terest, the only one in existence that can be 
compared with Rousseau's l Confessions ' in 
the fidelity with which it lays bare the inmost 
secrets of the heart, but in which, unlike the 
i Confessions,' the author does himself much 
less than justice. He gives a far less favour- 
able impression of himself than any impartial 
outside observer would have done, and draws 
a portrait not so much of what he really was 
at the time of which he writes, as of what 
he seemed to himself through the morbid 
recollections of the past and the often not 

less morbid entries in his diary. For his true 
portrait we must look into his ' Essays ' and 
his ' Life of Casaubon.' His own personality 
is evident in whatever he writes. He was essen- 
tially a man of learning, using the word in the 
sense in which he has defined it : ' Learning 
is a peculiar compound of memory, imagina- 
tion, scientific habit, accurate observation, 
all concentrated through a prolonged period 
on the analysis of the remains of literature. 
The result of this sustained mental endeavour 
is not a book, but a man. It cannot be em- 
bodied in print; it consists of the living word.' 
He was consequently intolerant, not of igno- 
rance, but of pretended learning, and showed 
his contempt sometimes too obviously. In 
his ' Memoirs ' he is no less unfair to those 
whom he disliked than to himself, and all 
through his (later) writings there is a ten- 
dency to unduly depreciate both the learning 
and the actions of those who supported the 
cause of the catholic church. He sees the 
hand of the Jesuits everywhere, and finds an 
evident difficulty in doing justice to the oppo- 
nents of intellectual progress. 

Though not in the technical sense of the 
word a bibliophile, Pattison collected not 
only the largest private library of his time 
at Oxford, but one that was extraordinarily 
complete for the history of learning and phi- 
losophy of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries. It numbered about 
fourteen thousand volumes, and was sold by 
auction at Sotheby's sale-room in London in 
July and August 1885. 

A volume of his college and university 
sermons was published in 1885. In 1889 a 
selection of his essays appeared at the Cla- 
rendon Press, in two volumes, under the 
editorship of Pattison's friend, Henry Nettle- 
ship [q. v.] 

[Memoirs by Mark Pattison, 1885 ; Times, 
31 July 1884; Athenaeum, 2 Aug. 1884; Satur- 
day Review, 2 Aug. 1884; Academy, 9 Aug. 
1884; Macmillan, vol. 1. ; Morley's Miscellanies 
(from Macmillan, vol. li.) ; Althaus's Recollec- 
tions of Mark Pattison (from Temple Bar, 
January 1885); Tollemache's Recollections of 
Pattison (from Journal of Education, 1 June 
1885); Pattison's manuscript Diaries and Corre- 
spondence ; personal knowledge.] R. C. C. 

PATTISON, WILLIAM (1706-1727), 
poet, was born in 1706 at Peasemarsh, near 
Rye, Sussex, where his father, William Patti- 
son, held a small farm from the Earl of 
Thanet. By Lord Thanet he was, in 1721, 
placed at the free school at Appleby, under 
Dr. Thomas Nevinson of Queen's College, 
Oxford. He showed considerable promise, 
and Thomas Noble, a neighbouring clergy- 
man and schoolmaster of Kirkby Stephen, 


6 4 


read several classical authors with him. With 
a view to paying oft' some debts which he had 
contracted with booksellers, he dedicated 
with satisfactory results an ' Ode on Christ- 
mas Day' to Sir Christopher Musgrave of 
Edenhall, Cumberland. Pattison was equally 
lucky in disposing of an ode to John Tufton, 
nephew of the Earl of Thanet. On. 6 July 
1724 he was admitted as a sizar at Sidney- 
Sussex College, Cambridge; but he did not 
find the life congenial, and in the summer of 
1726 he cut his name out of the college books, 
in order, apparently, to avert its being erased, 
and commenced author in London. Although 
his prospects were not exhilarating, his first 
letters from London displayed a most san- 
guine temper (Letters prefixed to Poetical 
Works, 1728). He associated with Eusden, 
Harte, Concanen, and other wits of the town, 
and dated his letters from Button's. He 
collected his poems for publication, and Pope \ 
subscribed to the volume, though he excused ' 
himself from a personal introduction. But 
the appearance of the book was delayed, and 
Pattison, incapable of husbanding his small 
resources, was soon reduced to miserable 

In a poem entitled 'Effigies Authoris,' ad- 
dressed to Lord Burlington, the unfortunate 
poet described himself as passing the nights 
on a bench in St. James's Park. In his dis- 
tress he put forth proposals for the immediate 
issue of his poems, and while he was tran- 
scribing them for the press Curll the book- 
seller gave him shelter in his house. Ac- 
cording to Pope, Curll starved him to death 
{An Author to be Lett by Iscariot Hackney, 
i.e. Pope and Richard Savage, 1729, p. 3), but [ 
it is more correct to say that he saved him 
from starving. Pattison died of smallpox in 
Curll's house on 11 July 1727, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Clement 
Danes. He had not completed his twenty- 
first year. 

In the year following the poet's premature 
death Curll issued ' The Poetical Works of 
Mr. William Pattison, late of Sidney-Sussex 
College,' London, 8vo ; dedicated to the Earl 
of Peterborough, and with a distinguished 
list of subscribers. It contained a satirical 
piece called' College Life,' an ambitious imita- 
tion of Pope, entitled ' Abelard to Eloisa,' a 
number of miscellaneous poems, frequently 
of an erotic tendency, and odes to various 
persons. Another volume appeared in the 
same year, entitled ' Cupid's Metamorphosis, 
or Love in all Shapes, being the second and 
last volume of the Poetical Works of Mr. Wil- 
liam Pattison,' London, 8vo, with a portrait 
engraved by Foudriniere after J. Saunders. 
This comprises < Select Epistles from Ovid,' 

1 Laura, or the Mistress,' and ' Epigrams.' A 
portrait was also engraved for Caulfield's 
' Memoirs ' (1819, ii. 142). 

In his choice of subjects Pattison was in- 
fluenced by Dr. Croxall, the author of the 
' Fair Circassian,' but he also imitated Waller, 
Pope, and Gay, and his versification is gene- 
rally good. His poems, however, are distin- 
guished by little save precocity, the tone of 
which is not attractive. There is not much 
to sanction the comparison with Chatterton 
which has been made. Selections from Patti- 
son's poems are printed in Pratt's * Cabinet of 
Poetry '(1808, iii. 271), in Sanford's ' British 
Poets ' (Philadelphia, 1819, xiii. 415), and in 
Park and Anderson's ' British Poets ; ' but 
they have not found favour with more recent 

[Life prefixed to Poetical Works, 1728 ; Chal- 
mers's Biogr. Diet. xxiv. 204 ; Lower's Sussex 
Worthies; El win and Courthope's Pope, vi. 133 
and n. ; Disraeli's Miscellanies of Literature, 
1840, p. 91 ; Noble's Continuation of Granger, iii. 
303; An Author to be Lett, 1729; Admission 
Book, Sidney-Sussex College ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

T. S. 

MOND (1803-1869), Scottish judge, third son 
of James Patton of the Cairnies, sheriff-clerk 
of Perthshire, was born at the Cairnies in 
1803. He received the rudiments of his 
education at Perth, and proceeded thence to 
Oxford, where he does not seem to have ma- 
triculated. Returning to Scotland, he began 
his legal studies at Edinburgh University, 
and was admitted advocate in 1828. He 
made some figure at the bar as a pleader. 
But he was an ardent tory in politics, and it 
was not until Lord Derby's second govern- 
ment came into power in 1859 that Patton, 
after very many delays and disappointments, 
received official recognition. He then be- 
came solicitor-general for Scotland for a few 
weeks. In the spring of 1866 he entered the 
House of Commons as conservative member 
for Bridgewater, and a few weeks later, when 
Lord Derby's third administration was formed, 
he was made lord advocate. The appointment 
necessitated a new election at Bridgewater, 
and Patton was defeated by Mr. Vanderbyl. 
Reports were abroad that gross bribery had 
been practised at both these elections, and a 
commission was appointed to inquire into 
these charges. The dread of compromising 
disclosures preyed on Patton's mind, but he 
was relieved of the necessity of taking any 
part in the inquiry by becoming, in 1867, lord 
justiceclerk. John Inglis (1810-1891) [q. v.] 
had resigned the post to take that of lord 
president. The choice of his successor lay 
with the lord advocate, and Patton conferred 



the office on himself. He assumed the title 
of Lord Glenalmond. 

In August 1869 he succeeded to the estate 
and mansion at Glenalmond on the death of ! 
his elder brother, Thomas Patton, W.S. By i 
some journalistic blunder the death of Tho- i 
mas had been announced as the ' demise of j 
the lord justice clerk,' and the error preju- | 
dicially affected Lord Glenalmond's mind. 
On Thursday, 16 Sept. 1869, he presided at 
the Ayr circuit, and on the following day he \ 
returned with Mrs. Patton to Edinburgh, 
proceeding thence to Glenalmond. On the j 
morning of Monday, 20 Sept., he committed , 
suicide. The body was interred in the family 
burying-ground of Monzie. He left a widow, | 
but no family. Though possessed of con- 
siderable legal talents, he had no favourable 
opportunity for displaying administrative 
ability. In the management of his own small 
estate of the Cairnies he made many valuable 
experiments in arboriculture, and had pro- j 
jected elaborate trials of various conifers at J 

[Marshall's Historic Scenes in Perthshire, p. 
29U ; Hunter's Woods, Forests, and Estates of 
Perthshire, pp. .356 et seq. ; North British Daily 
Mail, 23 Sept. 1869 ; Dundee Advertiser, 25 Sept. 
1869.] A. H. M. 

PATTON, PHILIP (1739-1815), ad- 
miral, eldest son of Philip Patton, collector 
of the customs at Kirkcaldy in Fife, by Agnes 
Loch, his wife, was born at Anstruther on 
27 Oct. 1739 (parish register of Kirkcaldy). 
After a couple of years in merchant ships, 
during which he made a voyage to the Medi- 
terranean and another to the Baltic, he was 
entered early in 1755 on board the Torbay, 
under the immediate patronage of vice-ad- 
miral Edward Boscawen [q. v.] He followed 
Boscawen to the Invincible, Royal George, 
and Namur; he was present at the reduc- 
tion of Louisbourp' in 1758 and the defeat 
of De la Clue in 1759. Continuing in the 
Namur with Captain Matthew Buckle [q.v.], 
he was also present in the battle of Quibe- 
ron Bay. He passed his examination on 
10 Sept. 1760, and, still in the Namur carry- 
ing the flag of Sir George Pocock [q. v.], 
went out to the West Indies in 1762; he 
took part in the reduction of Havana and was 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Grenada 
bomb, in which he returned to England in 
the summer of 1763. From 1764 to 1767 
he was in the Emerald frigate in the North 
Sea, and again from 1769 to 1772, during 
which time he is said, in a voyage to the 
Mediterranean, by his prompt decision on a 
dark stormy night, to have saved the ship 
from charging the rock of Gibraltar. In 


1776 he was appointed to. the Prince George 
with Captain Charles Middleton, afterwards 
Lord Barham [q. v.], whom he followed to 
the Royal Oak, on board which Rear -admiral 
Hyde Parker (1714-1782) [q. v.] hoisted his 
flag. Patton, who was first lieutenant, was 
to be superseded by a follower of Parker ; 
but the king happening to come to Ports- 
mouth, and to review the fleet before the 
change was made, Patton was promoted to 
the command of the /Etna bomb. In her he 
was ordered to the coast of Guinea, but, being 
detained at Spithead, Avas appointed acting- 
captain of the Prince George, whose captain, 
Sir John Lindsay [q. v.], was required on 
shore as a witness on the Keppel court-mar- 
tial. The Prince George was then sent to 
sea in a squadron under the command of 
Lord Shuldham, much to the discontent of 
the ship's company, which broke out into 
open mutiny on 19 Jan. 1779, in consequence 
of the hammocks being ordered up from the 
middle and lower decks for the sake of ven- 
tilation. The difficulty was overcome by 
Patton's firmness, and, after one of the ring- 
leaders had been severely punished, the men 
returned to their duty and obedience. 

Two months later, when the Prince George 
was back at Spithead, Patton was posted 
(22 March 1779) to the Namur, the flagship 
of Rear-admiral Robert Digby, with whom he 
moved into the Prince George, and had an 
important share in the defeat of Langara on 
16 Jan. 1780. On their return to England 
j Patton was appointed to the Milford frigate, 
and afterwards to the Belle Poule, which, on 
her way to Leith in company with the Ber- 
wick, captured a very troublesome privateer, 
I the Calonne, commanded by the notorious 
Luke Ryan. Patton then joined the squadron 
under Parker, and was with it in the action 
on the Doggerbank on 5 Aug. 1781. He was 
employed alter th : s in convoy duty till the 
peace, when the Belle Poule was paid off. 

In May 1794 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners of the transport board, where, 
I it is said, he was found so useful that the 
Earl of Chatham, then first lord of the ad- 
! miralty, endeavoured to persuade him to con- 
tinue in the office instead of taking his flag, 
and threatened that if he insisted on having 
his flag he should not be employed. Patton, 
however, did insist, and was included in the 
promotion of 1 June 1795. During the en- 
forced retirement which followed he took up 
his residence at Fareham, and shortly after- 
wards sent to the admiralty a paper on the 
grievances of seamen, on the necessary re- 
forms, and on the great danger of delay. On 
1 Jan. 1801 he was made a vice-admiral, and 
in 1803 was appointed second in command 




in the Downs under Lord Keith. At this 
time he made the acquaintance of Mr. Pitt, 
then residing at Walmer, which possibly led, 
on Pitt's return to office, to his appointment 
as one of the lords of the admiralty, which 
he continued to hold under his old captain, 
Charles Middleton (now Lord Barham). On 
the change of ministry in 1806, Patton 
who had been promoted to the rank of ad- 
miral on 9 Nov. 1805 retired to his house 
at Fareham, where he principally resided 
during the remainder of his life. He employed 
himself in reading and writing, though he pub- 
lished nothing except ' The Natural Defence 
of an Insular Empire' (1810, 4to). This 
essay was severely and unjustly scourged, 
presumably by Sir John Barrow, in the 
' Quarterly Review' (November 1810), prin- 
cipally because it had protested against the 
government of the navy by civilian first lords, 
a point warmly defended by Barrow in his 
' Life of Lord Howe ' in almost the words of 
the ' Quarterly Review.' Patton died at 
Fareham, Hampshire, on 31 Dec. 1815. He ! 
had married in 1783, and left a large family, 
mostly daughters. His portrait, in the pos- j 
session of the family, was lent to the Naval \ 
exhibition of 1891. 

Pat ton's younger brother, CHAELES PATTON 
(1741-1837), after service in merchant ships, ; 
entered the navy as midshipman on board 
the Ripon in May 1758. He was present at 
the capture of Guadeloupe in 1759 and the 
blockade of Brest in 1761 , subsequently com- | 
manded the Rattlesnake, was advanced to i 
post rank on 30 May 1795, and served as ; 
agent for transports at Portsmouth for many 
years. He died at Fareham on 16 Jan. 1837, 
aged 96. He wrote ' An Attempt to esta- 
blish the Basis of Freedom on simple and 
unerring Principles in a series of Letters ' 
(Edinburgh, 1793, 8vo), a series of deductions 
from a brief historical inquiry suggested by 
Burke's famous essay ; and, secondly, ' The 
Effects of Property upon Society and Govern- 
ment Investigated ' (1797, 8vo), a plea for the 
basis of representation upon property. This 
was prefixed to an elaborate work by another 

ROBERT PATTON", born about 1747, who 
also became a naval captain. Robert Patton's 
work was entitled l An Historical Review of 
the Monarchy and Republic of Rome upon 
the Principles derived from the Effects of 
Property and Government,' and was dedi- 
cated to Admiral Philip Patton. In 1803, and 
with special reference to the government of 
India, Robert published' Principles of Asiatic 
Monarchies politically and historically inves- 
tigated ' (Monthly Rev. 1803, p. 285 ; Gent. 
May. 1837, i. 321 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.} 

[Ralfe'sNav.Bio^r. iii. 387 ; Passing Certificate 
and Official Letters in the Public Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

(1746-1800), divine, fourth son of Thomas 
Patrick of Marks Tey in Essex, was born 
in August 1746. His grandfather and father 
were farmers at Marks Tey, and had occupied 
the same land for more than a century. He 
was admitted to St. Paul's School on 4 Feb. 
1756, and about 1762 entered an attorney's 
office in Colchester. In February 1769, after 
spending two years in London, he commenced 
to practise at Dedham in Essex, where a 
taste for fashionable company and expensive 
entertainments soon dissipated a moderate 
fortune. Falling under religious influences, 
he abandoned the law and was ordained to 
the curacy of St. Michael, Mile End, Col- 
chester, on 23 Dec. 1770, and was admitted 
a fellow-commoner of Sidney-Sussex College 
on 29 Dec. On 22 Sept. 1771 he was or- 
dained priest, and on 21 Aug. 1772 was pre- 
sented to the living of Aveley in Essex 
through the interest of Thomas Barrett- 
Lennard, seventeenth baron Dacre. In March 
1773 he took the curacy of Wennington, also 
in Essex, which he held with his living. In 
December 1775 he was made chaplain to 
Lord Dacre, and in 1777 he graduated LL.B. 
at Cambridge. At Aveley Patrick per- 
formed his clerical duties irregularly. He 
was frequently employed by Lord Dacre, to 
the neglect of his parochial work, in the 
examination of old deeds or in the manu- 
facture of genealogy. In the winter of 1782 
he sought the spiritual advice of Dr. Ri- 
chard Conyers, and removed to Deptford, to 
be near his director. From June 1783 to 
June 1784 he was travelling in France and 
Italy for his health. On 10 Oct. 1787 he 
finally left Aveley, and was chosen chaplain 
of Morden College, Blackheath, by the influ- 
ence of Charles Trevor Roper, eighteenth 
baron Dacre, who had succeeded his uncle 
in the peerage in 1786, and retained Patrick's 
services as chaplain. Disputes with the pen- 
sioners led to his dismissal on 22 June 1790. 
On 17 April 1791 he became curate of Car- 
shalton in Surrey. On 12 Jan. 1792 he was 
elected to the lectureship of Woolwich, but 
the incumbent refused him the pulpit, and he 
never preached there. In the summer of 1793 
he removed to London. On 19 March 1796 he 
was elected lecturer of St. Leonard's, Shore- 
ditch, but, owing to the objection of the in- 
cumbent, only preached for Jhe first time on 
4 Dec. 1796; the sermon was published. 
Towards the close of 1797 he was chosen 
Sunday-evening lecturer at St. Bride's, Fleet 

Patys 67 


Street. He also had a share in a lectureship 
at St. Margaret's, Lothbury. 

Patrick died at Madeley in Shropshire 
on 14 Sept. 1800, and was buried there on 
the 17th (parish register). He married, on 
8 Sept. 1789, Mary Ferriday of Madeley 
(parish register). His son, Charles Thomas 
Pattrick, born at Blackheath in 1790, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1812 and M.A. in 1815 from 
St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. 

As a preacher Patrick was popular, and 
drew large congregations. He had a strong 
voice and clear enunciation. His ' Sermons, 
with a Help to Prayer,' were published in 
London in 1801. 

[Memoirs of his life prefixed to his sermons 
(an abridged version was published in a volume 
of the Religious Tract Society's Christian Bio- 
graphy); Gardiner's Admission Registers of St. 
Paul's School, p. 107 ; H-raduati Cantabr. ; Ellis's 
Hist, and Antiq. of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, pp. 
47-9; Evangelical Magazine, 1802, p. 108; ad- 
mission registers of Sidney-Sussex College, per 
the master.] B. P. 

PATYS, RICHARD (d. 1565), bishop of 

Worcester. [See PATE.] 

PAUL or POL (d. 573), saint, also 
called AUKELIAN, bishop of Leon in Brittany, 
was the son of Perphius, Porfius, or Porfus, 
who in a late legend is called Aurelianus 
namely, of Orleans but this name probably 
did not belong to his family, and was first ap- 
plied to the saint when his relics were moved 
to Orleans. He is said to have been born at 
Pen-hoen in Cornwall or Wales, and to have 
been a pupil of St. Illtyd [q. v.], with Samson 
(Jl. 550) [q. v.] and Gildas [q. v.] ; but legend 
has perhaps confused him with Paulinus 
(fl. 500 ?) [q. v.], founder of a school at 
Whitland, who is mentioned in the Welsh 
' life' of St. Illtyd. Several stories of Paul's 
student life under Illtyd are identical with 
those which the Welsh hagiographers narrate 
of Samson. Leaving Illtyd, Paul retired to 
a desert place with a few companions, and 
taught a chieftain Marcus, called also Quono- 
monus,who had been despoiled by the Anglo- 
Saxons. Fearing to be made a bishop, Paul 
went to an island off the coast of Brittany, 
probably Saintes, whence he passed to the 
mainland. He visited Withur, an Armorican 
chief, and led the life of a missionary. 
Withur, pretending that he needed a safe 
messenger, charged him with a letter directed 
to Judwal, another Armorican chief, then at 
the court of Childebert, son of Clovis I, and 
this letter contained a request that Paul 
should be made a bishop. In ignorance of 
its contents he presented it, and, when his 
reluctance had been overcome, he accepted 

the episcopate of the tribe of the Osismii, 
with L6on as his see. He was consecrated 
in the king's court, probably in 512 (HADDAN 
and STTJBBS, ii. 74). He continued to make 
converts and to build monasteries in Brit- 
tany, where many places still bear the prefix 

After twenty-four years he retired to an 
island to lead a hermit's life, but a fatality 
pursued his successors in his old see of L6on, 
and he returned to its care. At an advanced 
age he again retired, and died in the island 
of Batz on 12 March 573. His relics were 
removed in the tenth century to Fleury, 
near Orleans. Like other Celtic saints, 
he is said to have had a miraculous bell, 
preserved at Leon in 876, according to 

[The earliest life of Paul is by "Wormonoc of 
Landevenech, written about 884, printed in Bol- 
land's Analecta, i. 208, from a Paris manuscript 
by Plaine, and in the Revue Celtique, v. 413, from 
a Fleury manuscript by Cuissard. His life, by 
;t tenth-century monk of Fleury, probably Vi- 
talis (Mem. Soc. Arch, de 1'Orleanais, ii. 277), is 
given in Johannes a Bosco'* Bibliotheca Floriac. 
pp. 418 sqq. See also Hadclan and Stubbs's 
Councils and Documents, ii. 74, 87 ; Le Long's 
Vies des Saints, pp. 191 sqq.; Levot's Biogr. 
Bretonne, vol. ii. s.v. ; Bollandists' Acta SS. 
2 March, p. 108.] M. B. 

PAUL (d. 1093), abbot of St. Albans, a 
Norman by birth, was a kinsman, and ac- 
cording to tradition a son, of Lanfranc [q. v.], 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury (Gesta 
Abbatum, i. 51 ; HOOK, Archbishops of Can- 
terbury, ii. 80). It is possible that he was 
the scholar who was with Lanfranc when he 
fell among thieves as he was going from 
Avranches towards Rouen before he became 
a monk (Chronicon Beccense, p. 195). Paul 
probably took the monastic vows at Bee, and 
was certainly a member of the convent of 
St. Stephen at Caen, over which Lanfranc 
was made abbot in 1066. The abbacy of St. 
Albans was vacant in 1077, and Lanfranc, 
then archbishop, who had been granted the 
patronage of the house (EADMEE, Historia 
Nov. i. 12, 18 ; GERVASE CANT. ii. 373), ap- 
pointed Paul, whom he is said to have loved 
as a son ( Gesta Abbatum, u.s.) Paul entered 
on his office on 28 June. He rebuilt the 
monastery and its church, rearing the vast 
edifice that, in spite of the mischief wrought 
by modern so-called restoration, still excites 
the admiration of all beholders (Norman 
Conquest, iv. 400). In this work he largely 
used stones and bricks obtained from the ruins 
of Roman Verulam, together with timber that 
had been collected and stored by his prede- 
cessors. In the work Paul was liberally aided 




by Lanfranc, who is said to have contributed 
a thousand marks towards the expense of 
the building 1 . He placed bells in the great 
tower, one of which was given by a wealthy 
Englishman named Lyulf, who sold some of 
his flocks to buy it, and the other by Lyulf s 
wife (Gesta Abbatum, i. 60). The monastic 
reform that was urged forward by Lanfranc 
was thoroughly carried out by Paul at St. 
Albans, which under his rule became a 
pattern of religious order and discipline to 
all the Benedictine houses in England. Under 
him, too, the monastery became a place of 
learning; he rebuilt the 'Scriptorium,' as- 
signed to it a separate endowment, so that 
the scribes employed in it had their own 
daily allowances, and caused many books to 
be copied by well-skilled hands. He gave a 
large number of relics, vestments, ornaments, 
and other precious things to the convent, 
and among them twenty-eight fine volumes, 
besides psalters and other service books. 
Certain lands that had been lost to the 
monastery were regained through his exer- 
tions, and its possessions were further in- 
creased by the gifts of benefactors who ad- 
mired the vigour of his rule and the reforma- 
tion that he effected in his house (ib. p. 55). 
On some of these new possessions at Wal- 
lingford in Berkshire, Tynemouth in North- 
umberland, Belvoir in Lincolnshire, Hertford, 
and Binham in Norfolk he, by the advice 
of Lanfranc, founded cells or dependent 
priories, inhabited by monks from St. Albans, 
and ruled by priors sent from the mother- 
house. On the other hand, certain of the 
abbey's lands were lost in his time, some 
through his carelessness, and others in con- 
sequence of leases that he granted without 
having sufficiently provided against frauds 
and legal subtleties. He also secretly, and 
to the great damage of his church, enriched 
with its property his Norman kinsmen, no 
doubt relations of his mother, who were 
unworthy, lazy, and ignorant, some being 
unable to write. Like Lanfranc, he de- 
spised the English monks, and destroyed 
the tombs of his English predecessors, many 
of them men of royal race and venerable 
memory, declaring that they were ignorant 
and uncultivated. Probably owing to his 
contempt for the English, he neglected to 
translate the bones of Offa [q. v.], king of 
Mercia, the founder of his house, into his 
new church. Nevertheless, while recording 
these injuries that Paul caused to St. Albans, 
Matthew Paris declares that the good that 
he did to the abbey outweighed the evil. 
In 1039, probably on the death of Lanfranc, 
Paul sent the rules that the archbishop had 
drawn up for the English Benedictines to 

Anselm, and received his approval of them. 
When Anselm was appointed archbishop in 
1093, Paul supplied him with money, and 
Anselm is said to have shown his gratitude 
by contributing to the rebuilding of the abbey. 
In that year Paul went to take possession 
of the church of Tynemouth. It had been 
granted to the abbey by Robert de Mowbray 
[q. v.1, earl of Northumberland, at his request, 
and sorely against the will of the monks of 
Durham, who claimed it, and with whom 
the earl had a quarrel. When Paul reached 
York, Turgot, the prior of Durham, sent a 
deputation of monks and clerks, who, in the 
presence of Thomas, archbishop of York, 
solemnly forbade Paul to take possession of 
the church, to which he had already sent a 
body of his monks. He answered indig- 
nantly, and took no heed of the friar's message. 
While he was at Tynemouth he fell sick, 
and as he was returning died at Settringham 
in the East Riding of Yorkshire, on 11 Nov. 
The monks of Durham regarded his death as 
a judgment on him for violating the rights 
of their church (SYM. DFNELM.) He was 
a typical specimen of the better sort of the 
Norman abbots of his time, devoted to the 
monastic life, a lover of literature, a strict 
disciplinarian, and an able and magnificent 
ruler, yet with some of the faults of his race, 
for he was proud, scornful, and apparently 
addicted to forwarding the interests of his 
kinsfolk by all means in his power, however 
unfair to others. 

[Gesta Abb. Mon. S. Albani, i. 51-65 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Chron. Beccense ap. Opp. Lanfranci, i. 
195, ed. Giles; Anselmi Epp. i. 71, Eadmer's 
Hist. Nov. i. 12, 18, both ed. Migne, i. col. 1141, 
ii. cols. 355,369; Gervaseof Cant. ii. 373, Will. of 
Malmesbury's Gesta Pontiff, pp. 72, 317, Mat- 
thew Paris's Hist. Angl. i. 41 (all Rolls Ser.) ; 
Wendover, ii. 39 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Sym. 
Dunelm. i. 124, 125, ii. 221, 261, 346 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Freeman's Norman Conquest, iv. 399, 400, 
and William Rufu*, i. 424, ii. 18, 606; Hook's 
Archbishops of Canterbury, ii. 80; Newcome's 
Abbey of St. Albau, pp. 45-50.] W. H. 

PAUL, EARL or ORKNEY (d. 1099), suc- 
ceeded to the earldom while Orkney was 
under the suzerainty of Norway, conjointly 
with his younger brother, Erlend, on the 
death of their father, Earl Torfinn, in 1064. 
He was closely related to the reigning 
families both of Scotland and Norway, his 
mother, Ingibiorg, daughter of Earl Finn 
Arnasson, being cousin-german to Thora, 
wife of Harald Sigurdson (Hardradi), king 
of Norway, and mother of King Olaf the 
Quiet ; while his paternal grandmother was 
a daughter of Malcolm II of Scotland. His 
mother, on his father Torfinn's death, mar- 


6 9 


ried Malcolm, called Canmore [q. v.], and was 
by him mother of King Duncan II 

[q. v. 

Mil an 

who was thus Paul's half-brother. Paul and 
Erlend are said to have been tall, hand- 
some men, and to have resembled their 
mother. Paul, with his brother's consent, 
took the entire management of the earldom, 
which, at the time of their father's death, in- 
cluded not only the Orkneys and the He- 
brides, but also eleven earldoms on the 
mainland of Scotland and a large territory 
in Ireland, 'from theTuscar rocks,' says the 
Scald Arnor, ' right on to Dublin.' When King 
Harald Hardradi of Norway had decided, 
at the instigation of the Saxon Earl Tostig, 
to oppose King Harold and invade England, 
he passed the previous winter (1065-6) in 
the Orkneys with his fleet, in preparing his 
forces, to which the Orkney earls added all 
those at their disposal, and prepared to ac- 
company him. The saga- writer relates of the 
expedition that on leaving Orkney a landing 
was first made at Cleveland, when Scar- 
borough was taken. The attacking forces 
next landed at Holderness, where they gained 
a victory. On Wednesday, 20 Sept., they 
fought at York against the Earls Waltheof 
and Morcar [q. v.] On Sunday the town of 
Stamford Bridge surrendered. Hardradi went 
on shore to arrange for its government. But 
while he was on shore he w r as met by Harold, 
king of England, at the head of a numerous 
army. In the battle that followed Harald 
Hardradi fell. After his death Eystein Orri, 
his brother-in-law, and the two earls, Paul 
and Erlend, arrived from the ship and made 
a stout resistance. Eystein Orri fell, and 
almost the whole army of the Northmen with 
him. Earl Paul, having made his submission 
and given hostages to the English king, was 
allowed to return to the Orkneys with the 
young Olaf, Hardradi's son, and what re- 
mained of their disordered forces in twenty 

Earl Paul sought subsequently to esta- 
blish the Christian religion in his earldom. 
He sent to Lanfranc, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, a clerk (Ralph), whom he wished to 
be consecrated as bishop. Lanfranc, in a 
letter still extant, ordered Wulfstan, bishop 
of Worcester, and Peter, bishop of Chester, 
to go to York and assist the archbishop 
there in the consecration [see RALPH, ft. 

Paul married a daughter of Hakon Ivar- 
son, and had a son and three daughters. 
He lived in harmony with his brother Erlend 
until their respective families grew up, when 
differences arose. Hakon, Paul's ambitious 
son, exacted more than his due, which Er- 
lend, his uncle, and Erlend's sons, Magnus 

(St. Magnus) and Erling especially the 
latter resented. Hakon was induced to 
leave the islands, and, going to Norway, in- 
duced King Magnus Barelegs to undertake 
an expedition (1098) to subdue the Orkneys 
and the Hebrides. Hakon sailed with the 
expedition. The king, on his arrival in 
Orkney, sent Earls Paul and Erlend prisoners 
to Norway ; and, having placed his young 
son Sigurd over the islands, continued with 
Hakon his raid to the Hebrides and the Irish 
Sea. Earl Paul died at Bergen during the 
following year (1099). Hakon remained with 
King Magnus, and became a celebrated war- 
rior. On the death of King Magnus (1103), 
his son, the young Sigurd, left the Orkneys 
to succeed his father on the throne of Nor- 
way. Hakon succeeded to the Orkney earl- 
dom, which he held for a time conjointly 
with his first cousin Magnus (St. Magnus) ; 
but, growing again jealous of him, he killed 
Magnus in 1115. To Hakon succeeded his 
sons Harald and Paul the Silent. 

1130), ruled over the islands with his half- 
brother Harald. On the death of Harald, 
Paul ruled for a time alone. IJe was some- 
what taciturn, spoke little at the Thing- 
meetings, and gave others a large share of 
the government. He was modest, gentle to 
the people, and liberal with his money among 
his Iriends. He was not warlike. He had, 
however, to defend his possessions against 
the rival claims of Kali Kolson, nephew to 
Earl Magnus the Saint, Erlend's son. Kali 
assumed the name of Rognvald (St. Rogn- 
vald), and received from King Sigurd of Nor- 
way a grant of that part of the islands which 
had belonged to his uncle. Paul refused to 
recognise his claims, and Rognvald prepared 
to invade the Orkneys. Assistance was pro- 
mised Rognvald from the Hebrides and the 
north of Scotland, in the interest of Maddad, 
earl of A thole, who was married to Mar- 
garet, sister of Earl Paul the Silent, and who 
wished to secure the earldom for his young 
son Harald. Rognvald's first descent on the 
islands failed. His forces were dispersed and 
his ships captured by Paul. Previous to a 
second attempt Rognvald made a vow, says 
the saga-writer, that if he succeeded he would 
build and endow a church at Kirkwall in the 
Orkneys, where the relics of his uncle Magnus 
the Saint might be preserved, and whither 
the bishop's see might be transferred. His 
second attempt was successful, and he per- 
formed his vow. The church he built, the 
cathedral of St. Magnus, yet remains intact, 
one of the finest minsters in the north of 
Europe. The islands were divided between 
Paul and Rognvald; but about the same 



time (1136) Maddad, earl of Athole, in- 
structed Swein Asleifson, a well-known 
Orkney Viking, to sail to the islands and 
capture Paul and bring him prisoner to 
Athole. This was done, and Paul never re- 
turned to the Orkneys. His fate was doubt- 
ful. Two years later Harald, the earl of 
Athole's son, although a child of five years 
old, was joined in the government of the 
islands with Earl Rognvald. 

[The Orkneyinga Saga, Rolls edit. ; Saga of 
King Harald 'Hardradi ; Wyntoun's Chronicle, 
ed. Turnbull; Skene's Introduction and Notes to 
Fordun's Scotichronicon ; Robertson's Scotland 
under her Early Kings.] J. G. I 7 . 

PAUL ANGLICUS (fl. 1404), canonist, 
was one of the earliest writers to treat of 
the errors of the Roman catholic church. 
His ' Aureum Speculum Papae, ejus Curiae, 
Praelatorum et aliorum spiritualium,' written 
in 1404, is divided into three parts, and is in 
the form of a dialogue between Peter and 
Paul. The interlocutors represent two 
imaginary persons, who are made to reason 
in plain language, to quote scripture and 
the canons of the church, and to appeal to 
natural law and justice. The first and 
second parts affirm the existence of the 
gravest errors and abuses within the church : 
the sale of benefices, indulgences, and other 
privileges, which is condemned as simony. 
In the third part the writer resumes, and 
reasserts that the church of Home is funda- 
mentally wrong : ' fore erroneam in statu 
damnationis laborantem, cum omnibus qui 
exorbitantes gratias a jure communi et bene- 
ficia ecclesiastica sunt adept i/ He further 
affirms it to be impossible to exempt the 
cardinals from the charge of simony, and 
questions the power of the pope. The 
writer states that he wrote the book in the 
fifteenth year of the pontificate of Boniface 
IX, i.e. 1404. 

The ' Aureum Speculum ' was well known 
in Germany prior to the Reformation. John 
Huss referred to it. Manuscript copies of it, 
without the author's name, were at that 
time to be found in many continental 
libraries ; a manuscript now in the University 
Library at Basle seems to present the text 
followed in the earlier printed editions. It 
was first published at Basle in 1555, in the 
' Antilogia Papae, hoc est de corrupto ec- 
clesiae statu/ by Wolfgang Wisseburg, theo- 
logian, a work which has been reproduced in 
the 'Appendix ad Fasciculum Rerum Ex- 
petendarum et Fugiendarum,' edited by 
Edward Brown, 2 vols. fol. London, 1690 (pp. 
584-607). Wisseburg says, in his preface, that 
he was ignorant of the name of the author, but, 

after commending the work to the reader, 
adds : ' Mirandum sane esset tarn liberam 
fuisse linguam in tarn captivo seculo.' Ed- 
ward Brown, in his preface to the later re- 
print, states further : ' Aureum Speculum est 
a Paulo quodam conterraneo nostro.' A 
short summary of it is to be found in the 
' Catalogus Testium Veritatis qui ante nos- 
tram setatem Pontifici Romano ej usque 
Strasburg, 1562, and in later editions of the 
same work, Lyons, 1597 ; Geneva, 1608. It 
is also noticed in * Lectionum Memorabilium 
et Reconditaruin Centenarii XVI,' by John 
Wolf ( Wolfius), LavingEe, 1600. It is given 
complete,with the author's name, inGoldast's 
' Monarchies Romani Imperii, sive Tracta- 
tus de Jurisdictione Imperiali,' Frankfort, 
1621, t. iii. pp. 1527-58, under the title, 
' Pauli Decretorum Doctoris Angli, Aureum 
Speculum Papae, ejus curiae, pnelatorum et 
aliorum spiritualium super plenitudine po- 
testatis Papalis, scriptum ante ducentos 

[Fabricius's Bibl. Eccles. v. 197 : Oudin's 
Script. Eccles. iii. 2236; Tanner's Bibl.Brit.-Hib. 
p. 582, Append, ad Hist. Lit. de Script. Eccles. a 
Cave per Wharton, p. 78: Sacra Bibl. Illustr. 
Arcana Relecta a Theoph. Spizelio, Augsburg, 
1668.] J. G. F. 

PAUL OF ST. MAGDALEN (1599-1643), 
Franciscan. [See HEATH, HENRY.] 


(1746-1820), philanthropist, born in 1746 at 
W T oodchester, Gloucestershire, was son of SIR 
ONESIPHORUS PAUL (1706-1774), who was 
engaged largely in the manufacture of fine 
woollen cloths at Woodchester. The father 
introduced many improvements into the 
trade, and on 19 March 1748 took out a 
patent ' for preparing cloths intended to be 
dyed scarlet, to more effectually ground the 
colours and preserve their beauty, and for 
other purposes.' At Woodchester the first 
napping-mill established in that part of the 
country was set up by him. In August 1750 
he entertained Frederick, prince of Wales, 
and his suite. In 1760 Paul was sheriff of 
Gloucestershire, and was knighted on pre- 
senting an address from the country to 
George III on his accession. On 3 Sept. 
1762 he was created a baronet. He died 
on 21 Sept. 1774 at Hill House, Rod- 
borough, Gloucestershire, and was buried 
in Woodchester churchyard. Paul was 
thrice married. By his first wife, Jane, 
daughter of Francis Blackburne of St. Ni- 
cholas, Yorkshire, he was father of the 

The son matriculated at St. John's College, 



Oxford, on 8 Dec. 1763, and was created M.A. 
of Oxford on 12 Dec. 1766. He took the addi- 
tional Christian name of George in February i 
1780. He passed several years in travelling I 
on the continent, living in 1767-8 at the j 
courts of Brunswick and Vienna, and after- \ 
wards visiting Hungary, Poland, and Italy, ! 
and returning through France. In 1780, the } 
year of his return, he was high sheriff of 
Gloucestershire ; and it w^as then probably 
that the state of the county gaol and houses 
of correction began to attract his atten- 

At the spring assizes held at Gloucester in ' 
1783 Paul, as foreman of the grand jury, | 
addressed the jurors on the subject of the pre- 
valence of gaol fever, and suggested means 
of treating it, and of preventing it in the 
future ( Thoughts on the Alarming Progress 
of the Gaol Fever, 1784, 8vo). At a meeting 
summoned by the high sheriff on 6 Oct., at 
the grand jury's request, he carried a motion 
that * a new gaol and certain new houses of 
correction ' should be built ; and a committee, 
with Paul as chairman, was appointed to 
carry out the work (Considerations on the 
Defects of Prisons, 1784, 8vo, and 2nd edit, 
with a postscript). 

Paul obtained a special act of parliament, 
and he himself designed a county gaol at 
Gloucester, with a penitentiary annexed. The 
building was opened in 1791 . It had a chapel, 
a dispensary, two infirmaries, and a foul-ward 
in the upper story ; workrooms were provided 
for debtors, and those who were unable to 
obtain work from outside were given it on 
application to a manufacturer, and were 
allowed to retain two-thirds of what they 
earned (NEILD, State of the Prisons). At the 
same time five new bridewells were erected 
in various parts of Gloucester. In the preface 
to Paul's ' Address to the Magistrates of Glou- 
cestershire at the Michaelmas Quarter Ses- 
sions, 1789,' with regard to the appointment 
of officers and the adoption of regulations for 
the government of the new prisons, he says 
that the proposed regulations had been 
' hastily drawn up for Mr. Howard's perusal 
previous to his very sudden departure on his 
forlorn tour to the east.' Paul, though in- 
timately acquainted with Howard's writ- 
ings, does not seem to have known him per- 

He w r as interested in the Stroud society 
for providing gratuitous medical advice and 
medicine for the neighbouring poor, of 
which he became president in 1783. He was 
active in putting down * slingeing,' or the 
embezzlement of, and fraudulent dealing in, 
cloth material. On 14 Aug. 1788 George III, 
Queen Charlotte, and their three eldest 

daughters, when on their way to Chelten- 
ham, breakfasted at Hill House with Paul, 
and visited Obadiah Paul's cloth manufac- 
tory at Woodchester Mill. Paul was one 
of the party who accompanied Sir Walter 
Scott to the Hebrides in 1810. Scott called 
him, in a letter to Joanna Baillie (19 July 
1810), ' the great philanthropist ; ' and in one 
to J. B. Morritt of Rokeby, Scott writes 

Sir George Paul, for prison-house renowned, 
A wandering knight on high adventure bound. 

Paul died on 16 Dec. 1820. On his death 
the baronetcy expired, but was revived on 
3 Sept. 1821 in the person of his cousin, John 
Dean Paul, eldest son of Dr. Paul of Salisbury, 
and father of Sir John Dean Paul [q. v.1 
Besides the pamphlets mentioned above and 
some insignificant brochures, Paul published: 
'Proceedings in the Construction and Re- 
gulation of the Prisons and Houses of Cor- 
rection of the County of Gloucester/ 1810, 

[Burke'sExtinct Baronetage ; Foster's Baronet- 
age and Alumni Oxon. ; Fisher's Notes and Re- 
collections of Stroud, pp. 122, 126, 178,180, 182; 
Neild's State of the Prisons, Iv. 244-9 ; Diet, 
of Architecture, 1858, vol. vi.; Reuss's Register 
of Authors, 1804, p. 176; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ii. 
737; Fosbroke's Gloucestershire, i. 365; Gent. 
Mag. 1804, ii. 993 ; Lockhart's Life of Scott, 
1845, pp. 197-9; Paul's Works ; Rudder's New 
Hist, of Gloucestershire, 1779, pp. 841-3; Ann. 
Reg. 1774, p. 197; Woodcroft's Alphabetical 
Lists of Patentees.] G. LE G. N. 

PAUL, HAMILTON (1773-1854), poet, 
was born on 10 April 1773 in the parish of 
Dailly, Ayrshire. He attended the parish 
school, and afterwards went to Glasgow Uni- 
versity, where he had as class-companion 
Thomas Campbell the poet, with whom he 
successfully competed for a prize poem. The 
two poets corresponded long after they had left 
Glasgow. Leaving the university, Paul be- 
came tutor in an Argyllshire family; but 
his literary bent induced him to become a 
partner in a printing establishment at Ayr, 
and for three years he edited the ' Ayr Adver- 
tiser.' Licensed to preach by the presbytery 
on 16 July 1800, he became assistant at 
Coylton that year, and occupied several 
similar positions until 1813, when he was pre- 
sented with the united livings of Broughton, 
Kilbucho, and Glenholm in Peeblesshire. He 
died, unmarried, on 28 Feb. 1854, at Brough- 

When at the university Paul had a repu- 
tation for improvising witty verses, some of 
which had a wide college "popularity. His 
first volume of verse, published in 1800, was 



entitled Paul's First and Second Epistles to 
the Dearly Beloved the Female Disciples or 
Female Students of Natural Philosophy m 
Anderson's Institution, Glasgow.' In 1805 
he published a rhymed pamphlet in favour 
of vaccination (' Vaccination, or Beauty Pre- 
served'); and in 1819 he edited the works 
of Robert Burns, contributing a memoir and 
ode in memory of the poet. The volume was 
commended by Professor Wilson. The first 
of the Burns clubs started at the beginning 
of the century found in him an enthusiastic 
supporter. ; and to a poetical appeal from his 
pen is due the preservation of the Auld 
Brig o' Doon, famous in * Tarn o' Shanter.' 
But his many effusions were scattered among 
the newspapers and magazines of his day, and 
have never been collected. He wrote the 
account of his parish in the * New Statistical , 
Account of Scotland' (vol. iii.) Among his | 
friends his reputation as a humourist and j 
story-teller was greater than as a poet. Even 
in the pulpit he could not be grave, and it is 
said that his sermons, though learned and 
able, were preached from texts humorously 
selected, and were spoiled by jests. 

[Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae, i. 213; Wilson's Poets 
and Poetry of Scotland, i. 498.] J. R. M. 


(1833 P-1879), actress and vocalist, was born 
at Dartford, Kent, and made her first ap- 
pearance on the London stage as Isabella 
Featherstone in March 1853, playing at the 
Strand, under the management of F. W. 
Allcroft, Captain Macheath in the ' Beggar's 
Opera.' Possessing great vivacity and spirit, 
distinct vocal gilts, and considerable stage 
talent, she made an immediate mark, and 
was engaged at Drury Lane and subse- 
quently at the Haymarket, where she played 
Macheath on 24 April 1854. The same year, 
with Mr. Howard Paul, whom she married 
in 1857, she played in the country Paul's 
* Locked Out.' In 1858 she took part with 
him in ' Patchwork,' described as ' a clatter 
of fun, frolic, song, and impersonation.' On 
, 3 July of the same year she was Sir Launce- 
lot de Lake (sic) in the ' Lancashire Witches, 
or the Knight and the Giants,' a burlesque 
included in an entertainment with which 
George Webster opened the Lyceum. In 
entertainments given by herself and her hus- 
band in town and country in 1860 and suc- 
cessive years, Mrs. Paul's share consisted 
largely of imitations of Mr. Henry Russell, 
Mr. Sims Reeves, and other known vocalists, 
in which she was very successful. On 2 Sept. 
1867 she was at the Strand playing Mrs. Dove 
in her husband's Ripples on the Lake.' On 
29 Aug. 1872 she played at Covent Garden 

Mistigris in Boucicault's ' Babil and Bijou,' 
with music by M. Herve and Frederick Clay. 
Her most ambitious effort was her appearance 
at Drury Lane in February 1869 as Lady Mac- 
beth to the Macbeth of Phelps and Charles 
Dillon on alternate nights. Anticipating sub- 
sequent actresses, she softened Lady Macbeth, 
subjugating to conjugal love the sterner traits 
ordinarily assigned the character. With this 
performance, which was not wanting in in- 
tensity, she doubled that of Hecate. She 
was also seen in Paris in comic opera. At 
the Olympic she appeared in the ' Grand 
Duchess,' and she took round the country a 
company of her own, playing a species of 
drawing-room entertainment. In Novem- 
ber 1877, as Lady Sangazure in the * Sor- 
cerer ' of Mr. Gilbert and Mr. (now Sir 
Arthur) Sullivan, she appeared at the Opera 
Comique. This proved to be her last Lon- 
don engagement. While performing at Shef- 
field in the ' Crisis ' in 1879 she was taken 
suddenly ill ; she was brought home to Lon- 
don, and on 6 May 1879 died at her resi- 
dence, 17 The Avenue, Bedford Park, Turn- 
ham Green. She was buried at Brompton 
cemetery. Mrs. Howard Paul was a woman 
of ability, whose talents were often frittered 
away in parts and occupations unworthy of 

[Personal recollections ; Era Newspaper, 
15 May 1879; Pascoe's Dramatic List; Scott 
and Howard's Memoirs of E. L. Blanchard ; 
Era Almanack, various years ; Sunday Times, 
various years.] J. K. 

PAUL, JOHN (1707-1787), legal author, 
son of Josiah Paul of Tetbury, Gloucester- 
shire, by Hester, daughter of Giles Pike of 
, the same place, was born at Highgrove, 
j Tetbury, in 1707. He married Sarah Wight, 
i of Wotton-under-Edge, succeeded to the 
! estate of Highgrove on the death of his 
father (2 Oct. 1744), and died without issue 
on 2 Sept. 1787. 

Paul was author of the following legal 
manuals of a popular type, published at Lon- 
: don: 1. ' Every Landlord or Tenant his own 
Lawyer; or the whole Law respecting Land- 
, lords, Tenants, and Lodgers,' 1775; 2nd edit., 
revised by G. Wilson, 1776 ; 7th edit. 1791, 
l 8vo ; 9th edit., revised by J. I. Maxwell, 
, 1806, 8vo. 2. ' The Parish Officer's Corn- 
pleat Guide ; containing the duty of the 
j Churchwarden, Overseer, Constable, and Sur- 
' veyor of the Highways,' 1776 ; 6th edit., 
1793, 8vo. 3. < A System of the Laws of 
Bankruptcy,' 1776, 8vo. 4. 'The Law of 
Tythes,' 1781, 8vo ; 2nd edit., revised by 
J. I. Maxwell, 1807, 8vo. 5. 'The Corn- 
pleat Constable,' 1785, 8vo. 




[Lee's Tetbury, 1857, p. 221 ; European Mag. 
1787, p. 247 ; Marvin's Legal Bibliography ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. AI. K. 

PAUL, JOHN, D.D. (1777-1848), Irish 
divine, was born in 1777 at Tobernaveen, 
near Antrim, where his father, John Paul, 
was a large farmer. Having determined to 
become a minister of the reformed presby- 
terian body, to which his father belonged, 
he entered the university of Glasgow in 1796, 
and was licensed to preach at Garvagh on 
16 Nov. 1803. He became minister at Lough- 
mourne, near Carrickfergus, co. Antrim, on 
11 Sept. 1805, and held the office till his 
death, mainly residing in Carrickfergus, where 
he conducted a classical school. 

In the Arian controversy which raged in 
the north of Ireland in the earlier part of 
this century Paul came prominently into 
notice. In 1819 he published ' Creeds and 
Confessions Defended in a Series of Letters 
addressed to the anonymous Author of 
" The Battle of the Two 'Dialogues " ' (8vo, 
Belfast, printed by Joseph Smyth). The 
motto on the title-page runs: * Paul, thou 
art permitted to speak for thyself.' In 1826 
he struck another strong blow in the con- 
troversy with ' A Refutation of Arianism 
and Defence of Calvinism ' (8vo, Belfast, 
printed by A. Mackay). This was a reply 
to the ' Sermons on the Study of the Bible 
and on the Doctrines of Christianitv,' Bel- 
fast, 1824, of the Rev. Dr. William Bruce 
(1757-1841) [q. v.] A speech delivered by 
Henry Montgomery [q. v.] in 1827, at the 
annual meeting of the synod of Ulster in 
Strabane, called forth a third work from 
Paul in 1828, viz. * A Review of a Speech 
by the Rev. Dr. Montgomery of Belfast, and 
the Doctrines of Unitarians proved to be 
unfavourable to the Right of Private Judg- 
ment, to Liberality, and Charity, to the In- 
vestigation of Truth and the practise of Vir- 
tue' (8vo, Belfast, printed by A. Mackay, 
jun.) These three publications attained a very 
large circulation. Their keen and incisive 
logic and vigorous style constituted them 
powerful factors in the discussions which 
evoked them. 

Paul became involved in another contro- 
versy with a brother minister of the reformed 
presbyterian body, the Rev. Thomas Hous- 
ton, D.D., of Knockbracken, near Belfast, the 
point in dispute being the province of * the 
civil magistrate.' He published several 
pamphlets on the question, the chief being 
' A Review of the Rev. Thomas Houston's 
"Christian Magistrate," and a Defence of 
the Principles of Civil and Religious Li- 
berty' (8vo, Belfast, 1833). Eventually the 
controversy reached the synod of the re- 

formed presbyterian church, and divided it 
into two bodies one, the ' Reformed Presby- 
terian Synod of Ireland,' adhering to the 
views of Houston; and the other, the ' Eastern 
Reformed Presbyterian Synod of Ireland,' 
holding by those of Paul. But, though a 
keen polemic, he was kind and amiable, and 
was universally respected. He died at Car- 
rickfergus on 16 March 1848. 

His three works on the Arian controversy 
were republished in one volume in 1855 
under the editorship of Stewart Bates, D.D., 
of Glasgow, who prefixed a memoir and intro- 
duction to them. 

Paul married, in 1807, Miss Rachel Smith 
of Ballyearl, co. Antrim, by whom he had 
several children, one of whom became the 
wife of the Rev. Dr. Bates, Glasgow, men- 
tioned above. 

[Memoir by Bates prefixed to Paul's works ; 
Reid : s Hist, of the Presbyterian Church in Ire- 
land, vol. iii. ; information kindly supplied by 
the Rev. Dr. Chancellor, Belfast, and Mrs. 
Merry lees, Dullaton, Glasgow (Paul's grand- 
daughter).] T. H. 

PAUL, SIR JOHN DEAN (1802-1868), 
banker, born on 27 Oct. 1802, the eldest 
son of Sir John Dean Paul, bart., a Lon- 
don banker, by his first wife, Frances Elea- 
nor, youngest daughter of John Simpson 
of Bradley Hall, Durham, was admitted 
to Westminster School on 24 April 1811, 
but left in the same year, and subsequently 
went to Eton. He became a partner in the 
firm of Snow, Paul, Paul, bankers and 
navy agents, of No. 217 Strand, in 1828, and 
on the death of his father on 16 Jan. 1852 
he succeeded to the baronetcy. On 11 June 
1855 the firm, which then consisted of 
William Strahan, Paul, and Robert Makin 
Bates, suspended payment. During the 
bankruptcy proceedings which immediately 
ensued a list of securities to the amount of 
113,625/., belonging to their clients, but 
which had been fraudulently sold or depo- 
sited by the bankrupts, was voluntarily 
handed into the court signed by the three 
members of the firm. Criminal proceedings 
were thereupon taken against them, and on 
26 Oct. 1855 the three partners were indicted 
at the Old Bailey before Baron Alderson for 
having illegally converted to their own use 
certain Danish bonds ot the value of 5,000/. 
entrusted to them as bankers for safe cus- 
tody by Dr. John Griffith, canon of Rochester. 
Paul was defended by Serjeant Byles, who 
admitted that the bonds were disposed of by 
his client, but argued that Paul's intention 
to replace them was shown by the subse- 
quent purchase of other bonds to a similar 
amount, though they, too, were afterwards 




sold in a similar manner. He also endea- 
voured to maintain that Paul, having made 
a full disclosure in the bankruptcy court, 
was no longer liable to a criminal prosecu- 
tion. Sir Frederick Thesiger contended on 
behalf of Strahan that the sale of the bonds 
was made solely by Paul, who alone re- 
ceived the proceeds, and that there was no 
proof that Strahan was privy to the trans- 
action ; while Edwin James declared that his 
client Bates was totally ignorant of the 
whole affair. On the following morning all 
three partners were found guilty, and severally 
sentenced to transportation for fourteen years. 
The debts proved against the firm amounted in 
round numbers to three-quarters of a million, 
and the dividend eventually realised came to 
3s. 2d. in the pound. The business was taken 
over by the London and Westminster Bank, 
and a branch office was established by them 
on the premises formerly occupied by the 
bankrupt firm. Paul, who was reputed to 
be a man of the highest religious principles, 
died at St. Albans, Hertfordshire, on 7 Sept. 
1868, aged 65. He married, first, on 10 Oct. 
1826, Georgiana, third daughter of Charles 
George Beauclerk of St. Leonard's Lodge, 
Sussex, by whom he had an only son, Aubrey 
John Dean Paul, who succeeded him in the 
baronetcy. She died on 25 Dec. 1847. Paul 
married, secondly, on 17 Jan. 1849, Susan, 
daughter of John Ewens of Brighton, who 
died on 3 June 1854. He married, thirdly, 
on 17 Oct. 1861, Jane Constance, daughter 
of Thomas Brigden of Holmesdale House, 
Surrey. He had no issue by his second or 
third wife. His widow died on 21 Dec. 

Paul illustrated 'The Country Doctor's 
Horse : a Tale in Verse,' written by his 
father, and privately printed in 1847 (Lon- 
don, obi. fol.) He was the author of : 1. 'Har- 
monies of Scripture, and Short Lessons for 
Young Christians,' London, 1846, 16mo. 
2. ' Bible Illustrations ; or the Harmony of 
the Old and New Testament ... To which 
is added a Paraphrase of the Book of Esther. 
The above works are from MSS. purchased 
at the sale of Sir John Dean Paul,' London, 
1855, 12mo. 3. A B C of Foxhunting, 
consisting of twenty-six coloured illustra- 
tions by the late Sir John Dean Paul, bart.' 
London, [1871], 4to. 

[Price's Handbook of London Bankers, 1876, 
pp. 128-30; Criminal Court Proceedings, 1854- 
1855, xlii. 695-709; Cox's Keports of Cnses in 
Criminal Law, 1858, vii. 85-8; Irving's Annals 
of our own Time, 1869, pp. 295-6, 302-3; An- 
nual Register, 1855, Chron. pp. 98-104, 359-75 ; 
Times, 12 and 15 Sept. 1868; Mr. SerjeantBal- 
lantine's Experiences of a Barrister's Life, 1 890, 

p. 198; Burke's Peerage, 1892, p. 1085; Fosters 
Baronetage, 1881, p. 487; Stapylton s Eton 
School Lists, 1864, p. 91 ; Barker and Stenning's 
Westminster School Register, 1892, p. 179; Notes 
and Queries, ?th ser. x. 247, 312-13 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

PAUL, LEWIS (d. 1759), inventor of 
spinning machinery, was the son of one Dr. 
Paul, who died when Lewis was very young. 
The boy was left under the guardianship of 
Lord Shaftesbury, and his brother, the Hon. 
Maurice Ashley Cooper. In February 1728 
he married Sarah Meade (formerly Bull), the 
widow and executrix of Robert Meade, soli- 
citor, of Aylesbury, who had been solicitor 
to Philip, duke of Wharton. His wife died 
in September 1729. About this time he in- 
vented a machine for pinking shrouds, from 
which he derived considerable profit. Dr. 
Johnson's friend, Mrs. Desmoulins, was in 
early life a pupil of Paul in learning the art 
of pinking. 

In 1738 he took out a patent (No. 562) 
for ' a machine or engine for spinning of wool 
and cotton in a manner entirely new.' He 
is described as ' of Birmingham, gentleman, 3 
and he seems to have lived in Birmingham 
for many years. The invention comprised 
in this patent was of the greatest importance, 
and is in use in every cotton-mill in the 
world. It is known as ' roller-spinning,' 
and consists of two pairs of rollers of small 
diameter, one pair revolving at a slightly 
greater velocity than the other. ' Slivers ' 
of cotton or wool are passed through these 
rollers, and are stretched or ' drawn ' in a 
regular manner, the second pair of rollers 
pulling the sliver forward faster than the first 
pair delivers it. 

Paul set up a mill at Birmingham, and 
he obtained the assistance of John Wyatt, 
a skilful mechanic, and apparently a man 
of some means, as he was in a position to 
lend money to Paul. A claim has been 
set up on Wyatt's behalf to be regarded as 
the actual inventor of spinning by rollers, 
and the matter has given rise to much dis- 
cussion [see WYATT, JOHN, 1700-1766]. 
The enterprise was largely helped by Tho- 
mas Warren, a well-known Birmingham 
printer ; Edward Cave, of the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ; ' Dr, Robert James, of fever-pow- 
der celebrity : Mrs. Desmoulins, and others. 
Dr. Johnson took much interest in the 
scheme. A mill was also started at 
Northampton, but this and the Birmingham 
concern were both failures ; and the invention 
did not become a commercial success until 
it was taken up by Arkwright many years 
afterwards. To the Birmingham free li- 
brary "Wyatt's descendants presented a hank 




of yarn spun by Paul's machine, worked ' by 
asses walking round its axis, in a large ware- 
house in the Upper Priory at Birmingham, 
about the year 1741.' 

Paul patented in 1748 (No. 636) a 
machine for carding cotton, wool, and other 
fibres, which contains the first suggestion of 
a circular or continuous carding engine, and 
of a comb for stripping off the carding. 
His claim to this invention is not disputed 
by the friends of John "Wyatt (see BAINES, 
Cotton Manufacture, p. 172). It was tried 
both in Birmingham and Northampton, and 
when the establishment at the last-named 
town was broken up, the carding-machine 
was bought by a hat manufacturer at Leo- 
minster, and was introduced into Lancashire 
about 1760 (Kennedy in Mem. Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. Manchester, v. 326, 2nd ser.) 

In June 1758 Paul took out a third patent 
(No. 724) for a spinning-machine, which is de- 
scribed in great detail in the specification 
and with the aid of drawings. It appears 
from the patent that he was then living at 
1 Kensington Gravel Pits.' This machine is 
evidently the one referred to in Dyer's poem 
of the ' Fleece,' published in 1757, and the 
description corresponds so closely to the 
drawings in the specification that Dyer 
must have seen the machine at work. The 
discrepancy in the dates may be explained 
by the supposition that Paul had com- 
pleted his machine before taking out a 
He endeavoured to get the machine intro- 
duced into the Foundling Hospital, and the 
letter which he addressed to the president, 
the Duke of Bedford, was drafted by Dr. 
Johnson. It is without date, and is printed 
in Brownlow's 'History of the Foundling 
Hospital ' (p. 64). 

A letter from Dr. Johnson to Paul, con- 
taining a suggestion for obtaining money 
from Cave, is preserved in the Patent Office 
Library, London. Others are in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Samuel Timmins of Birmingham. 
There are two deeds between Paul and Cave, 
dated 1740, in the British Museum (Add. Ch. 

Paul died in April 1759 at Brook Green, 
Kensington, and was buried at Paddington, 
30 April. He left a will dated 1 May 1758, 
the probate of which is in the British Museum 
(Add. Ch. 5974). 

[About 1850 Robert Cole, a well-known col- 
lector of autographs, purchased a quantity of 
papers that had been removed from a lawyer's 
office in Gray's Inn. Among them were several 
hundred letters addressed to Paul, including 
thirteen letters from Dr. Johnson, about twenty 
from Edward Cave, between thirty and forty from 

Dr. Eobert James, besides a number of legal docu-, 
metrts bearing upon the history of Paul's inven- 
tions. Mr. Cole made use of these materials in the 
preparation of a memoir of Paul, which he read at 
the meeting of the British Association at Leeds in 
1858. It is published in full in the appendix to Gr. J. 
French's Life of Samuel Crompton, 1859, and it 
forms the sole source of information respecting 
Paul's career. At Mr. Cole's death nearly the 
whole of the papers were purchased by the Bir- 
mingham Free Library, but before they had 
been thoroughly examined and catalogued they 
were unfortunately destoyed in the fire which 
took place in 1879. A rough list of the 
papers was published in the Birmingham Weekly 
Post, 29 Sept. 1877. A number of Cave's letters 
to Paul were printed in the same newspaper for 
22 and 29 Aug. 1891, and some of Thomas 
Warren's letters appeared in the numbers for 
29 Dec. 1891, and following weeks. These 
letters were purchased by private owners, and 
so escaped the fire. See also Baines's History 
of the Cotton Manufacture, pp. 119-141, 172; 
Cole's Memoir in French's Life of Crompton, 
p. 249; articles in Centralblatt fur die Textil- 
Industrie (Berlin), 22 and 29 Nov. and 6 Dec. 
1892.] B. B. P. 

1877), miscellaneous writer, eldest son of the 
Rev. Richard Paull, rector of Mawgan in Py- 
dar, Cornwall (d. 1 Dec. 1805), by Frances, 
daughter of the Rev. Robert Bateman, rector 
of Mawgan and St. Columb-Major, Cornwall, 
was born at St. Columb-Major on 21 March 
1798. He was educated at Truro grammar 
school and at Exeter College, Oxford, where 
he matriculated on 10 Oct. 1815. In 1817 he 
obtained an Eliot exhibition from his school, 
and on 30 June 1817 he was elected a fellow 
of his college. He took a second class in 
classics in 1819, and graduated B.A. 1 July 
1820, M.A. 16 Feb. 1822. After having been 
ordained in the English church, and holding 
to January 1824 the curacy of Probus in his 
native county, he returned to Oxford. In 
1825 he was appointed bursar and tutor of 
his college, and during 1826-7 he served as 
public examiner in classics, but he vacated 
his fellowship on 11 Jan. 1827 by his mar- 
riage to Rosa Mira, daughter of the Rev. 
Richard Twopenny, rector of Little Caster- 
ton, near Stamford. From 30 June 1825 to 
1 Aug. 1829 he held the college living of 
Long Wittenham, Berkshire, and from 1829 
to 1835 he was vicar of Llantwit-Major with 
Llyswarney in Glamorganshire. Paul re- 
mained without preferment for some time, 
but in 1845 he was licensed to the incum- 
bency of St. John, Kentish Town, London. 
This benefice he retained until 1848, and 
from that year to 1851 he held the vicarage 
of St. Augustine, Bristol. Early in 1851 he 




emigrated to New Zealand, where he settled 
near Lyttelton, acting for a time as commis- 
sary of the bishop, and from 1855 to 1860 
as archdeacon of Waimea or Nelson. Shortly 
after 1860 he returned to England, and in 
February 1864 was appointed to the rectory 
of St. Mary, Stamford, which he resigned on 
account of old age in 1872. In 1867 he be- 
came a prebendary of Lincoln, and in the 
next year he obtained the confratership of 
Browne's Hospital at Stamford, which he 
held until his death. He died at Barnhill, 
Stamford, on 6 June 1877, and was buried 
on 9 June in Little Casterton churchyard. 
His widow died at 35 Norland Square, Lon- 
don, on 4 Oct. 1882. They had issue four 

Paul wrote many works. He published 'An 
Analysis of Aristotle's Ethics' in 1829, and 
of the ' Rhetoric ' in 1830. A second edition 
of the ' Ethics ' came out in 1837, and it was 
reissued, ' revised and corrected, with general 
questions added,' by J. B.Worcester, in 1879. 
He compiled a ' History of Germany,' ' on 
the plan of Mrs. Markham's histories for the 
use of young persons,' in 1847, and from 1847 
to 1851 he published numerous editions of 
the plays of Sophocles, with notes from Ger- 
man editors, and many translations of Ger- 
man handbooks on ancient and mediaeval 
geography, Greek and Roman antiquities, 
and kindred subjects. His books on New 
Zealand entitled (1) * Some Account of the 
Canterbury Settlement,' 1854 ; (2) ' Letters 
from Canterbury,' 1857 ; (3) ' New Zealand 
as it was, and as it is,' 1861 contain accu- 
rate and valuable information on the history 
and progress of the colony. In early life 
Paul published 'A Journal of a Tour to 
Moscow in the Summer of 1836,' and when 
an old man he wrote, under the pseudonym 
of ' the late James Hamley Tregenna,' a 
novel in two volumes called ' The Autobio- 
graphy of a Cornish Rector,' 1872, which 
embodied many incidents in local history 
and many curious details of folklore, the re- 
collections of youthful days passed in North 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Boase's Exeter Coll. 
ed. 1894, p. 168; Jewers's St. Columb-Major 
Registers, pp. 127, 173 ; Boasa and Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub. i. 431-3, iii. 1303; Boase's Col- 
lectanea Cornub. pp. 662, 1394-5 ; Lincoln, 
Rutland, and Stamford Mercury, 8 June 1877; 
Stamford and Rutland Guardian, 8 and 15 June 
1877.] W. P. C. 

PAUL, WILLIAM BE (d. 1349), bishop 
of Meath, is said to have been a native of 
Kent by Villiers de Saint-Etienne, but of 
Yorkshire by Cogan (Diocese of Meath, i. 
76). He entered the Carmelite order, and 

studied at Oxford, where he graduated D.D., 
and subsequently at Paris. In 1309, at a 
congregation of the order held at Genoa, he 
was elected provincial of the Carmelites in 
England and Scotland, and in 1327 was pro- 
vided by John XXII to the see of Meath, 
and consecrated at Avignon, his tempo- 
ralities being restored to him on 24 July. 
He held the see for twenty-two years, and 
died in July 1349. 

By Bale, Pits, Fabricius, Leland, and 
Ware, Paul is confused with William Pagula 
[q. v.] ; he is also stated to have written 
several theological and other works, none of 
which are known to be extant, and most of 
which have also been attributed to Pagula 
i. 605-6, for a list of them, and discussion as 
to their supposed authorship). 

[Authorities quoted ; Cal. Patent Rolls, 1317- 
1330, p. 139 ; Pits, p. 363 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.- 
Hibern. ; Ware's Irish Bishops and "Writers, ed. 
Harris; Cotton's Fasti, iii. 113 ; Paradisus Car- 
melitici Decoris a Alegre de Casanate, p. 270 ; 
Lezana's Annales Carmel. iv. ad annos 1280, 
1309,1313; Possevin's Apparatus Sacer; Cogan's 
Diocese of Meath, i. 76.] A. F. P. 

PAUL, WILLIAM (1599-1665), bishop 
of Oxford, baptised at St. Leonard's, East- 
cheap, 14 Oct. 1599, was a younger son (one 
of sixteen children) of William Paul, a 
butcher and citizen, of Eastcheap, London, 
and his wife Joane, daughter of John Har- 
rison, beadle of the Butchers' Company 
(CHESTEK, Westminster Abbey Reg. ; FOSTEK, 
Alumni}. He went to Oxford in 1614, and 
matriculated 15 Nov. 1616 from All Souls'. 
He became a fellow of All Souls' ' about all 
Saints time 1618,' graduated B.A. 9 June 
1618, M.A. 1 June 1621, B.D. 13 March 
1628-9, and D.D. 10 March 1631-2. Bar- 
low declared that he answered the divinity 
act the most satisfactorily of any person he 
had heard (State Papers, Dom. Car. I, ccxx. 

After taking holy orders he was a frequent 
preacher in Oxford (WooD, Athencs Oxon. iv. 
828), and was rector of a mediety of Pat- 
shall, Staffordshire, from 7 Feb. 1625-6 till 
1628 (Lansd. MS. 986, f. 44). In 1632 or 
1633 he became rector of Baldwin-Bright- 
well, Oxfordshire, and ' about that time ' 
was also made chaplain to Charles I, and 
canon -residentiary of Chichester, holding 
the prebend of Seaford. After the outbreak 
of the war the lords resolved (5 Oct. 1642) 
that he should be allowed to attend the 
king as chaplain in ordinary (Lor-ds 1 Journal, 
v. 386 ; Commons' Journals, ii. 795; State 
Papers, Dom. Car. I, ccccxcvii. 97). 




On the triumph of the parliament's cause 
he lost his prebend of Chichester as a delin- 
quent (WALKEK, Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 
12), but he was * discharged by the com- 
mittee for sequestrations' (Cal. of Comm. 
for Compounding, v. 27 a ; see also vol. G. 
ccxvii. 54). According to Lloyd, he was 
a shrewd man of business, and lent money 
to advantage, ' to the most considerable ' 
among the independents (cf. Cal. of Claren- 
don Papers, ii. 171). At the Restoration he 
again became royal chaplain, and recovered his 
Seaford prebend and his Oxford livings. He 
became vicar of Amport, Hampshire, in 1662. 
He was presented to the deanery of Lichfield 
26 Jan. 1660-1, and took part in the election 
of Hacket as bishop of Coventry and Lich- 
field (State Paper*, Dom. Car. II, Case A.8). 
On 16 June 1663 a conge d'61ire was des- 
patched for his election to the bishopric of 
Oxford. He was confirmed 13 Dec., conse- 
crated at Lambeth on the 20th, and enthroned 
7 Jan. 1663-4. Three days previous to his 
election a warrant of commendam was is- 
sued, granting him liberty to hold the rec- 
tories of Baldwin-Brightwell and Chinnor 
(Entry Book, 12, p. 41, 11 Nov. 1663). Shel- 
don and the king expected that Paul would 
devote his wealth to rebuilding the bishop's 
palace at Cuddesden, and he ' bought and 
laid in at Cuddesden a considerable quantity 
of timber ; but before anything could be done 
he died' at Chinnor (24 Aug. 1665). He 
was buried at Bald win-Bright well, where 
a monument, with a long inscription, was 
erected (Lansd. MS. 986, f. 44). His will, 
dated 14 Nov. 1664, was proved 21 Feb. 

Paul married, in 1632, by license of the 
dean of Westminster, Mary, daughter of Sir 
Henry Glenham, knt., and sister of the Vis- 
countess of Dorchester. The marriage led 
to a suit batween Paul and the viscountess, 
1 as to her promise in consideration of the 
marriage to pay 600/. to be deposited in the 
hands of trustees for him and her.' The dif- 
ference was referred to the archbishop of 
Canterbury and the lord keeper, and they 
found the viscountess willing ' to pay 250. ' 
(28 Feb. 1633-4; Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th 
Rep. ii. 46). Paul's first wife died in 1633, 
and was buried at Baldwin-Brightwell. On 
22 Jan. 1634-5 he married, at St. Giles-in- 
the-fields, Alice, second daughter of Thomas 
Cutler of Ipswich. She died soon after, 
19 Nov. 1635, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey on 20 Nov. Almost immediately 
after Paul married a third wife, Rachel, 
daughter of Sir Christopher Clitherow, knt., 
by whom he had a numerous family. Her 
portrait was engraved by D. Loggan. Paul's 

eldest son, William, of Bray in Berkshire, 
was knighted at Windsor 6 July 1671 (LE 
NEVE, Knights, Harl. Soc., viii. 249). The 
male line died out in the second generation. 
The female is now represented by the 
Baroness Le Despenser, whose ancestor, Sir 
William Stapleton, bart., married the heiress 
of Paul's only surviving grandson (CHESTEK, 
Westminster Abbey Reg.) 

[Wood's Athenas Oxon. and Fasti ; Le Neve's 
Fasti; Lloyd's Memoires, p. 611; Foster's 
Alumni; Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 12; 
Foster's London Marriage Licenses ; Chester's 
Westminster Abbey Reg. p. 131; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. Reports and State Papers, Dom.ubi supra; 
Lansd. MS. 986, f. 44; Lords' and Commons' 
Journals; Harl Soc. Publ. xiii. 249; Simms's 
Bibliotheca Staffordiensis; information from the 
Rev. Hilgrove Coxe, rector of Brightwell.] 

W. A. S. 

PAUL, WILLIAM (1678-1716), Jaco- 
bite, born in 1678, was the eldest son of 
John Paul, who possessed the small estate 
of Little Ashby, near Lutterworth, Leicester- 
shire, his mother being a daughter of Mr. 
Barfoot of Streatfields, Warwickshire. He 
received his early education at a school 
kept by Thomas Sargreave, rector of Leire, 
Leicestershire, and at Rugby, which he en- 
tered in 1696 (Register of Rugby School). In 
1698 he went to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1701, 
and M.A. in 1705. Shortly after leaving the 
university he became curate at Carlton Cur- 
lieu, near Harborough, Leicestershire, acting 
at the same time as chaplain to Sir Geoffrey 
Palmer [q. v.] He went thence to Tarn- 
worth, Staffordshire, where he was also usher 
in the free school; and subsequently became 
curate at Nuneaton, Warwickshire. From 
Nuneaton he was promoted to the vicarage of 
Orton-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire, being in- 
stalled on 5 May 1 709, after taking the oaths 
to Queen Anne and abjuring the Pretender. 
On the outbreak of the rebellion in 1715 he 
set out with others to join the Jacobite forces 
in Lancashire. On the way north he was 
seized by Major Bradshaw, but was again set 
at liberty by Colonel Noel, a justice of the 
peace. He succeeded in joining the rebels 
at Lancaster, and at Preston induced Robert 
Patten [q.v.] to permit him to read the prayers. 
This permission, Patten affirms, he granted 
him unwillingly, because he was in lay dress; 
and he read prayers three times for the Pre- 
tender as king. He left Preston just before it 
was invested, and, although taken by General 
Wills, was discharged. After the rout of 
the rebels he went south to his own county, 
and thence to London, where he appeared in 
coloured clothes, laced hat, full-bottomed wig, 



and a sword by his side. While in St. James' 
Park he was accidentally met by Thomas Bird 
a justice of the peace for his county, who knew 
him, and took him prisoner 12 Dec. 1715. H 
was carried to the Duke of Devonshire's, am 
thence to Lord Townshend's. After examina 
tion he was committed to a messenger's house 
and fourteen days afterwards he was sent t< 
Newgate. He was brought to the excheque 
bar at Westminster 31 May 1716, when he 
pleaded not guilty ; but when brought again to 
the bar 15 June he withdrew his former plea 
and acknowledged his guilt. After sentence 
of death was passed he expressed the deepes! 
penitence for his conduct, and wrote letters to 
the king, the lord chief justice, and the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, soliciting mercy, in 
which he asserted that he now detested and 
abhorred the rebellion from the bottom of his 
soul. Finding-, however, that these profes- 
sions were ineffectual to save his life, he again 
entirely changed his attitude. On the scaf- 
fold he appeared in the canonical habit of the 
church of England ; declared that he was a 
true son of the church, not as it was now 
schismatical and that he died in the real 
nonjuring one, free from rebellion and schism. 
He, moreover, asked pardon of all he had 
scandalised by pleading guilty, and of his 
God and king for having violated his loyalty 
{ by taking most abominable oaths in defence 
of usurpation' against his 'lawful sovereign 
King James the third.' He was hanged, 
drawn, and quartered at Tyburn on 13 July. 
A portrait of Paul has been engraved in an 
oval along with John Hall, who wa>s executed 
on the same gallows. The engraver is sup- 
posed to have been Vertue. 

[A True Copy of the Papers delivered to the 
Sheriffs of London by William Paul, a Clergy- 
man, and John Hall, Esq., 1716; The Devil's 
Martyrs, or Plain Dealing, in answer to the 
Jacobite Speeches of those two Perjured Rebels, 
William Paul, a Clergyman, and John Hall, a 
Justice of the Peace, by John Dunton, 1716; 
Remarks on the Speeches of Wm. Paul, Clerk, 
.and John Hall, of Otterburn, Esq., 1716; The 
Thanks of an Honest Clergyman for Mr. Paul's 
Speech at Tyburn, 1716; Patten's Hist, of the 
Rebellion ; Granger's Biographical History of 
England.] T. F. H. 

PAULDEN, THOMAS (1626-1710?), 
royalist, son of William Paulden of Wake- 
field, by his wife Susannah, daughter of Ed- 
ward Binns of Horbury, Yorkshire, was born 
in Wakefield in January 1625-6 (baptised on 
25 Jan., parish register). He entered the 
army, and served the king during the civil 
war with unflinching devotion. He was pro- 
bably the Captain Paulden who was taken 
prisoner at Naseby on 14 June 1645 (RUSH- 

WORTH, pt. iv. vol. i. p. 48). In 1647 he was 
attending meetings of loyal gentlemen at 
South Kirkby and the neighbourhood, and 
privately enlisted disbanded troops, both 
horse and foot. He and his brothers Wil- 
liam (1618-1648) and Timothy (1622-1648) 
seem to have been the sole confidants of 
the royalist colonel John Morris [q. v.], to 
whom Overton, the parliamentary gover- 
nor of Pontefract Castle, had promised to 
betray the castle. The removal of Overton 
to Hull in November 1647 rendered the plan 
impracticable. The royalists thePauldens 
among them made an unsuccessful attempt 
at a surprise on 18 May 1648. In the suc- 
cessful capture of the castle by Morris on 
3 June Thomas Paulden took no part, but he 
and his brothers were active during the siege 
that followed, commanding sallies, acting on 
councils of war, and settling points of dis- 
sension among the garrison. In October 
1648 Colonel Thomas Rainsborough [q. v.] 
arrived from London to reinforce the be- 
sieging party, and was quartered at Doncas- 
ter, twelve miles from Pontefract. William 
Paulden then devised a scheme for seizing 
the person of Rainsborough. On 27 Oct., at 
midnight, he and twenty-two picked men 
left forDoncaster, which they reached at 7.30 
on the morning of the 28th. After disarming 
the guard, four men, under pretence of bearing 
despatches from Cromwell, entered Rains- 
borough's room and 'claimed him as their 
Drisoner. Rainsborough, being unarmed, of- 
ered no resistance. But, when downstairs, 
he ' saw himself, his lieutenant, and his sen- 
inel at his door prisoners to three men and 
one that held their horses, without any party 
to second them ; ' he cried for arms,' and a 
scuttle ensued, in which Rainsborough was 
dlled. Paulden's party returned to Ponte- 
ract Castle unhurt the same evening, 29 Oct. 
The occurrence was reported in London as a 
deliberate murder (A Full and Exact Rela- 
l ion, 30 Oct. ; Bloody Newesfrom the Army, 
51 Oct. E. 470 [4 and 5]). 

On the arrival of Cromwell early in No- 
vember the garrison at Pontefract was 
ilosely shut up in the castle. Part of the 
uiilding was blown up, and sickness pre- 
r ailed among the men. But they held out 
ill the end of February 1649, when a mes- 
age from Prince Charles (whom they had 
it once proclaimed on his father's execution) 
xcused them from further resistance. On 
J March overtures were made to the be- 
iegers under Lambert. Six commissioners, 
f whom Thomas Paulden was one, unsuc- 
essfully endeavoured to treat in behalf of 
he besieged garrison. On 10 March nego- 
iatious .were renewed, when Paulden raised 




objections to the demand that six of the 
garrison (unnamed) should be ' delivered to 
mercy.' But on 17 March a surrender was 
concluded without his aid. Of the three 
brothers, Thomas was the only one living 
when the castle surrendered on 24 March 
1649. William died of fever during the siege 
in October 1648, and Timothy, who had left 
the castle in July 1648 and ' marched pre- 
sently for the north,' was killed at Wigan in 
August 1648 while a major of horse under 
the Earl of Derby. Their father, William 
Paulden of Wakefield, compounded for de- 
linquency in adhering to the forces against 
parliament in July 1649. 

Thomas Paulden went abroad and joined 
Charles II in his exile. He paid several 
secret visits to England, and was once be- 
trayed and brought before Cromwell. He 
denied his name, but was sent to the Gate- 
house, from which he escaped by throwing 
salt and pepper into the keeper's eyes. In 
1652 and 1654 he received payments on the 
king's account, and in May 1657 was supply- 
ing Hyde with intelligence as to the strength 
of the forces under Sir William Lockhart 
|. v.l (Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ii. 168, 
; iii. 300, 307). At the Restoration he 
returned to England, and was assisted in his 
poverty by the Duke of Buckingham. In 
January 1665-6 he wrote a quaint letter to 
Christopher Hatton, thanking him for kind- 
ness done to him. In April 1668 the king 
requested the treasury commissioners to re- 
commend him to the office of commissioner of 
excise ' on the first vacancy.' In February 
1692 he was in great money difficulties, and 
wrote to Lord Hatton, begging to be taken 
into his household as a servant, in order to be 
saved from a debtor's prison. He probably 
died before 1710. Thoresby, in his { Diary ' 
under date 18 July 1710 (ii. 62), mentions a 
visit he paid at York to ' the two aged vir- 
gins, Mrs. Pauldens, about 80 years old,' who I 
spoke to him of four memorable brothers of 
theirs. The registers at Wakefield record j 
the baptisms of Sarah on 18 Feb. 1627-8, 
and of Maria on 5 Sept. 1632, daughters of 
William Paulden; and of a son George, on 
19 Dec. 1629. 

Paulden published ' Pontefract Castle : j 
an Account how it was taken, and how j 
General Rainsborough was surprised in his j 
quarters at Doncaster,' The Savoy, 1702; , 
London, 1719 (for the benefit of his widow) ; ' 
Oxford, 1747 ; and in Somers's < Tracts,' 1812, ! 
vii. 3-9. 

[Thoresby's Ducatus Leodtensis, p. 36 ; Sur- ; 
tees Soc. Miscellany, xxxvii. 85-115; FOX'S' 
Hist-, of Pontefract,, pp. 231-56; Paulden's 
Pontefract Castle, passim; Archseologia, xlvi. 

45-8, 54-63; Holmes's Hist, of Pontefract 
(Sieges of Poutefract Castle), ii. 151-63 216-27 
239, 292-324; Addit. MSS. 21417 ff. 36, 40, 59, 
61, 65-70 (Baynes Corresp.), 29551 f. 155, 
29565, if. 136-7 (Hatton Corresp.); Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1667-8, p. 327; Proceedings 
of the Committee for Compounding, p. 2111 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. v. p. 12; Call 
of Clarendon State Papers, i. 461.] B. P. 

PAULE, SIR GEORGE (1563 P-1637), 
registrar of the court of high commission and 
biographer of Whitgift, was, according to his 
petition to the king in 1631, born about 1563, 
and perhaps belonged to the family of Paule 
of Westhartburne or Goosepoole, Durham 
(SURTEES, Durham, iii. 220). By his twenty- 
first year he was servant to Archbishop Whit- 
gift at Lambeth (STRYPE, Whitgift, i. 418). 
On 10 March 1586 he was granted the lease 
for twenty-one years of the parsonage of 
Graveney, Kent, bearing a rent of 71. 6s. 8d., 
being part of the lands of the see of Canter- 
bury. This unexpired lease was renewed on 
26 June 1590 for a like term (State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz. 1590, p. 158). On 21 Nov. 1588 
Anthony Calton, registrar of the bishopric 
of Ely, assigned his interest in his office to 
Paule, but Paule disposed of it to Sir John 
Lambe in 1600 ($.). In Elizabeth's parlia- 
ment of 1597 he sat for Downton, Wiltshire 
(Return of Members, i. 435). By 1599 Paule, 
although still described as the archbishop's 
' servant,' had succeeded to the post of comp- 
troller of Whitgift's household (STRYPE, 
Whitgift, i. 507). In Elizabeth's last par- 
liament faule sat as member for Hindon, 
Wiltshire. On 16 May 1603 he received, 
along with John Plumer, grant of the office 
of registrar and clerk of the acts (State 
Papers, Dom. James I, Proct. book, p. 3). 
He was with Whitgift during his last ill- 
ness, and ' gave this testimony that he died 
like a lamb' (STRYPE, Whitgift, i. 507). On 
5 July 1607 he was knighted by James at 
Whitehall (METCALFE, Book of Knights, 
p.158). In 1612 he published,with a dedication 
to Archbishop Abbot, his ' Life of Whitgift ; ' 
and it is clear that he retained the favour of 
Whitgift's successor. He also attracted the 
notice of Buckingham, through whom he ob- 
tained legal work for the crown. On 30 March 
1621 he received a grant, along with Sir 
Robert Heath, solicitor-general, of the sur- 
vivorship of the office of chief clerk for 
enrolling pleas in the king's bench. He held 
the office, he said later, under or for the 
Duke of Buckingham (State Papers, Dom. 
James I, xcvii. 123, xcviii. 15). In July 
1621 he quarrelled with the lord treasurer, 
Lionel Cranfield, earl of Middlesex, and 
.begged leave of. Buckingham to prefer his 



petition against him in parliament, assert- 
ing that the latter ' would be found more 
corrupt than the late lord chancellor,' i.e. 
Bacon (ib. cxxii. 20, 12 July 1621). 

In the following year he declared, in a 
letter to Buckingham from Lambeth, against 
the levy of a benevolence without parlia- 
mentary sanction, and suggested in place of 
it a tax of Id. or 2d. in the shilling on 
necessary commodities (ib. cxxviii., 25 March 
1622). In 1623, 1624, and 1628 he was 
included, as a friend of Buckingham, with 
others in the commission for the exami- 
nation of the duke's estates and revenue. 
Before 1625 Paule received the post of prin- 
cipal registrar to the high commissioners for 
causes ecclesiastical, and to his majesty's 
judges delegates (see State Papers under date 
16 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1625, clxxxii. 1). He was 
returned for Bridgnorth for the parliament of 
1625. Later in the same year he wrote from 
Twickenham to inform Secretary Conway in 
a calm constitutional tone of the opposition 
in Middlesex and Surrey to the raising of 
money on privy seal^\State Papers, Dom. 
Car. I, viii. 34, 24 Oct. 1625). He was 
returned for the succeeding parliament of 
1627-8 as member for Bridgnorth, along 
with Sir Richard Sheldon or Shilton [q. v.], 
solicitor-general. In 1629 he resigned his 
postof chief clerk in the king's bench (ib. Dom. 
dclii. 27). In 1631 he successfully petitioned 
the king (17 March) for l a dispensation to 
exempt him from shrievalty and other servicas, 
in consideration of his infirmities, being sixty- 
eight years of age' (ib. Dom. Car. I, clxxxvi. 
104, 17 March 1631). 

Paule died shortly before 16 April 1635. 
After much dispute, John Oldbury became 
registrar to the high commission court, in 
succession to Paule, on condition of paying 
to Paule's son George, the king's ward, and 
to Dame Rachel Paule, the widow, 40/. per 
annum (Hint. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 79 b). 
Subsequently one Francis Paule obtained the 
office, and much litigation between him and 
Dame Rachel followed until 1645. 

Paule wrote : ' The Life of the most reve- 
rend and religious Prelate, John Whitgift, 
Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, written by 
Sir George Paule, Knt., Comptroller of his 
Grace's Household,' London, 1612, 4to. Re- 
published 1699, London, ' to which is added 
a treatise intituled Conspiracy for pretended 
Reformation,' by Richard Cosin [q. v.], 1591. 
The ' Life ' only was reprinted in C. Words- 
worth's ' Ecclesiastical Biography,' 1878, iv. 

[State Papers, Dom. ubi supra ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. pp. 33, 47, 6th Rep. pp. 79, 87 ; 
Brydges's Restituta.i. 110,193; Notes and Queries, 

- - ' an( * su gg estec ^ tnat 

parliament might grant supplies if Sir Edward 

Coke [q.v.] and his adherents were made 
sheriffs and consequently ineligible for 
membership of the house of commons.' 

2nd ser. ix. 46 ; Strype's Whitgift, ubi supra ; 
Whitgift's Works (Parker Soc.), vols. iii. vi. xi.; 
Metcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 158 ; Return of 
Members of Parliament,] W. A. S. 

PAULET. [See also POWLET.] 


AMYAS (d. 1538), soldier, was son of Sir 
William Paulet of Hinton St. George, Somer- 
set, by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
John JDeneland of Hinton St. George. Con- 
nected with his family were the Paulets 
of Nunney Castle, Somerset. The common 
ancestor, Sir John Paulet of Paulet, lived 
in the time of Edward III. John Paulet (d. 
1470 ?) of Nunney had, by Eleanor, daugh- 
ter ancl coheiress of Robert Roos of Gedney 
and Irton, Lincolnshire, a son, SIR JOHN 
PATJLBT (fl. 1500), who was a commander at 
the battle of Blackheath in 1497 (cf. Rot. 
Parl. vi. 541), and was made a knight of the 
Bath at the marriage of Prince Arthur on 
14 Nov. 1501. He married Alice, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Paulet of Hinton St. 
George, and by her had, among other child- 
ren, William, marquis of Winchester, who 
is separately noticed ( COLLINS, Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, ii. 369; METCALFE, Knights, 
p. 35). 

Amyas Paulet was brought up a Lancas- 
trian. He was attainted after Buckingham's 
rebellion in 1483, and duly restored in 1485 
(Rot. Parl. vi. 246, 273) ; on 5 Nov. 1485 he 
was appointed sheriff for Somerset and Dorset, 
and he was frequently in the commission of 
the peace. He was a very active and officious 
country gentleman, and there is doubtless 
truth in the tradition that when Wolsey 
came to take possession of the benefice of 
Lymington in Hampshire, Paulet clapped 
him in the stocks (CAVENDISH, Wolsey, ed. 
Singer, i. 6). He was knighted on 16 June 
1487, after the battle of Stoke. When Perkin 
Warbeck's rebellion had failed, he was em- 
ployed in collecting the fines of those impli- 
cated. He was one of the west-country gentle- 
Ed en who had to meet Catherine of Arragon at 
Crewkerne on 17 Oct. 1501, when she was on 
her way to London. 

In Henry VIII's time he began a military 
career, and commanded twenty-five men in the 
exped ition to the north of France in 1 5 1 3. B ut 
he seems to have been called to the bar, for in 
1521 he was treasurer of the Middle Temple. 
Wolsey, now chancellor, in revenge for the 
indignity which Paulet had once put upon 
him, ordered Paulet not to quit London with- 
out leave ; and so he had to live in the Middle 
Temple for five or six years. To propitiate 
Wolsey, when the gateway was restored, he 
placed the cardinal's badges prominently over 




the door. He was free in 1524, as in that 
year he was a commissioner to collect the 
subsidy in Somerset. He greatly improved 
the family mansion at Hinton St. George, 
and must have been rich, though he is said 
to have been in debt both to Henry VII and 
to Henry VIII. It is for this reason, perhaps, 
that on 30 April 1509 he appears as one who 
was excepted from the general pardon ; he 
was pardoned, however, on 28 Aug. Paulet 
died in 1538. His will is printed in ' Testa- 
menta Vetusta.' He married, first, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir John Paulet of Nunney 
Castle, Somerset, and sister of Sir John 
Paulet, mentioned above (by her he left no 
issue) ; secondly, Laura, daughter of Wil- 
liam Kellaway of Roeborne, Hampshire. 
By her he left Sir Hugh [q. v.] and other 

[Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; Metcalfe's 
Knights, p. 16; Collinson's Somerset, ii. 167; 
Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, vii. 
115,145; Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta. p. 681 ; 
Letters, &c., of Richard III and Henry V [I (Rolls 
Ser), i. 406, 407, ii. 76, 337; Campbell's Materials 
for Hist, of Henry VII (Rolls Ser.), i. 583.] 

W. A. J. A. 

(1536 P-1588), keeper of Mary Queen of 
Scots, born about 1536, was son of Sir 
Hugh Paulet [q. v.], by his first wife. He 
was made his father's lieutenant in the go- 
vernment of Jersey on 25 April 1559, and 
remained in residence in Jersey for some 
twelve years. A convinced puritan through 
life, he distinguished his rule of the island 
by repressing the practice of the catholic 
religion, and offered ostentatious protection 
to Huguenot refugees from France. With 
Sir Philip Carteret, the native leader among 
the islanders, he was in repeated conflict. 
On his father's death in 1571 he succeeded 
to the full post of governor ; but he soon 
left Jersey and delegated his powers to 
his brother George, who became bailiff in 
1583, and subsequently to his son Anthony. 
His representatives ruled the island with 
greater rigour than he had practised, and 
their tyranny occasionally drew from him a 
gentle reproof. But although he watched 
with attention the course of events in Jersey 
until his death, other duties compelled him 
to exercise a merely nominal control (cf. 
MORRIS, pp. 121, 133). 

Paulet was knighted in 1576, and in Sep- 
tember of the same year left London for 
Paris to fill the important office of ambas- 
sador at the French court. He regarded the 
movements of the Huguenots with keen 
sympathy, and corresponded with his govern- 
ment copiously, if not enthusiastically, on 


the proposal to marry the Due d'Alencon to 
Queen Elizabeth. His Parisian career was 
uneventful, and in November 1579 he was re- 
called. The Earl of Leicester had no liking 
for his stern demeanour, but he had com- 
pletely gained the confidence of Sir Francis 
Walsingham. On Walsingham's recom- 
mendation he was nominated in January 
1585 to the responsible office of keeper of 
Mary Queen of Scots, and was made a privy 
councillor. Mary was Queen Elizabeth's 
prisoner at Tutbury. Sir Ralph Sadler had 
been her latest warder, and Lord St. John 
of Bletsoe had been, in the first instance, 
invited to relieve Sadler. It was only after 
Lord St. John's refusal of the post that 
Paulet's name had been suggested. Paulet's 
instructions, dated 4 March, are not extant, 
but it is known that he was directed to treat 
his prisoner with far greater severity than 
Sadler had employed. Her correspondence 
was to be more carefully inspected ; her 
opportunities of almsgiving were to undergo 
limitation ; she was to be kept in greater 
seclusion, and less regard was to be paid to 
her claims to maintain in her household the 
etiquette of a court. Queen Mary protested 
against the selection of Paulet ; she feared 
his puritanic fervour, and urged that while in 
Paris he had shown marked hostility to her 
agents there [see MORGAN" THOMAS, 1543-- 
1606 ?]. Elizabeth retorted in an autograph 
letter that he had done his duty. 

On 17 April Paulet arrived at Tutbury, 
and was installed in office. His attitude 
to his prisoner was from the first courteous 
but firm, and her frequent complaints left 
him unmoved. He took the most minute 
precautions to make her custody secure, 
and he told Walsingham (5 July 1585} 
that whenever an attempt at rescue seemed 
likely to prove successful, he was prepared 
to kill Mary rather than yield her alive 
(MoRRis, p. 49). His anxieties were inten- 
sified by Elizabeth's parsimony. He had to 
provide, as a rule, for nearly one hundred and 
twenty-seven persons Mary's attendants 
numbered fifty-one, and his own retinue, 
including thirty soldiers, consisted of seventy- 
six men. Frequently kept without adequate 
supplies, Paulet advanced large sums of 
money from his own purse, and the govern- 
ment showed no haste in repaying him. At 
the end of 1585 Mary desired a change of 
residence, and Paulet was ordered to remove 
the establishment on 2 Dec. to Chartley, a 
house belonging to the Earl of Essex. The 
cost of living proved much higher than at 
Tutbury, and the difficulty of meeting the 
expenses was greater. In March 1586 Mor- 
gan, Mary's agent in Paris, wrote urging her 




to employ all her powers of enchantment on 
Paulet ; he suggested that she might pro- 
mise, in the event of her regaining her 
liberty and influence, to obtain for Paulet a 
great increase in his power over Jersey, if 
not independent sovereignty. But Paulet 
declined to neglect his duty through ' hope 
of gain, fear of loss, or any private respect 
whatever.' With the aid of Walsingham j 
and his spies he kept himself accurately in- I 
formed as to his prisoner's and her agents' j 
plots and machinations, and he aided in j 
arrangements by which the government was j 
able to inspect, without her knowledge, all 
her private correspondence [see GIFFORD, | 
GILBERT]. In August he arranged to send 
her papers to London, and, so as not to excite 
her suspicions, he removed her for a fortnight 
to Sir Walter Aston's house at Tixall, on 
pretence of enabling her to take part in a 
stag hunt. In her absence from Chartley 
her coffers were searched, and their contents, 
including not only letters but many of her 
jewels, were seized. Early in September, in 
accordance with orders from London, Paulet 
took, moreover, possession of his prisoner's 
money, and on the 25th of that month he 
removed her to Fotheringay to stand her trial. 
He acted as a commissioner. After her con- 
demnation in October he treated her with far 
less ceremony than before, and urged, in 
letters to Walsingham and Burghley, with a 
pertinacity that became at times almost gro- 
tesque, the need of executing her without 
delay. In November Sir Drue Drury was 
associated with him in the office of keeper. 
On 1 Feb. Secretary Davison sent by letter 
to Paulet plain hints that he might safely 
murder Mary privately, and thus relieve 
Queen Elizabeth of the distasteful task of 
signing her death-warrant. Paulet at once 
replied that he could not perform ' an act 
which God and the law forbiddeth.' 

Mary's execution at Fotheringay on 8 Feb. 
1586-7 brought Paulet's duties to an end. 
Elizabeth, who had frequently corresponded 
with him on familiar terms while he was in 
charge of Mary, expressed full satisfaction 
with his performance of his difficult task. On 
the St. George's eve following (22 April) he 
was appointed chancellor of the order of the 
Garter, and held the office for a year. On 14 Jan. 
1587-8 he was lodging in Fleet Street, and 
was corresponding with the lord-admiral 
Nottingham respecting the ' right of tenths 
in Jersey [of which he was still governor] 
belonging to the government.' In February 
and March he was one of four commissioners 
sent to the Low Countries to discuss Eliza- 
beth's relations with the States-General. 
On 24 April following he was living at 

Twickenham. On 4 Jan. 1587-8 he attended 
the privy council, and signed orders directing 
catholic recusants to be dealt with strin- 
gently. He died in London on 26 Sept. 1588, 
and was buried in the church of St. Mar- 
tin's-in-the-Fields. When that church was 
rebuilt, his remains were removed, together 
with the monument, to the parish church of 
Hinton St. George. 

A manuscript volume containing Sir 
Amias's letters while he was ambassador in 
France is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
It was edited in 1866 for the Roxburghe 
Club by Octavius Ogle. The earliest letter is 
dated from Tours, 26 May 1577, the last from 
Paris, 10 Jan. 1577-8. A second volume of 
Paulet's letters from France, dating between 
12 Jan. 1577-8 and 29 Aug. 1578, was re- 
cently purchased for the same library, together 
with portions of a third letter-book contain- 
ing copies of letters written by Paulet when 
he was keeper of Mary Stuart. The last series 
of letters was printed by Father John Morris 
in the 'Letter-Book of Sir Amias Poulet,' 
1874. A further collection of letters more 
than one hundred in number, but not sup- 
plying the whole of the correspondence 
addressed by Paulet to Sir Francis Walsing- 
ham during his attendance on the Scottish 
queen, are at the Public Record Office, and 
have been calendared in Thorpe's ' Scottish 
State Papers.' 

By his wife Margaret (b. 1536), daughter 
and heir of Anthony Hervey (d. 1564), a 
catholic gentleman, of Columb John's in 
Devonshire (MORRIS, p. 20), Paulet had three 
sons and three daughters. Hugh (b. 1558), 
the eldest son, died young, but left behind 
him a memorial of his study of French in a 
French romance, entitled ' L'histoire de la 
duchesse de Savoye traduitte d'anglois en 
francoys' (Harl. MS. 1215). The second 
son, Sir Anthony (1562-1600), was his 
father's heir, and, having acted as his father's 
lieutenant in the government of Jersey, be- 
came full governor on Sir Amias's death. 
His rule was extremely severe, and his uncle, 
George Paulet, the bailiff of Jersey, encou- 
raged him in his autocratic policy. He was 
guardian of Philip de Carteret [q. v.], seigneur 
of St. Ouen, who was a minor, and did what 
he could to depress the fortunes of the Car- 
teret family. In 1589 he imprisoned the three 
jurats of Jersey for disputing his authority. 
In 1590 commissioners were sent from Lon- 
don to inquire into the grievances of the 
islanders against Sir Anthony and his uncle 
George. Both officers were fully exonerated 
from blame. Sir Anthony, who was also 
captain of the guard to Queen Elizabeth, 
died on 22 July 1600, and was buried in the 



church of Hinton St. George. He married, 
in 1583, Catherine, only daughter of Sir 
Henry Norris, baron Norris of Rycote [q. v."] 
She died on 24 March 1601-2, and was buried 
with her husband. Their son was John Pou- 
lett [q. v.], first baron Poulett. Sir Amias's 
third son, George (b. 1565), by marriage 
with a distant cousin, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Edward Paulet, became the owner of Got- 
hurst in Somerset. Of Sir Amias's daughters, 
Joan married Robert Hey den of Bowood, De- 
vonshire; Sarah married Sir Francis Vincent 
of Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey ; and Elizabeth 
died unmarried. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1779, iv. 200 sq. s.v. Pou- 
lett ; Letter-book of Sir Aniias Poulet, ed. 
Morris, 1874; Froude's Hist, of England; Col- 
linson's Hist, of Somerset, ii. 167; Copy-book of 
Poulet's Letters (ed. Ogle, Roxburghe Club), 
1866; Falle's Account of Jersey ; Le Quesne's 
Constitutional History of Jersey.] S. L. 


first DUKE OF BOLTON (1625 P-l 699), eldest 
son of John, fifth marquis of Winchester 
[q. v.], by his first wife, was born about 
1625. He was elected for Winchester in the 
Convention parliament of 1660, and repre- 
sented Hampshire from 1661 to 1675. He 
was lord lieutenant of the same county 
from 1667 to 1676, and he succeeded his 
father as Marquis of Winchester on 5 March 
1675, and was created a privy councillor 
in 1679. He did not occupy a prominent place 
in parliament, but at the crisis of Charles IPs 
reiopi he sided rather strongly with the 
whigs. One of his dominant motives appears 
to have been a violent antipathy to Halifax, 
and when Peterborough, during the debate 
on the exclusion bill, said that it was a case 
in which every man in England was obliged 
to draw sword, and laid his hand upon 
his own, Bolton got as near as he could to 
Halifax, * being resolved to make sure of 
him in case any violence had been offered ' 
(BURNET). Similarly, in 1689, again aiming 
at Halifax, he moved in the House of Lords 
for a committee to examine who had the 
chief hand in the severities and executions 
at the end of Charles IPs reign. Bolton was 
greatly perturbed at the turn affairs took 
upon the accession of James II, and was 
much puzzled as to the line of policy that 
he should adopt. As a way out of his per- 
plexity, he seems to have counterfeited a dis- 
ordered mind. This, he subsequently avowed, 
he considered the best means of security 
against the dangers of the time ; but certain 
of those who knew him best considered that 
a measure of real insanity was at the bottom 
of his diplomacy. In the summer of 1687 

at fact 

Bolton travelled about England with four 
coaches and a retinue of one hundred horse- 
men, sleeping during the day, and giving 
extravagant entertainments at night. In 
1688 he was one of the lords who protested 
against the corporation act. He corre- 
sponded with William of Orange, and upon 
his landing took an active side in promoting 
his interest. On 2 Jan. 1689 he was one of the 
noblemen who presented the nonconformist 
deputation to William at St. James's (BoYEB, 
William III, p. 169), and on 9 April in the 
same year he was created Duke of Bolton 
(ib. p. 209). He was also restored to his 
place in the privy council and to the lord- 
lieutenancy of Hampshire. 

He did not take a very active part in the 
intrigues of William's court, though Marl- 
borough is said to have owed his disgrace in 
1692 to Bolton's disclosure to the king of a 
conversation he had had with him. He was 
profoundly jealous of Marlborough's influ- 
ence, and communicated this feeling to his 
son, the second duke. Burnet, who had 
come into close contact with him, and had 
no obvious grounds for hostility, thus sums 
up Bolton's character : ' He was a man of a 
strange mixture ; he had the spleen to a high 
degree, and affected an extravagant be- 
haviour ; for many weeks he would take a 
conceit not to speak one word, and at other 
times he would not open his mouth till such 
an hour of the day, when he thought the air 
was pure; he changed the day into night, 
and often hunted by torchlight, and took all 
sorts of liberties to himself, many of which 
were very disagreeable to those about him. 
In the end of King Charles's time and dur- 
ing King James's reign he affected an appear- 
ance of folly, which afterwards he compared 
to Junius Brutus's behaviour under the 
Tarquins. With all this he was a very 
knowing and a very crafty politic man, and 
was an artful flatterer, when that was neces- 
sary to compass his ends, in which he was 
generally successful ; he was a man of pro- 
fuse expenses, and of a most ravenous avarice 
to support that ; and though he was much 
hated, yet he carried matters before him with 
such authority and success, that he was in 
all respects the great riddle of the age' 
(BTJENET, iv. 403). 

Bolton died at Amport, Hampshire, on 
27 Feb. 1699, and was buried at Wensley, 
Yorkshire. He was twice married : first to 
Christian, eldest daughter of John, baron 
Frescheville of Staveley (she died in childbed 
on 22 May 1653) ; and, secondly, to Mary, 
widow of Henry Carey, styled Lord Lepping- 
ton, first of the three illegitimate daughters 
of Emmanuel Scrope, earl of Sunderland 

G 2 


8 4 


[q. v.], by Martha Jeanes, 'daughter of a 
poor taylor living in Turfield Heath, Buck- 
inghamshire' (Collect. Topogr. et Geneal. i. 
223) ; she died at Moulins in France, on 
1 Nov. 1680, leaving two sons Charles, the 
second duke [q. v.], and Lord William Paulet 

and three daughters. The body of the 

second duchess was removed to Wensley and 
buried there. 

[Brydges's Peerage of England ; Peerage of 
England, 1710; G-. E. C.'s Complete Peerage ; 
Doyle's Baronage of P]ngland; Collectanea Topo- 
graphica et Greneatogica, i 223 ; Macintosh's 
Hist, of the Kevolution, p. 199; Macpherson's 
Original Papers, passim ; Boyer's Life of Wil- 
liam III, passim; Lnttrell's Brief Historical 
Kelation of State Affairs ; Keresby's Diary, p. 
247; Hatton Corresp. (Camden Soc.), ii. 147, 
23o ; Burnet's Hist, of his own Time.] T. S. 

second DUKE OF BOLTON (1661-1722), second 
and eldest surviving son of Charles, first duke 
[q. v.], by his second wife, Mary, widow of 
Henry Carey, lord Leppington, was born in 
1661. He entered parliament in 1681 as 
member for Hampshire, and represented that 
county until his father's death in 1699. A few 
months prior to the Revolution, being then 
styled Lord Wiltshire, he went over to Hol- 
land, and returned with the Prince of Orange : 
he was one of the advanced guard who 
entered Exeter with William in November 
1688 (Dartmouth MSS. f. 192 ; WHITTLE, 
Exact Diary of the late Expedition of the 
Prince of Orange}. He held the office of lord 
chamberlain to the queen from 1689 to 1694 
(BOYEE, William III, p. 200), and was bearer 
of the orb at the coronation on 11 April 1689. 
He was sworn a privy councillor on 3 June 
1690, and in the following year he made the 
campaign of Flanders, taking part in the en- 
gagement of 9 Sept. in that year (ib. p. 323). 
He was one of the lords j ustices of Ireland fro m 
1697 to 1699. He entertained William on 
more than one occasion at W 7 inton, and seems 
to have stood high in his favour. His conse- 
quent dislike for the Princess Anne was inten- 
sified by jealousy of the Duke of Marlborough, 
and he is said, with probable truth, to have 
been engaged upon an intrigue with the Duke 
of Newcastle for passing over Anne in the 
interests of the Princess Sophia (Dartmouth's 
note on BURNET, iv. 540). He was, however, 
soon reconciled to the new order of things 
upon William's death. He was made warden 
of the New Forest on 1 July 1702, and shortly 
afterwards was appointed" lord lieutenant of 
the counties of Dorset and Southampton. In 
April 1 705 he waited on the queen at Cam- 
bridge, and was made doctor of laws by the 
university, and in the following September 

he entertained Anne and the young Duke 
of Gloucester with great pomp at Winton 
(LTJTTRELL, v. 589). In 1706 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to treat of the union 
between England and Scotland, and he was 
also on the special committee of twenty-two 
selected by the commissioners in May 1706 
(BoTER, p. 234). In 1708 he was appointed 
governor of the Isle of Wight. Early in 
1710 he was much annoyed by the bestowal 
of the vacant Garter on the Duke of Argyll ; 
but Marlborough, with whom he had gra- 
dually become reconciled, was able to con- 
ciliate him, and retain his support for the 
war party. In June of this year he took 
what was generally considered to be the 
unwise step of moving the House of Lords 
to examine if their privileges were not in- 
vaded by the action of the queen in sending 
a message to the commons, solely to enable 
her to raise 500,000/. upon the civil list. In 
April 1714 Bolton again signalised himself in 
the lords by seconding the motion putting 
a price upon the Pretender's head (ib. p. 684; 
Wentworth Papers, p. 365) ; a few weeks 
afterwards he signed the protest against the 
Schism Act (BoYER, p. 706 ; ROGERS, Pro- 
tests of the Lords, i. 221). After the pro- 
clamation of George I in 1714 Bolton was 
named one of the lords justices, and he 
was installed K.G. on 8 Dec. 1714. From 
this date until his death he l muddled and 
intrigued' about the court, where he was 
usually in high favour. He was created lord 
chamberlain on 8 July 1715, and on 16 April 
1717 he was made lord lieutenant of Ireland. 
He was at Dublin for the opening of the 
Irish parliament on 1 July 1719, and is said 
to have made an excellent speech (OLD- 
MIX ON, Hist, of England, p. 683) ; he was, 
however, satirised by Eustace Budgell in 
his ' Letter to the Lord . . .' in 1719. He died 
on 21 Jan. 1722 (Hist. Reg. Cliron. Diary, 
p. 9), and was buried on 1 Feb. at Basing, 

Swift, in a note on Macky's character, re- 
marked of Bolton that he did not make a 
figure ' at court or anywhere else. A great 
booby.' It must be questioned, however, 
whether Swift knew much of him, as in the 
' Journal to Stella ' (Letter xxxiii.) he seems to 
confuse him with his brother, Lord William. 
Pope mentioned Bolton to Spence as one of 
those that had the ' nobleman look.' Lady 
Cowper, in her ' Diary,' describes him more 
specifically as generally to be seen with his 
tongue lolling out of his mouth (p. 154). 
His general inaptitude for serious business 
appears to be one of the objects of Dr. Joseph 
Browne's satire in his ' Country Parsons 
Advice to the Lord Keeper,' 1706. 



Bolton was three times married : first, on 
7 July 1679, to Margaret (d. 1682), only 
daughter of George, lord Coventry, by whom 
he left no issue; secondly, to Frances (d. 
1696), daughter of Sir William Ramsden, 
bart., by whom he had two sons, Charles 
Tq. v.] and Harry, successively dukes of 
Bolton, and two daughters ; thirdly, in 1697, 
at Dublin, to Henrietta Crofts, youngest 
natural daughter of James Scot, duke of 
Monmouth, by Eleanor, younger daughter of 
Sir Robert Needham of Lambeth, and sister 
of Jane Myddelton [q. v.], the famous beauty 
(see Post Boy, 23 Jan. 1722). By his third 
wife, who became a lady of the bedchamber 
to the Princess of Wales in 1714, and sur- 
vived until 27 Feb. 1730, he had a son, Lord 
Nassau'Paulet, who represented successively 
the county of Southampton and the borough 
of Lymington in parliament (1714-1734). 
He was on 9 Oct. 1723 appointed auditor- 
general of Ireland, and on 27 May 1725 
created a K.B. He died on 24 Aug. 1741, 
leaving one son and two daughters. 

Dr. Radcliffe, the celebrated physician, was 
popularly supposed to have been ' desperately 
in love ' with the third wife of the second 
duke, and 'he declared, said the gossips, that 
he would make her son his heir, upon which 
the Duke of Bolton is not at all alarmed, 
but gives the old amorist an opportunity to 
make his court' ( Wentworth Papers, p. 97). 
The portrait of the third duchess by Kneller 
was engraved by Smith in 1703. 

[Brydges's Peerage ; Gr. E. C.'s Complete Peer- 
age ; Luttrell's Brief Historical Eolation, passim ; 
Boyer's Reign of Queen Anne, 1735, passim ; 
Lady Cowper's Diary ; Wentworth Papers; White 
Kennett's Wisdom of Looking Backwards, p. 362 ; 
Swift's Works, ed. Scott ; Duke of Marlborough's 
Letters and Despatches, v. 26; Spence's Anec- 
dotes, p. 285; Pope's Works, ed. El win and 
Courthope, vii. 184; Bromley's Catalogue of 
British Portraits ] T. S. 

third DUKE OF BOLTON (1685-1754), eldest 
son of Charles, second duke [q. v.], by his 
second wife, Frances, daughter of Sir William 
Ramsden, was born on 3 Sept. 1685. He was 
educated at a private school in Yorkshire, and 
appears to have been a turbulent youth. In 
1700 his master, Dr. Robert Uvedale, wrote 
to his father to inform him that young Lord 
Winchester refused to be governed, absented 
himself from school, and by no persuasion 
would be prevailed upon to follow his 
studies, ' but takes what liberty hee thinks 
fitt upon all occasions ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
llth Rep. App. vii. 151). He subsequently 
travelled in company with the young Earl 
of Shaftesbury, returning to England in 

August 1704 (LuTTKELL, v. 460), and after- 
wards serving as a volunteer in Portugal. He 
sat in parliament successively for Lymington 
(1705-8), Hampshire (1708-10), and Car- 
marthen (1715-17). He was appointed a 
lord of the bedchamber to the Prince of 
Wales in 1714, and on 3 April 1717 he 
was summoned by writ to the House of 
Lords, under the title of Lord Basing. The 
writ was thus framed in error fur Lord St. 
John of Basing, one of the Duke of Bolton's 
titles, and the error was held by the lords 
to constitute a new creation. The Paulet 
family thus obtained a barony in fee, but the 
title became extinct on the death of the 
third duke without legitimate issue in 1751. 
In April 1717 Lord Basing was constituted 
colonel of the royal regiment of horse-guards. 
On his father's death in 1722 he succeeded 
to the dukedom. In the same year (10 Oct.) 
he was elected a knight of the Garter, and 
was created warden of the New Forest and 
lord lieutenant of Hampshire. In 1725 he 
was appointed constable of the Tower of 
London, and was one of the lords justices 
during the king's visit to Hanover. He 
was an early and persistent opponent of Sir 
Robert Walpole, and was disappointed at 
not getting more lucrative appointments on 
the death of George I. In spite of his op- 
position, he retained those that he had until 
1733, an anomaly explained by Hervey as 
due to the fact of Bolton being 'such a 
fool.' In June 1733 Walpole made a resolve 
to divest him of all his places : his regiment 
was given to Argyll, the lord-lieutenancy of 
Hampshire to Lord Lymington, and the 
governorship of the Isle of Wight to the 
Duke of Montagu. Some acrimonious ques- 
tions were asked in the House of Commons, 
but no very keen regret was probably felt 
if Hervey's comments upon him may be 
taken to represent the views of a majority. 
' The duke,' he says, ' was a dissatisfied 
man, for being as proud as if he had been 
of any consequence, besides what his em- 
ployments made him, as vain as if he had 
some merit, and as necessitous as if he had 
no estate, so he was troublesome at court, 
hated in the country, and scandalous in his 
regiment.' The last epithet may be taken 
in some measure to apply to his private 
life, the duke being a notorious buck and 
gallant about town, until in the summer of 
1728 he was fascinated by the charms of 
Lavinia Fenton [q. v.], the theatrical singer, 
who had taken the town by storm as Polly 
Peachum. The duke's subjugation is said to 
have been effected during her delivery of the 
song * Oh ! ponder well, be not severe.' Swift 
wrote on 8 July 1728 that the duke had settled 




upon her 400/. ' during pleasure,' and 200/. 
for the remainder of her life. The duke had 
been married since 1713 to Annie, daughter 
of John Vaughan, third earl of Carbery, by 
his second wife, Anne, daughter of George 
Saville, marquis of Halifax. At the date of 
Miss Fenton's first triumph over the duke the 
duchess was still alive; her friend, Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu, described her as 
1 crammed with virtue and good qualities . . . 
' despised by her husband, and laughed at by 
the public.' Polly, on the other hand, ' bred 
in an alehouse and produced on the stage, 
found the way to be esteemed. So useful 
is early experience ! ' From the commence- 
ment of this liaison Bolton spent a large 
portion of his time travelling on the conti- 
nent with Miss Fenton, by whom he had 
three sons. In 1751 Warton accompanied 
the duke and his mistress abroad, that he 
might be ready to marry them the moment 
the breath was out of the body of the duchess. 
But the latter lingered, and Warton had, 
much to his regret, to leave the pair, and resign 
the hope of preferment promised to the divine 
who should officiate at the ceremony. The 
duchess finally died on 20 Sept. 1751, and on 
21 Oct. the duke married Lavinia at Aix in 
Provence. Several minor places were restored 
to Bolton in 1740; in 1742 he was made lord 
lieutenant of the county of Southampton, and 
in November 1745, having been promoted 
lieutenant-general, he raised a regiment of 
foot for service in the rebellion. He was 
not, however, called upon to take the field. 
He died at Tunbridge Wells on 26 Aug. 
1754, and was buried at Basing. He was 
succeeded in the dukedom by his brother 
Harry, the father of Harry, sixth duke of 
Bolton [q. v.] The duchess died atWestcomb 
Park, Kent, 24 Jan. 1760, and was buried at 

The duke, who was painted by Hogarth 
shortly after his second marriage, is de- 
scribed by Walpole as a fair, white-wigged, 
old-fashioned gallant. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 202 ; Brydges's 
Peerage of England ; Gr. E. C.'s Complete 
Peerage; Hervey's Memoirs of Reign of George 
II, ii. 215, 250: Swift's Works, ed. Scott; 
Luttrell's Brief Hist. Relation, v. 460, 481 ; 
Horace Walpole's Correspondence, ed. Cunning- 
ham, passim ; Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's 
Works; Macpherson's Original Papers, ii. 642; 
Cooke's Memoir of Macklin, 1804, p. 45; 
El win and Courthope's Pope, v. 4 '21 ; Life of 
Lavinia Fenton, 1728.] T. S. 

PAULET, SIR GEORGE (d. 1608), go- 
vernor of Derry, was the second son of John, 
second marquis of Winchester, by his wife, 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Robert, second 

lord Willoughby de Broke. William Paulet, 
third marquis of Winchester [q. v.], was 
his eldest brother. His contemporaries call 
George a gentleman of Hampshire. The 
king's letters of 20 and 23 July 1606, direct- 
ing his appointment to the governorship of 
Derry, say he was ' of good sufficiency and 
service in the wars,' though he had certainly 
not become an efficient soldier. He began at 
Derry by buying land from the constable, 
Sir Henry Docwra [q. v. J, who had built a 
town there more than thirty years after the 
destruction of Randolph's settlement. Doc- 
wra incurred the hostility of Charles Blount, 
lord Mountjoy, earl of Devonshire [q. v.], the 
lord-lieutenant, by taking the part of Sir 
Donnell Ballagh O'Cahan [q. v.], Sir Cahir 
O'Dogherty [q. v.], and Sir Niall Garv O'Don- 
nell [q. v.], whom he thought ill-treated. 
James I saw Ireland with Devonshire's eyes, 
who himself desired to rule Ulster through 
Tyrone and Tyrconnel, and without much 
regard to the services or pretensions of minor 
chiefs. Devonshire died 3 April 1606 ; but 
he had previously approved the sale of 
Docwra's property to Paulet, whom he knew 
well, 'there being no longer use for a man 
of war in that place ' (DocwEA, p. 282). 
Docwra accordingly sold him his house, ten 
quarters of land which he had bought, and 
his company of foot, for much less than the 
house alone had cost him to build. The 
vice-provostship of Derry was thrown in 
without extra charge. The English govern- 
ment wished Docwra to resign his patent as 
constable of Lough Foyle, so that Paulet 
should be appointed in his stead; but this 
does not seem to have been actually done. 

The new governor was established at 
Derry in the early winter of 1606, and on 
20 Feb. following Chichester, the new lord 
deputy, told Salisbury that he was unfit 
for the place, and that there had been 
many dissensions since his arrival. He 
was soon at daggers drawn with Dr. George 
Montgomery, the newly made bishop of 
Derry; for he claimed not only the see- 
lands, the site of the ancient cathedral and 
the episcopal palace as part of the property 
bought from Docwra, but even the parish 
church presented by the latter to the towns- 
men, to the building of which they had 
all contributed. Nor did he get on better 
with the Irish chiefs. Tyrone and Tyrcon- 
nel fled from Ireland early in September 
1607, and it was perhaps natural to suspect 
complicity on the part of O'Cahan, who ruled 
the greater part of what is now Londonderry 
county, and of O'Dogherty, the chief of Inish- 
owen in co. Donegal. It had been Docwra's 
wise policy to make these magnates depend 



on the government, and to free them from 
the oppression of the now fugitive earls ; but 
Paulet knew nothing of the country and 
would not listen to advice. O'Dogherty took 
the opportunity of putting some armed men 
on Tory island, but this seems to have been 
done with the consent of the few inhabitants. 
Sir Richard Hansard, who commanded at 
Lifford, says that Sir Cahir O'Dogherty left 
Burt Castle, on Lough Swilly, at the end of 
October to superintend the felling of timber 
for building; that this gave rise to a report 
that he was in rebellion ; and that he then 
began to arm about seventy followers, re- 
fusing all recruits from outside his own dis- 
trict. Paulet made an unsuccessful attempt 
to seize Burt in the chief's absence, and re- 
ported all to Chichester. O'Dogherty re- 
monstrated in a temperate letter, and sub- 
scribed himself ' Your loving friend.' Paulet 
falsely denied, and in very strong language, 
that he had ever intended to surprise Burt, 
and accused Sir Cahir of treason. O'Do- 
gherty went to Dublin early in December 
and made his excuses to Chichester, who ac- 
cepted them, but without much confidence. 
On 18 April the privy council ordered him 
to be fully restored to such of his ancestral 
lands as were still withheld, but this order 
did not reach the Irish government until he 
was actually in rebellion. 

It has been usually said that O'Dogherty 's 
fatal plunge into open rebellion was caused 
by Paulet's insults. The 'Four Masters' 
add, and the statement has been often re- 
peated, that he struck the Irish chieftain ; 
but this is not mentioned in the ' State 
Papers,' nor by Docwra. O'Dogherty him- 
self said nothing about it to Captain Harte 
when he was making excuses for his seizure 
of Culmore, and the Irish authorities are 
divided. Revenge may have been O'Do- 
gherty's main object, but Paulet's careless- 
ness invited attack. Chichester warned him 
repeatedly to post regular sentries and keep 
good watch ; but he neglected to do so, 
though he had from the first maintained 
that his Irish neighbours could not be 
trusted. His own men hated him for his 
ill-temper, and despised him for his incom- 
petence. On the night of Monday, 18 April 
1608, O'Dogherty, at the head of fewer than 
a hundred men, seized the outpost at Cul- 
more by a treacherous stratagem, and sur- 
prised Deny itself an hour before daybreak. 
Paulet was killed, and the infant city was 
sacked and burned. Sir Josias Bodley [q.v.], 
who, however, was not present, reported 
that Paulet fell fighting valiantly ; but the 
English government spoke of his cowardice, 
and said that he must have perished by the 

executioner had he escaped the sword. De- 
vonshire's opinion that a man of war was 
not needed at Derry had at least been falsi- 
fied. Paulet had been fully warned by 
Hansard, who held his own against the 
rebels at Liflbrd. 

The peerages say Paulet died unmarried ; 
but it appears from the ' State Papers ' that 
his wife was with him at Derry, and the 
contemporary tract ' Newes from Ireland con- 
cerning the late treacherous Action ' (Lon- 
don, 1608) says he had children there also. 
Lady Paulet suffered only a short impri- 
sonment with the O'Dogherties ; but her 
husband's death left her in great poverty, 
which was partly relieved out of the Tyrone 
forfeitures. She was alive in 1617. 

[Cal.of Irish State Papers, 1606-17; Annals of 
Ireland, by the Kour Masters, ed. O'Donovan; Sir 
Henry Docwra's Narration of the Services done 
by the Army employed to Lough Foyle, 1614, ed. 
O'Donovan (Celtic Soc. Miscellany, 1849); Gerald 
Geoghegan's notice of the early settlement of 
Londonderry in Kilkenny Archaeological So- 
ciety's Journal, new ser. vols.iv. v. ; O'Sullivan- 
Beare's Hist. Catholicae Ibernise Compendium, 
torn. iv. lib. i. cap. 5 ; Newes from. Ireland con- 
cerning the late treacherous Action, London, 
1608; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, vol. ii. ; 
Meehan's Fate and Fortunes of Tyrone and Tyr- 
connell ; Gardiner's History of England, i. 420, 
421, 426; see art. ODoGHEKTY, SIR CAHIR.] 

E. B-L. 

sixth DTJKE OF BOLTON (1719-1794), admi- 
ral, second son of Harry Paulet, fourth duke 
of Bolton, and nephew of Charles Paulet, third 
duke of Bolton [q. v.], was born in 1719, and 
in August 1733 entered the navy as a scholar 
in the academy in Portsmouth Dockyard. 
On 9 March 1739 he was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant, and on 15 July 1740 to 
be captain of the Port Mahon attached to the 
fleet off Cadiz, under Rear-admiral Nicholas 
Haddock [q. v.] By Haddock he was moved 
in July 1741 to the Oxford of 50 guns, which 
he was still commanding on 11 Feb. 1743-4 
in the action off Toulon. In the subsequent 
courts-martial his evidence was strongly 
against Richard Lestock [q. v.] ; he swore 
positively that Lestock had reefed topsails 
on the morning of the battle, and that he, 
following the vice-.admiral's motions, had 
done so also. But while Powlett swore that 
the Oxford reefed topsails because the Nep- 
tune did, Stepney, the flag-captain, swore 
that the Neptune did nothing of the sort, 
and the Neptune's captains of the tops agreed 
with him. 

In March 1745 Powlett was appointed to 
the Sandwich, guardship at Spithead, and a 




few months later to the Ruby. In Novem- 
ber 1746 he was appointed to the Exeter, in 
which he went out to the East Indies, and 
continued there under the admirals Thomas 
Griffin [q. v.] and Edward Boscawen [q. v.] 
On his return to England in April 1750 he 
brought charges of misconduct against Grif- 
fin, who was tried by court-martial and dis- 
missed the service. Two years later Griffin 
brought several charges of misconduct against 
Powlett, who was ordered to be tried by a 
court-martial which assembled on 1 Sept. 
1752. Many of the charges were extremely 
serious, including misappropriation of stores, 
not engaging the enemy and abject cowardice 
when engaged, as well as gross breaches of 
discipline, which ought to have been tried at 
once, on the spot. After five years Griffin 
could produce no witnesses in support of his 
accusations; the court at once acquitted 
Powlett, but no further action was taken 
against the malicious slanderer. 

In January 1753 Powlett was appointed 
to the Somerset, guardship at Chatham ; on 
26 Aug. 1754, by the succession of his father 
to the dukedom, he became, by courtesy, Lord 
Harry Powlett ; and on 4 Feb. 1755 he was 
appointed to the Barfleur of 90 guns, at- 
tached to the grand fleet under Sir Edward 
Hawke, which sailed in July for a cruise to 
the westward. On 22 Aug. Powlett was 
ordered to chase a sail that was seen to the 
south-east; during the night he lost sight 
of the fleet, and for the next two days cruised 
independently, going on the 25th to Hawke's 
rendezvous, intending to await Hawke's re- 
turn. But the carpenter reported that the 
stern-post was loose, and was dangerous. 
Powlett ordered the first lieutenant and 
master to examine the defect, and, acting on 
their report, he returned to Spithead, where, 
on 20-22 Oct., he was tried by court-martial 
for separating from the fleet and for return- 
ing into port. For separating from the fleet 
he was admonished, but on the charge of re- 
turning into port he was acquitted. It was 
afterwards shown by the dockyard officials 
that the carpenter's report was grossly exag- 
gerated. The admiralty accordingly cashiered 
the carpenter as incompetent ; but public 
opinion, based on sentiment rather than on 
evidence, held that the blame rested with 
Powlett, and that he was the actual author or 
suggester of the carpenter's report. Powlett 
was thenceforth known as ' Captain Stern- 
post.' He had no further service : it was 
said that the king agreed with the popular 

On 4 June 1756 he was promoted to the rank 
of rear-admiral of the white, and on 14 Feb. 
1759 to be vice-admiral of the white. It was re- 

ported that Boscawen wished him to accom- 
pany him to the Mediterranean, as second in 
command, but that the king would not sanc- 
tion the appointment. From 1762 to 1705 
he represented Winchester in parliament; 
on 5 July 1765, by the death of his elder 
brother, he succeeded as sixth Duke of Bol- 
ton. He became admiral of the blue on 
18 Oct. 1770, and admiral of the white on 
31 March 1775 ; but had no further interest 
in naval affairs, beyond signing and, indeed, 
organising the memorial to the king, pro- 
testing against the court-martial on Kep- 
pel in December 1778. He was governor of 
the Isle of Wight from 1766 to 1780 ; and 
on 6 April 1782 was again appointed go- 
vernor of the Isle of Wight and lord lieu- 
tenant of Hampshire. He died at his seat 
of Hackwood in Hampshire, on 25 Dec. 1794. 
He was twice married ; but dying without 
legitimate male issue, the title became ex- 
tinct. The name has often been written 
Paulet. The spelling Powlett is from his 
own signature. 

[Charnock'sBiogr. Nav. v. 5 ; Doyle's Baron- 
age; Minutes of Courts-Martial, Commission 
and Warrant Books and other documents in the 
Public Kecord Office. The version of the stern- 
post incident in Johnstone's Chrysal is a tissue 
of misstatements.] J. K. L. 

PAULET, HARRY (d. 1804), master- 
mariner, is said to have been the master of 
a small vessel trading to North America; to 
have been captured by the enemy in 1758, 
and taken to Quebec ; and. being known as a 
good pilot for the St. Lawrence, to have been 
sent a prisoner to Europe. The ship in which 
he sailed put into Vigo, and Paulet, being 
allowed access to the cabin, laid hold of a 
packet of despatches, carelessly left within 
his reach, and dropped overboard. There 
were two English men-of-war in the river, 
and Paulet, with the packet of despatches in 
his mouth, swam to one of these and was 
taken on board. The despatches proved to 
be of great value, and Paulet was sent with 
a copy of them to Lisbon, and thence in a 
sloop of war to England. In London he was 
examined by the authorities, and, on the in- 
formation which he gave and that which was 
contained in the despatches, the expedition 
of 1759 was organised, Paulet being rewarded 
with ' the pay of a lieutenant for life.' This 
annuity of 90/. a year enabled him, it is said, 
to purchase a vessel, in which he ran cargoes 
of brandy from the French coast. On one 
voyage he fell in with the French fleet which 
had escaped out of Brest ' while Hawke lay 
concealed behind the rocks of Ushant.' Paulet, 
risking his brandy for the love of his country, 
ran to find the English fleet, and demanded 


8 9 


to speak with the admiral. He was ordered 
on board the flagship, and, having told his 
story, was assured by Hawke that if it was 
true, he would make his fortune ; if false, he 
would hang him at the yard-arm. The fleet 
then got under way, and Paulet, at his spe- 
cial request, was permitted to stay on board. 
In the battle which followed he behaved 
with the utmost gallantry, and was sent 
home l rewarded in such a manner as enabled 
him to live happily the remainder of his 

Such is Paulet's own story, which he very 
probably brought himself, in his old age, to 
believe. But wherever it can be tested it is 
false, and no part of it can be accepted as true. 
If, in the end of 1758, the admiralty had had a 
first-rate pilot for the St. Lawrence at their 
disposal, that pilot would have been sent to 
the St. Lawrence with Saunders; and, if he 
had been examined either by the admiralty 
or the secretary of state, there would be some 
record of the examination ; but there is no such 
record. We may be quite sure that if he had 
been granted the pay of a lieutenant for life, 
the amount would be charged somewhere ; 
but it does not appear. Again, when Conflans 
came out of Brest on 14 Nov. 1759, the Eng- 
lish fleet was not ' concealed behind the rocks 
of Ushant ; ' nor was it ever at anchor there. 
Hawke learned of the escape of Conflans from 
the master of a victualler, which, on its way 
from the squadron in Quiberon Bay, saw 
the French fleet making for Belle Isle. It is 
barely possible that Paulet was the victualler 
and gave the information. In some way or 
other he certainly made money, and in his 
old age was generous to the poor of his neigh- 
bourhood. He is said to have been an ad- 
mirable narrator of his own adventures or of 
Hawke's battle. He died in Lambeth in 

[Gent. Mag. 1804, ii. 691.] J. K. L. 


1572?), military commander and governor 
of Jersey, born after 1500, was the eldest 
son of Sir Amias Paulet (d. 1538) [q.v.] of 
Hinton St. George, Somerset, by his second 
wife. A younger brother, John, born about 
1509, apparently graduated B.A. at Oxford in 
1530, became in 1554 the last Roman catho- 
lic dean of Jersey, and died in 1565 (FosTEE, 
Alumni Oxon.} In 1532 Hugh was in the 
commission of the peace for Somerset (CaL 
State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. v., No. 1694, 
entry ii.) ; and he was served heir and sole 
executor to his father in 1538, receiving a 
grant of the manor of Sampford-Peverel, 
Devonshire. He was supervisor of the rents 
of the surrendered abbey of Glastonbury in 

1539, had a grant of Upcroft and Combe near 
Crewkerne, Somerset, in 1541, and was sheriff 
of that county (with Dorset) in 1536, 1542, 
and 1547 (COLLINSON, ii. 166). On 18 Oct. 
1537 he was knighted (METCALFE, Knights 
cf. Lit, Remains of Edward VI, pp. Ixxxi, 
210). He was invited to Prince Edward's 
baptism (STRYPE, Eccl. Mem. ii. 5) two days 
later. In 1544 he was treasurer of the English 
army at the siege of Boulogne, and distin- 
guished himself at the capture of the Brey 
on 1 Sept. in the presence of Henry VIII. 
He seems to have remained at Boulogne 
until 1547 (CaL State Papers, 1545-7). On 
the accession of Edward VI he was, as a 
known supporter of the protestant cause, 
one of those charged by Henry VIII's exe- 
cutors, on 11 Feb. 1547, with the * good 
order of the sheres near unto them in the 
west ' (NICHOLS, op. cit.) In 1549 he was 
knight-marshal of the army raised by Lord 
Russell to put down the rising against the 
Reformation changes in the west of England. 
He led the pursuit against the rebels, and 
defeated them finally at King's Weston, near 
Bristol (HOLINSHED, Chron. iii. 1096). In 
1550 he was a commissioner to inquire into 
the liturgy in the island of Jersey, and to 
put down obits, dispose of church bells, &c. 
(LE QUESNE, p. 148) ; and was shortly after- 
wards appointed captain of Jersey and go- 
vernor of Mont Orgueil Castle, in the place 
of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset. He 
was acting in October 1550 (CaL State 
Papers, 1547-53), but his patent bears date 
3 May 1551 (RYMER, Fcedera, xv. 261). 
This office he retained till his death (Falle 
says for twenty-four years) ; but from 25 April 
1559, in which year he was made vice-pre- 
sident (under Lord Williams) of the Welsh 
marches (STRYPE, Reform, i. 23), he per- 
formed his functions through a lieutenant, his 
son Amias (1536 P-1588) [q.v.] Le Quesne 
(pp. 165, 184-6, 195) speaks strongly of the 
abuse of power by the Paulet family, but 
appears to refer less to Sir Hugh than to his 

In 1562, when the French protestants sur- 
rendered Havre to Elizabeth, she commis- 
sioned Paulet, being a man of ' wisdom and 
long experience,' to act as adviser to Am- 
brose Dudley, earl of Warwick [q.v.], who 
was to take command of the garrison and to 
fill the place of high-marshal (FORBES, ii. 
170). Paulet arrived in the Aide with 
Count Montgomerie and 5,000/. on 17 Dec. 
On 1 April 1563 he conferred unsuccessfully 
with the rheingrave, was sent to. England 
in June, and returned on 14 July with eight 
hundred men from Wiltshire and Glouces- 
tershire. On the 23rd he met the constable 




Montmorency, and on 28 July articles for 
the surrender of Havre were agreed upon. 
On the 29th the English evacuated Havre, 
bringing the pestilence with them to Lon- 
don. In November Paulet was one of the 
commissioners to settle the debts incurred 
in the expedition (authorities below). 

Sir Hugh was knight of the shire for 
Somerset in the parliament which met on 
8 May 1572 ( WILLIS, Not. ParL p. 94), and 
probably died in the following December. 
A tomb in the north aisle of the church at 
Hinton St. George, with the effigies of a 
lady and man in armour, and the inscription 
' Hie jacet Hugo Poulet miles qui obiit 6 
die Decembris anno Dom. . . .' probably 
commemorates Sir Hugh and his first wife. 
He always signs Poulet not Paulet, Poulett, 
or Pawlett, the spelling affected by various 
contemporaries and descendants at Hinton 
St. George. 

He married, about 1528, first, Philippa, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Lewis Pollard 
[q. v.] of King's Ny mpton, Devonshire, j ustice 
of the common pleas, by whom he had two 
daughters Anne (Visit, of Somerset, 1531, 
ed. Weaver) and Jane (married to Christopher 
Copleston of Copleston, Devonshire) and 
three sons : Sir Amias, Nicholas of Minty, 
Gloucestershire, and George, bailiff of Jersey 
from 1583 to 1611 (LE QUESNE). Before 
December 1560 he married, secondly, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Walter Blount of Blount's 
Hall, Staffordshire, the rich widow of Sir 
Thomas Pope [q. v.], founder of Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford. She died without issue in 1593, 
and was buried in Trinity Chapel. With 
her, Sir Hugh visited the college in 1560, 
1565, and 1567, assisted the fellows in a suit 
against Lord Rich in 1561, and gave 20/. 
towards a new garden-wall in 1566. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, vi. 3-5 ; Col- 
linson's Somerset, ii. 166-7; authorities cited 
above, esp. Stowe, pp. 653-6, and Holinshed, 
iii. 1026, and 1198-1204; Gal. State Papers, 
as above, and also Henry VIII, vols. x. and 
xi. and Foreign Papers, 1562-3 ; the most 
important of the Havre letters are printed in 
Dr. P. Forbes's Full View of Public Transactions 
in the JReign of Elizabeth, vol. ii. with facsimiles 
of signatures; Falle's Jersey, ed. 1694; Le 
Quesne's Constitutional History of Jersey ; Bar- 
low's Peerage,!. 416; Letter-book and Copy- 
book of Sir A. Poulet ; Hayne's Burghley Papers, 
p. 407; Accounts of Trinity College, Oxford. 
The most connected account is that given by T. 
Warton (Sir T. Pope, pp. 189-98), but it is very 
inaccurate.] H. E. D. B. 

WINCHESTER (1598-1675), born in 1598, was 
third but eldest surviving son of William, 

fourth marquis of Winchester (d. 1629), by 
Lucy (d. 1614), second daughter of Sir Tho- 
mas Cecil, afterwards second Lord Burghley 
and Earl of Exeter. From 1598 until 1624 
he was styled Lord Paulet. He kept terms 
at Exeter College, Oxford, but did not ma- 
triculate (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, 
iii. 1188), and on 7 Dec. 1620 was elected 
M.P. for St. Ives, Cornwall. He was sum- 
moned to the House of Lords as Baron St. 
John on 10 Feb. 1624, became captain of 
Netley Castle in 1626, and succeeded to the 
marquisate on 4 Feb. 1629, becoming also 
keeper of Pamber Forest, Hampshire. In order 
to pay off the debts incurred by his father's 
lavish hospitality, he passed many years in 
comparative seclusion. But on 18 Feb. 1639 
he wrote to Secretary Windebank that he 
would be quite ready to attend the king on 
his Scottish expedition 'with alacrity of 
heart and in the best equipage his fortunes 
would permit' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1638-9, p. 478). Winchester being a Roman 
catholic, Basing House, Hampshire, his chief 
seat, on every pane of which he had written 
with a diamond ' Aimez Loyaute,' became at 
the outbreak of the civil war the great re- 
sort of the queen's friends in south-west 
England. It occurred to the king's military 
advisers that the house might be fortified 
and garrisoned to much advantage, as it 
commanded the main road from the western 
counties to London. The journal of the 
siege of Basing House forms one of the most 
remarkable features of the civil war. It 
commenced in August 1643, when the whole 
force with which Winchester had to defend 
it, in addition to his own inexperienced 
people, amounted only to one hundred mus- 
keteers sent to him from Oxford on 31 July 
under the command of Lieutenant-colonel 
Peake. He subsequently received an ad- 
ditional force of 150 men under Colonel 
Rawdon. In this state of comparative weak- 
ness, Basing resisted for more than three 
months the continued attack of the com- 
bined parliamentary troops of Hampshire 
and Sussex, commanded by five colonels of 
reputation. The catholics at Oxford success- 
fully conveyed provisions to Basing under 
Colonel Gage. An attempt by Lord Edward 
Paulet, Winchester's youngest brother, then 
serving under him in the house, to betray 
Basing to the enemy was frustrated, and he 
was turned out of the garrison. On 11 July 
1644 Colonel Morley summoned Winchester 
to surrender. Upon his refusal the besiegers 
tried to batter down the water-house. On 
13 July a shot passed through Winchester's 
clothes, and on the 22nd he was struck by a 
ball. A second summons to surrender was 



sent by Colonel Norton on 2 Sept., but was 
at once rejected. About 11 Sept. the garri- 
son was relieved by Colonel Gage, who, being 
met by Lieutenant-colonel Johnson by the 
Grange, routed Morley's and Norton's men, 
and entered the house. He left with Win- 
chester one hundred of Colonel Hawkins's 
white-coated men, and, after taking Basing- 
stoke, sent provisions to Basing. Mean- 
while Winchester, with the white-coats and 
others under Major Cuffaud and Captain 
Hull, drove the besiegers out of Basing. On 
14 Nov. Gage again arrived at Basing, and 
on the 17th the siege was raised. Norton 
was succeeded by a stronger force under the 
command of Colonel Harvey, which had no 
better fortune. At length Sir William Wal- 
ler advanced against it at the head of seven 
thousand horse and foot. Still Winchester 
contrived to hold out. But after the battle 
of Naseby, Cromwell marched from Win- 
chester upon Easing, and, after a most obsti- 
nate conflict, took it by storm on 16 Oct. 
1645. Winchester was brought in a prisoner, 
with his house flaming around him. He 
* broke out and said " that if the king had 
no more ground in England but Basing 
House, he would adventure it as he did, and 
so maintain it to the uttermost," comforting 
himself in this matter " that Basing House 
was called Loyalty " ' (GREEN, Hist, of Engl. 
People, iii. 243). Thenceforward he was 
called the ' great loyalist.' What remained 
of Basing, which Hugh Peters after its fall 
told the House of Commons ' would have 
become an emperor to dwell in,' the parlia- 
mentarians levelled to the ground, after pil- 
laging it of money, jewels, plate, and house- 
hold stuff to the value, it is said, of 200,000/. 
Winchester was committed to the Tower 
on a charge of high treason on 18 Oct. 1645, 
and his estates were ordered to be sequestered 
{Commons 1 Journals, iii. 280, iv. 313). An 
order was made for allowing him 61. a week 
out of his property on 15 Jan. 1646 (ib. iv. 
407). Lady Winchester, who had escaped 
from Basing two days before its fall, was 
sent to join her husband in the Tower on 
31 Jan., and a weekly sum of 10/., after- 
wards increased to 157., was ordered to be 
paid her for the support of herself and her ; 
children, with the stipulation that the latter j 
were to be educated as protestants (ib. iv. 
425, 725, v. 3, 521). An ordinance for the 
sale of Winchester's land was passed on 
30 Oct. (ib. iv. 710), and by the act of 
16 July 1651 a portion was sold by the 
trustees for the sale of forfeited estates. On 
7 Sept. 1647 Winchester was allowed to 
drink the waters at Epsom, and stayed there 
by permission of parliament for nearly six 

months (ib. v. 294, 422). The House of 
Lords on 30 June 1648 urged the commons 
to release him on bail in consideration of his 
bad health (ib. v. 617). In the propositions 
sent to the king at the Isle of Wight on 
13 Oct. it was expressly stipulated that 
Winchester's name be excepted from pardon 
(Lords' Journals, x. 548). Ultimately the 
commons resolved on 14 March 1649 not to 
proceed against him for high treason; but 
they ordered him to be detained in prison 
and excepted from any composition for his 
estate (Commons' Journals, vi. 165). In 
January 1656 he was a prisoner in execution 
in the upper bench for debts amounting to 
2,000/., and he petitioned Cromwell for re- 
lief (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1656, pp. 105, 
351). The sale of his lands was discontinued 
by order of parliament on 15 March 1660 
(Commons' Journals, vii. 879), and after the 
Restoration Winchester received them back. 
It was proposed on 3 Aug. 1660 to recom- 
pense him for his losses to the amount of 
19,000/. and damages, subsequently reduced 
to 10,000/., and this was agreed toon 2 July 
1661, but in the event he was allowed to go 
unrecompensed. A bill for confirming an 
award for settling differences between him 
and his eldest son, Charles, in regard to the 
estates, was passed in 1663 (ib. vol. viii. ; 
Lords' Journals, xi. 472). 

Winchester retired to his estate at Engle- 
field, Berkshire, which he had acquired by 
his second marriage, and passed the re- 
mainder of his life in privacy, dividing his 
time between agriculture and literature. He 
greatly enlarged the house, the front of 
which, says Granger (Biogr. Hist, of Engl. 
2nd edit. ii. 122), bore a beautiful resem- 
blance to a church organ, but l is now [1775] 
no more.' 

Winchester died at Englefield on 5 March 
1675, premier marquis of England, and was 
buried in the church there. On the monu- 
ment raised by his wife to his memory are 
engraved some lines by Dry den ( Works, ed. 
Scott, 1821, xi. 154). He was married three 
times : first, to Jane (d. 1631), eldest daugh- 
ter of Thomas, first viscount Savage, by 
whom he had issue Charles, his successor, 
created first duke of Bolton in 1689, who is 
separately noticed. Milton wrote an epitaph 
in 1631 on Jane, lady Winchester; and James 
Howell, who taught her Spanish, has com- 
memorated her beauty and goodness. Win- 
chester's second wife was Lady Honora de 
Burgh (1611-1662), daughter of Richard, 
first earl of St. Albans and Clanricarde, who 
brought him four sons of whom two only, 
John and Francis, lived to manhood and 
three daughters. By his third wife, Isabella 



Howard, second daughter of William, first 
viscount Stafford, lie had no children. 

Clarendon has celebrated Winchester's 
goodness, piety, and unselfish loyalty in elo- 
quent and just language. Three works, 
translated from the French by Winchester, 
are extant: 1. ' Devout Entertainment of a 
Christian Soule,' by Jacques Hugues Quarre, 
12mo, Paris, 1648, done during his imprison- 
ment in the Tower. 2. * The Gallery of He- 
roick Women,' by Pierre Le Moyne, a Jesuit, 
folio, London, 1652, in praise of which James 
Howell wrote some lines (cf. his Epistola 
Ho-eliana, bk. iv. letter 49). 3. ' The Holy 
History' of Nicholas Talon, 4to, London, 
1653. ' To these works Winchester prefixed 
prefaces, written in simple, unaffected Eng- 
lish, and remarkable for their tone of gentle 
piety. In 1663 Sir Balthazar Gerbier [q. v.], 
in dedicating to him a treatise called ' Coun- 
sel and advice to all Builders,' takes occasion 
to commend Englefield (or, as he calls it, 
1 Henfelde ') House, of which a description 
will be found in Neale's ' Seats,' 1828, 2nd 
ser. vol. iv. 

Winchester's portrait has been engraved 
in small oval by Hollar. There is also a 
miniature of him by Peter Oliver, which has 
been engraved by Cooper, and an equestrian 
portrait by Adams ( EVANS, Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, i. 383, ii. 422). 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 706 ; Collins's 
Peerage, 1812,ii. 376-80; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, iii. 1005 ; Clarendon's Hist, ed Mac- 
ray; A Description of the Siege of Basing 
Castle, 1645 ; Woodward's Hampshire, iii. 247- 
255 ; Will registered in P. C. C. 29, Dycer ; 
Diet, of Architecture, vi. 63 ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist, of Engl. 2nd edit. iii. 114 ; Nichols's Pro- 
gresses of James I, i. 252 ; C..l. of Committee 
for Advance of Money, pp. 369, 963 ; Lodge's 
Portraits, ed. Bohn ; Walpole's Eoyal and Noble 
Authors, ed. Park, iii. 146-50 ; Lysons's Magna 
Britannia, ' Berkshire,' i. 275 ; Addit. MS. 28672, 
ff. 207, 210.] G. G. 

TOST (1708-1760). [See FENTOST.] 

(1485 P-1572), was eldest son of Sir John 
Paulet of Basing, near Basingstoke in 
Hampshire, the head of a younger branch of 
an ancient Somerset family seated in the 
fourteenth century at Pawlet or Paulet and 
Road, close to Bridgwater (CoLLiNSON, ii. 
166, iii. 74). William's great-grandfather 
acquired the Hampshire estates by his mar- 
riage with Constance, granddaughter and 
coheiress of Thomas Poynings, baron St. 
John of Basing (d. 1428). Hinton St. George, 
near Crewkerne, became from the middle of 

the fifteenth century the chief residence of 
the elder branch, to which belong Sir Amias 
Paulet [q. v.] and the present Earl Poulett. 

Paulet's father held a command against 
the Cornish rebels in 1497, and died after 
1519 (CAYLEY, p. 10; cf. BAIGENT, p. 19; 
DUGDALE, ii. 376). His monument remains 
in Basing church. He married his cousin 
Alice (or Elizabeth ?), daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Paulet, the first holder of Hinton St. 
George (cf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser. viii. 
135). William, their eldest son, was born, 
according to Doyle (Official Baronage), in 
1485; Brooke, followed by Dugdale, says 
1483 ; while Camden (p. 229) asserts that he 
was ninety-seven at his death, which would 
place his birth in 1474 or 1475. 

Paulet \vas sheriff of Hampshire in 1512, 
1519, 1523, and again in 1527 (Letters and 
Papers). Knighted before the end of 1525, 
he was appointed master of the king's wards 
in November of the next year with Thomas 
Englefield (ib. iv. 2000, 2673). He appears 
in the privy council in the same year (ib. iv. 
3096). In the Reformation parliament 
of 1529-36 he sat as knight of the shire 
for Hampshire. Created ; surveyor of the 
king's widows and governor of all idiots and 
naturals in the king's hands' in 1531, he 
became comptroller of the royal household 
in May 1532, and a few months later joint- 
master of the royal woods with Thomas 
Cromwell (ib. v. 80, 1069, 1549). Now or 
later he held the offices of high steward of 
St. Swithin's Priory, Winchester, steward 
of Shene Priory, Dorset, and keeper (1536) 
of Pamber Forest, near Basingstoke (ib. x. 
392). In the summer of 1533 Paulet went 
to France as a member of the embassy which 
the Duke of Norfolk took over to join 
Francis I in a proposed interview with the 
pope, and kept Cromwell informed of its pro- 
gress. But Clement's fulmination against the 
divorce pronounced by Cranmer caused their 
recall (ib. vi.391, 661, 830; Chron. of Calais, 
p. 44). On his return he was charged with 
the unpleasant task of notifying the king's 
orders to his discarded wife and daughter. He 
was one of the judges of Fisher and More in 
the summer of 1535, and of Anne Boleyn's 
supposed accomplices in May 1536. 

When the pilgrimage of grace broke out in 
the autumn, Paulet took joint charge of the 
musters of the royal forces, and himself raised 
two hundred men. The rebels complaining 
of the exclusion of noblemen from the king's 
council, Henry reminded them of the presence 
of Paulet and others (Letters and Papers, xi. 
957, i. 1013). In carrying out his royal 
master's commands he was not, it would ap- 
pear, unnecessarily harsh. Anne Boleyn ex- 




cepted him from her complaints against the 
council ; * the controller,' she admitted, ' was 
a very gentleman ' (ib. x. 797). His services 
did not go unrewarded. The king visited his 
'poor house' at Basing in October 1535 (ib. 
ix. 639). The site and other possessions of 
Netley Abbey, near Southampton, were 
granted to him in August 1536 (ib. xi. 385). 
He acted as treasurer of the household from 
October 1537 to March 1539, when the old 
St. John peerage was recreated in his favour, 
but without the designation 'of Basing' 
(COTJRTHOPE). The new peer became the 
first master of Henry VIII's court of wards 
and liveries in 1540, knight of the darter in 
1543 (April), and, two years later, governor 
of Portsmouth. Appointed lord chamber- 
lain of the household in May 1543, he was 
great master (i.e. lord steward) of the same 
from 1545 to 1550 (MACHYN, p. xiv). A 
year before the king's death he became lord 
president of the council, and was nominated 
in Henry's will one of the eighteen execu- 
tors who were to act as a council of regency 
during his son's minority. 

Under Somerset, St. John was for a few 
months in 1547 keeper of the great seal. He 
joined in overthrowing the protector, and, 
five days after parliament had deposed Somer- 
set, was created (19 Jan. 1550) earl of Wilt- 
shire, in which county he had estates (FROTJDE, 
iv. 498). The white staff laid down by So- 
merset was given to the new earl, who con- 
trived to remain lord treasurer until his death, 
twenty-two years later. Warwick succeeded 
to his old offices of great master of the 
household and lord president of the council 
(MACHYN, pp. xiv-xv). Though Wiltshire 
was not, like Northampton and Herbert, pro- 
minently identified with Warwick, he received 
a further advance in the peerage on the final 
fall of Somerset. On ] 1 Oct. 1551, the same 
day that Warwick became duke of Northum- 
berland, he was created marquis of Win- 
chester (Journal of Edward VI, p. 47 : Cal. 
State Papers, ed. Lemon, p. 35 ; Dugdale, fol- 
lowed by Courthope and Doyle, gives 12 Oct.) 
Six weeks later he acted as lord steward at 
the trial of Somerset. 

Careful as Winchester was to trim his sails 
to the prevailing wind, the protestants did 
not trust him. Knox, unless he exaggerates, 
boldly denounced him in his last sermon before 
Edward VI as the ' crafty fox Shebna unto 
good King Ezekias sometime comptroller and 
then treasurer' (STRYPE, Memorials, iv. 71). 
Northumberland and Winchester, Knox tells 
us, ruled all the court, the former by stout 
courage and proudness of stomach, the latter 
by counsel and wit. Though the reformers 
considered him a papist, Winchester did not 

scruple to take out a license for himself, his 
wife, and twelve friends to eat flesh in Lent 
and on fast days (Fosdera, xv. 329). Knox 
did him an injustice when he accused him 
of having been a prime party to Northum- 
berland's attempt to change the order of the 
succession. He was, on the contrary, strongly 
opposed to it ; and even after he had bent, like 
others, before the imperious will of the duke, 
and signed the letters patent of 21 June 
1553, he did not cease to urge in the council 
the superior claim of the original act of suc- 
cession (FROTJDE, v. 162, 168). 

After the death of the young king and 
the proclamation of Queen Jane, Winchester 
delivered the crown jewels to the latter on 
12 July. According to the Venetian Badoaro, 
he made her very indignant by informing her 
of Northumberland's intention to have her 
husband crowned as well (ib. v. 190). But 
Winchester and several other lords were only 
waiting until they could safely turn against 
the duke. The day after he left London to 
bring in Mary (15 July) they made a vain at- 
tempt to get away from the Tower, where they 
were watched by the garrison Northumber- 
land had placed there ; Winchester made an 
excuse to go to his house, but was sent for and 
brought back at midnight. On the 19th, how- 
ever, after the arrival of news of Northumber- 
land's ill-success, the lords contrived to get 
away to Baynard's Castle, and, after a brief 
deliberation, proclaimed Queen Mary. She 
confirmed him in all his offices, to which in 
March 1556 that of lord privy seal was added, 
and thoroughly appreciated his care and vigi- 
lance in the management of her exchequer. 
He gave a general support to Gardiner in 
the House of Lords, and did not refuse to 
convey Elizabeth to the Tower. It was Sus- 
sex, however, and not he, who generously 
took the risk of giving her time to make a last 
appeal to her sister (ib. vi. 379). So firmly 
was Winchester convinced of the impolicy 
of her Spanish marriage, that even after it 
was approved he was heard to swear that 
he would set upon Philip when he landed 
(FROTJDE, v. 312). But he was rapidly brought 
to acquiesce in its accomplishment, and en- 
tertained Philip and Mary at Basing on the 
day after their wedding. 

On Mary's death Winchester rode through 
London with the proclamation of her suc- 
cessor, and, in spite of his advanced age, 
obtained confirmation in the onerous office 
of treasurer, and acted as speaker of the 
House of Lords in the parliaments of 1559 
and 1566, showing no signs of diminished 
vigour. He voted in the small minority 
against any alteration of the church services, 
but did not carry his opposition further ; 




and Heath, archbishop of York, and Thirlby, 
bishop of Ely, were deprived at his house in 
Austin Friars (ib. vi. 194 ; MACHYN, p. 203). 
For some years he was on excellent terms 
with Cecil, to whom he wrote, after an Eng- 
lish reverse before Leith in May 1560, that 
'worldly things would sometimes fall out 
contrary, but if quietly taken could be quietly 
amended' (FROUDE, vi. 370). Three months 
later, when the queen visited him at Basing 1 , 
he sent the secretary warning against certain 
< back counsels' about the queen (ib. vi.413). 
Elizabeth was so pleased with the good cheer 
he made her that she playfully lamented his 
great age, ' for, by my troth/ said she, ' if my 
lord treasurer were but a young man, I could [ 
find it in my heart to have him for a husband [ 
before any man in England ' (SiE YPE, Annals, \ 
i. 367). "Two years later, when she was be- j 
lieved to be dying, Winchester persuaded J 
the council to agree to submit the rival j 
claims to the succession to the crown lawyers \ 
and judges, and to stand by their decision 
(FROUDE, vi. 589). He was opposed to all 
extremes. In 1561, when there was danger 
of a Spanish alliance to cover a union between 
the queen and Dudley, he supported the 
counter-proposal of alliance with the French ' 
Calvinists, but seven years later he depre- j 
cated any such championship of protestantism j 
abroad as might lead to a breach with Spain, 
and recommended that the Duke of Alva 
should be allowed to procure clothes and i 
food for his soldiers in England, ' that he ' 
might be ready for her grace when he might 
do her any service' (ib. vi. 461, viii. 445). 
He disliked the turn Cecil was endeavouring ! 
to give to English policy, and he was in j 
sympathy with, if he was not a party to, 
the intrigues of 1569 against the secretary 
(CAMDEN, p. 151). 

Winchester was still in harness when he j 
died, a very old man, at Basing House on 
10 March 1572. His tomb remains on the 
south side of the chancel of Basing church. 
Winchester was twice married, and lived to j 
see 103 of his own descendants (e'6.) His first 
wife was Elizabeth (d. 25 Dec. 1558), daugh- | 
ter of Sir William Capel, lord mayor of i 
London in 1503, by whom he had four sons ! 

(1) John, second marquis of Winchester; | 

(2) Thomas : (3) Chediok, governor of South- [ 
ampton under Mary and Elizabeth ; (4) Giles 
and four daughters : Elizabeth, Margaret, ! 
Margerie, and Eleanor, the last of whom ; 
married Sir Richard Pecksall, master of the ! 
buckhounds, and died on 26 Sept. 1558 
(MACHIN, p. 367 ; DUGDALE, ii. 377). By 
his second wife, Winifrid, daughter of Sir 
J ohn Bruges, alderman of Lond on, and widow 
of Sir Richard Sackville, chancellor of the 

exchequer, he left no issue. She died in 

Sir Robert Naunton [q. v.], in his reminis- 
cences of Elizabethan statesmen (he was nine 
years old at Winchester's death), reports that 
in his old age he was quite frank with his 
intimates on the secret of the success with 
which he had weathered the revolutions of 
four reigns. ' Questioned how he had stood 
up for thirty years together amidst the 
changes and ruins of so many chancellors 
and great personages," Why." quoth the mar- 
quis, " ortus sum e salice non ex quercu." 
And truly it seems the old man had taught 
them all, especially William, earl of Pem- 
broke ' (Fragmenta Regalia, p. 95). 

Winchester rebuilt Basing House, which 
he obtained license to fortify in 1531, on so 
princely a scale that, according to Camden, 
his posterity were forced to pull down a part 
of it. An engraving of the mansion after 
the famous siege is given in Baigent (p. 428). 
The marquis was one of those who sent out 
the expedition of Chancellor and Willoughby 
to northern seas in 1553, and became a 
member of the Muscovy Company incorpo- 
rated under Mary (Calendar of State Papers, 
ed. Lemon, p. 65 ; STRYPE, Memorials, v. 
520). A portrait by a painter unknown 
is engraved in Doyle's * Official Baronage,' 
and another, which represents him with the 
treasurer's white staff, in Walpole's edition 
of Naunton (p. 103), from a painting also, it 
would seem, unassigned, in King's College, 
Cambridge. Two portraits are mentioned 
in the catalogue of the Tudor exhibition 
(Nos. 323, 348), in both of which he grasps 
the white staif. If the latter, which is in 
the Duke of Northumberland's collection, is 
correctly described, its ascription to Holbein 
must be erroneous, as he did not become 
treasurer until 1550, and the artist died in 

[Gal. of Letters and Papers of the Eeign of 
Henry VIII, ed. Brewer and Grairdner; Cal. of 
Dom. State Papers, 1547-80, ed. K. Lemon; 
Rymer's Foedera, original edition ; Strype's Me- 
morials and Annals, Clarendon Press edition ; 
Camden's Annales Rerum Anglicarum regnante 
Elizabetha, ed. 1615; Naunton's Fragmenta 
Regalia, ed., with Hentzner's Travels, by Horace 
Walpole in 1797 ; Machyn's Diary, the Chronicle 
of Calais, and Wriothesley's Chronicle, published 
by the Camden Soc. ; Froude's Hist, of England ; 
Collinson's Hist, of Somerset ; Baigent and Mil- 
lard's Hist, of Basingstoke ; Cayley's Architec- 
tural Memoir of Old Basing Church, including 
Armorials and Monuments of the Paulet Family, 
by S. J. Salter (Basingstoke, 1891); Brooke's 
Catalogue of Nobility, 1619 ; Dugdale's Baronage ; 
Courthope's Historic Peerage, and Doyle's Official 
Baronage.] J. T-T. 




OF WINCHESTER (1535 H-I598), son of John 
Paulet, second marquis, and grandson of 
William Paulet, first marquis [q. v.], was 
born before 1536 and knighted before 1559. 
He served as high sheriff for Hampshire in ; 
1560, as joint commissioner of musters and 
joint lord-lieutenant for Dorset in 1569-70. 
Doyle says he became member of parliament | 
for Dorset in 1571 ; but no parliament was 
elected or sat in that year, and Paulet's 
name does not appear in the official returns 
of the lower house 'in any other parliament. 
In 1572 he was summoned to the house of 
lords as Baron St. John, and on 4 Nov. 1576 
he succeeded his father as third Marquis of 
Winchester. He was not satisfied with his 
father's will, and complained of the disposal 
of the family property due to the influence 
of his grandfather's widow, Winifrid (d. 
1586). In 1580 he became lord-lieutenant 
of Dorset, and in October 1586 was one of 
the commissioners appointed to try Mary 
Queen of Scots ; he was lord steward for her 
funeral on 1 Aug. 1587. In 1596 he was 
lord-lieutenant for Hampshire, and in 1597 
first commissioner for ecclesiastical causes in 
the diocese of Winchester. He died on 
24 Nov. 1598, having married, before 1560, 
Agnes, daughter of William, first lord 
Howard of Effingham [q. v.] ; with her his 
relations were not entirely harmonious, and 
on one occasion it was only by the inter- 
cession of the queen that a reconciliation 
was effected (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 
1547-80, p. 534, &c.) He was succeeded 
by his eldest son William, fourth marquis, 
whose son John, fifth marquis, is separately 

Paulet's claim to remembrance rests on a 
curious little work, entitled ' The Lord 
Marques Idlenes: containing manifold matter 
of acceptable devise, as sage sentences, pru- 
dent precepts, &c.,' London, Arnold Hatfield, 
1586, 4to ; prefixed to it is a dedication to the 
queen and a remarkable acrostic of six Latin 
verses, which, says Collier, ' must have 
cost the writer immense ingenuity in the 
composition ; ' the first letters of the six lines 
form the word ' regina/ the last letters 
' nostra ' and the initials of the words in the 
last line 'Angliae.' Copies of this edition 
are in the Bridgewater collection and in the 
British Museum and Bodleian Libraries, and 
Collier had heard of a fourth, but they are 
extremely rare. A second edition appeared 
in 1587, a copy of which is in the British 
Museum Library. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-98, passim; Cotton MS. Julius C. 
iii. ; Peerages by Doyle, Brydges, and Collins ; 

Collier's Bibliogr. Ace. of Early Engl. Lit. vol. i. 
p. xix, vol. ii. p. 132 ; Bodleian Cat.] A. F. P. 

1893), field-marshal, fourth son of Charles 
Ingoldsby Paulet, thirteenth marquis of 
Winchester, and his wife Anne, second 
daughter of John Andrews of Shotney Hall, 
Northumberland, was born 7 July 1804. 
After being educated at Eton, where his 
name appears in the fifth form in the 
school lists of 1820, he was appointed 
ensign in the 85th light infantry on 1 Feb. 
1821. On 23 Aug. 1822 he was made lieu- 
tenant in the 7th fusiliers, purchased an 
unattached company 12 Feb. 1825, and ex- 
changed to the 21st fusiliers. On 10 Sept. 1830 
he became major 63th light infantry, and 
lieutenant-colonel 21 April 1843, serving 
with the regiment at Gibraltar, in the West 
Indies, North America, and at home until 
31 Dec. 1848, when he exchanged to half-pay 
unattached. Becoming brevet colonel 20 June 
1854, he went to the Crimea as assistant 
adjutant-general of the cavalry division, 
under Lord Lucan, and was present at the 
Alma, Balaklava (where he was with Lord 
Lucan throughout the day, and had his hat 
carried off by a shot), Inkerman, and before 
Sevastopol. On 23 Nov. 1854 Lord Raglan 
appointed him to command 'on the Bos- 
phorus, at Gallipoli, and the Dardanelles,' 
where the overcrowded hospitals, in which 
Miss Nightingale and her band of nurses 
had begun their labours three weeks before, 
were much in need of an experienced officer 
in chief command. This post was held by 
him until after the fall of Sevastopol, when 
he succeeded to the command of the light 
division in the Crimea, which he retained 
until the evacuation (C.B. medal and clasps, 
officer of the Legion of Honour, third class 
of the Medjidie, and Sardinian and Turkish 

Paulet was one of the first officers ap- 
pointed to a command at Aldershot, where 
he commanded the 1st brigade from 1856 to 
1860, becoming a major-general meanwhile 
on 13 June 1858. He commanded the 
south-western district, with headquarters at 
Portsmouth, from 1860 to 1865. He was made 
K.C.B. in 1865, and a lieutenant-general 
8 Dec. -1867; was adjutant-general of the 
forces from 1865 to 1870, was made G.C.B. 
in 1870, general 7 Oct. 1874, and field- 
marshal 10 July 1886. After a short period 
as colonel 87th fusiliers, Paulet was ap- 
pointed, on 9 April 1864, colonel of his old 
regiment, the 68th (now 1st Durham light 
infantry), in the welfare and interests of 
which he never ceased to exert his active 
influence. He died 10 May 1893. 


9 6 


[Foster's Peerage, under ' Winchester ; ' Hart's 
Array Lists ; Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea 
(cabinet edit.); Times, 10 May 1893; Broad 
Arrow, 13 May 1893, p. 590.] H. M. C. 

PAULINUS (fi. 500 ?), British ecclesias- 
tic, is first mentioned in the ' Life of St. 
David/ by Khygyfarch (d. 1099), as that 
saint's early teacher. He is described as a 
bishop, a ' scriba,' and a pupil of Germanus, 
living as an anchorite upon an island. He 
was cured of blindness by St. David, and at 
the synod of Brefi was the person who sug- 
gested the summoning thither of his distin- 
guished pupil (Cambro- British Saints, 1853, 
pp. 122-3, 137). The life of Teilo in the 
' Liber Landavensis,' written probably about 
1130, sends Teilo also to ' Paulinus ' for in- 
struction and makes David one of his fellow- 
pupils. Pughe (Cambrian Biography} and 
others identify Paulinus with the Pawl Hen 
of Manaw in the north, who was the father 
of the Anglesey saints Peulan, Gwyngenau, 
and Gwenfaen (Myvyrian Archaiology, 2nd 
edit., pp. 426, 429) ; they also locate him at 
Ty Gwyn ar Daf or Whitland, Carmarthen- 
shire, on the authority of notices in the 
Glamorgan copies of the ' Genealogies of the 
Saints' (lolo MSS. 112, 114, 139). With 
much more probability he is identified with 
the Paulinus of an early inscribed stone 
found at Pantypolion in the parish of Caio, 
Carmarthenshire, and now kept at Dolau 
Cothi in the same neighbourhood. The in- 
scription read in the time of Bishop Gibson 
' Servatur fidaei patrieq semper amator hie 
paulinus iacit cultor pientisimus aeqvi ' (WEST- 
WOOD, Lapidarium Wallice, 1876-9, p. 79). 
Paulinus is the patron saint of Llangors, 
Brecknockshire, and of Capel Peulin (or 
Capel Ystradffin), a chapel of Llandingad, 
Carmarthenshire ; the latter is possibly meant 
by the ' Capella Sancti Paulini ' of an agree- 
ment as to tithes drawn up in 1339 between 
the abbey of Strata Florida and the clergy 
of the diocese of St. David's (WILLIAMS, 
Strata Florida, 1889, p. li). According to 
Rees ( Welsh Saints, p. 188), Paulinus was 
commemorated under the title ' Polin Esgob ' 
on 22 Nov. 

[Authorities cited.] J. E. L. 

PAULINUS (d. 644), archbishop or bishop 
of York, was a Roman (Carmen de Ponti- 
ficibus Ecclesice Eboracensis, 11. 135-6), and, 
it is said, a monk of the monastery of St. An- 
drew at Rome (Acta SS. Holland. Oct. v. 104). 
He was sent by Pope Gregory the Great, 
together with Mellitus [q. v.], Justus [q. v.], 
and others, to join Augustine [q. v.] in Eng- 
land in 601. They carried commendatory 
letters to the bishops of the cities in Gaul 

through which they would pass on their 
way, and to the kings and queens of the 
Franks, and brought with them a pall for 
Augustine, answers to questions that he had 
laid before the pope, and directions concern- 
ing the establishment of sees in England, in 
which York was named as the future head 
of the northern province. Paulinus (though 
he may have been sent on a mission to East 
Anglia some time before 616) appears to have 
generally remained in Kent until 625. In that 

Ssar Edwin or Eadwine [q. v.], king of the 
"orthumbrians, who was then a pagan, ob- 
tained from Eadbald [q. v.], king of Kent, 
permission to marry his sister Ethelburga or 
^Ethelburh [q. v.] ; he promised to do nothing 
against his bride's religion, and to grant free- 
dom of worship to her and to any attendants, 
priests, or ministers that she might bring with 
her, and declared that he would not refuse to 
embrace Christianity if, on examination, it 
should appear to his counsellors to be more 
pleasing to God than his own religion. It was 
determined to send Paulinus with ./Ethelburh 
and her attendants, that he might by daily ex- 
hortation and celebration of the sacraments 
strengthen them in the faith and keep them 
from the contamination of heathenism, and 
he was therefore ordained bishop by Arch- 
bishop Justus on 21 July. At the North- 
umbrian court he both ministered to those 
who had come with him and strove to con- 
vert others. For some time the pagans re- 
sisted his exhortations. Eadwine's escape 
from an attempt to assassinate him on 
17 April 626, and the danger of his queen 
in childbirth, inclined him to listen to the 
words of Paulinus, and he promised the 
bishop that if he obtained victory over his 
enemies, and his queen was spared, he would 
accept Christianity, and as an assurance he 
allowed the bishop to baptise his newly 
born daughter, Eanflaed [q. v.], and eleven 
members of his household with her, on Whit- 
Sunday, 8 June (Historia Ecclesiastica, ii. 
c. 9), or more probably on the eve of that 
festival (BKIGHT). Nevertheless the king 
delayed his conversion, until Paulinus one 
day placed his hand upon his head and asked 
him if he remembered that sign. The ques- 
tion referred to an incident in the earlier 
life of Eadwine [see under EDWIN], when, 
during his residence at Rsedwald's court, a 
man like Pauiinus appeared to him at a 
moment of imminent danger, promised him 
deliverance, kingship, and power, and re- 
ceived from him in return a promise of 
obedience to be claimed by the sign that 
Paulinus at length gave the king. This in- 
cident is explained by some as a dream 
(LINGAKD, c. 2) ; others suppose that the 




stranger who appeared to Eadwine was some 
Christian of Rsedwald's court known to 
Paulinus (CHURTON, Early English Church, 
p. 56), and others that he was Paulinus 
in person (RAINE, p. 38) ; if the last view is 
accepted, the appearance of Paulinus at the 
East-Anglian court, which must be dated 
before 616, would imply that he was then 
on a mission to that kingdom, undertaken 
possibly to reclaim Rsedwald, who had fallen 
from the faith (HADDAN and STUBBS, iii. 75). 
Eadwine recognised the sign, declared his 
willingness to adopt Christianity, and his 
witan having pronounced in favour of the 
change at a meeting held at Goodmanham, 
about twenty miles from York, he and his 
nobles openly professed their acceptance of 
the teaching of Paulinus, and sanctioned the 
destruction of the idolatrous temples and 
altars. A wooden church was hastily raised 
at York and dedicated to St. Peter, and there 
Paulinus instructed the king as a catechumen, 
and, on Easter day, 12 April 627, baptised 
him and many other noble persons, among 
whom were two of the king's sons. Welsh 
writers represent Eadwine and his people as 
having been baptised by a British priest 
named Rhun or Rum, son of Urbgen, or 
Urien (NENNIUS, p. 54; Annales Cambr. 
an. 182, i.e. A.D. 626) [see under EDWIN], and 
it has consequently been supposed that Pau- 
linus was a Briton by birth, who had resided 
in Rome, and had been sent thence by Gre- 
gory to assist in the conversion of the Eng- 
lish (HODGSON HINDE, History of Northum- 
berland, i. 77 ; RAINE, p. 36). This is, how- 
ever, mere supposition, and is untenable 
(HADDAN and STUBBS, iii. 75). 

In accordance with a grant of Eadwine, 
Paulinus carried out the ordinance of Pope 
Gregory by establishing his episcopal see at 
York. At his bidding, the foundations were 
laid of a stone church, which was built in 
the form of a square, with the little wooden 
church preserved in the middle of it ; the 
walls were not raised to their full height in 
his time. He laboured unceasingly in preach- 
ing and baptising the people, moving about 
from one part of Eadwine's dominions to 
another, and everywhere meeting with signal 
success. On one occasion he visited Adge- 
frin or Yeavering, in the present Northum- 
berland, then a royal residence, and re- 
mained there with the king and queen for 
thirty-six days, from morning till evening 
instructing and baptising the people, who 
flocked to him in great numbers, and were, 
after preparation, baptised in the river Glen, 
a tributary of the Till. Another visit to 
Bernicia is commemorated by the name of 
Pallinsburn or Pallingsburn in the same 


county. Deira, where he used to reside 
with the king, was the chief scene of his 
labours, and he was wont to baptise his con- 
verts in the Swale above Catterick Bridge, 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire. He is also 
believed to have preached at Dewsbury in 
the West Riding, and at Easingwold in the 
North Riding. At Dewsbury there was, in 
Camden's time, a cross with the inscription 
' Hie Paulinus prsedicavit et celebravit ' 
{Britannia, col. 709) ; a successor to this 
cross was destroyed in 1812 (WHITAKER). 
His custom was to preach in the open air 
and near some river, brook, or lake, that 
served for baptisms, and his work was 
simply one of foundation. Throughout the 
whole of Bernicia there was not, in his time, 
a single church, altar, or cross, and as re- 
gards Deira, the notice of the wooden basilica 
with a stone altar, that he raised at Campo- 
donum probably Tanfield, near Ripon 
implies that the building was exceptional 
(BRIGHT). South of the Humber, he 
preached in Lindsey ; and Blsecca, the ealdor- 
man of Lincoln, having, with all his house, 
received the gospel, built a church of stone 
in that city. There, in 628, Archbishop 
Justus having died the previous year, Pau- 
linus, who was then the only Roman bishop 
in England, consecrated Honorius [q. v.] to 
the see of Canterbury. The corrupted name 
of St. Paul's Church at Lincoln preserves the 
memory of Paulinus, and of the church of 
Blsecca. He baptised many persons in the 
Trent in the presence of Eadwine and a 
multitude of people near a town called 
Tiovulfingchester probably Southwell in 
Nottinghamshire where tradition makes 
him the founder of the collegiate church (Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 1312). He is also said to have 
preached at Whalley in Lancashire, then in 
Cumbria. In these labours he was assisted 
by his deacon James, whose diligence and 
faithfulness did much for the spread of 
the gospel. 

On the overthrow of Eadwine in 633, Pau- 
linus, seeing no safety except in flight, left his 
work in the north and sailed with the widowed 

?ueen ^Ethelburh and the king's children to 
Cent. His flight is commended by Canon 
Raine, and, for reasons which he fully states, 
is condemned by Canon Bright in his * Early 
English Church History.' Bede, while not 
pronouncing any judgment on the matter, 
seems to have held that Paulinus had no 
choice, and that he owed attendance to the 
queen whom he had brought with him to 
Northumbria (see Historia Ecclesiastica, ii. 
c. 20). If this was Bede's opinion, it should, 
in spite of Canon Bright's weighty reasons 
on the other side, be taken as absolving 


9 8 


Paulinus from blame. The fugitives were es- 
corted by Bass, one of the most valiant of the 
king's thegns. Along with other of Eadwine's 
precious vessels, Paulinus carried with him 
a large gold cross and the gold chalice that 
he used at the service of the altar ; these 
were in Bede's time preserved at Canterbury. 
His deacon James remained in Northumbria, 
dwelling for the most part at a village that 
was called by his name near Catterick, and 
was the means of converting many from 
heathenism. He lived until Bede's time, and, 
being skilled in sacred song, taught the 
Roman or Canterbury mode of chanting to 
the Christians of the north, when peace had 
been restored to the church, and the number 
of believers had increased. Paulinus and 
his company were joyfully received by Ead- 
bald, and the see of Rochester having been 
vacant since the death of Romanus in 627, 
he accepted it at the request of Eadbald and 
Honorius. It was probably while he was 
there, and certainly while he was in Kent, 
that he received the pall which Pope Honorius 
sent to him in 634 in answer to a request 
that Eadwine had made before his death. 
As he had then ceased to occupy the see of 
York, it is open to question whether he 
should be reckoned an archbishop (Canon 
Bright denies him the title, but it is ac- 
corded to him in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
and elsewhere. No other occupant of the 
see of York received a pall until Egbert 
or Ecgberht (d. 766) [q. v.]). He died at 
Rochester on 10 Oct. 644 (Anglo-Saxon Chro- 
nicle, sub an., Peterborough version; FLO- 
EENCE, sub an.), and was buried in the secre- 
tarium of his church there (Anglia Sacra, i. 
154). In person he was tall, with a slightly 
stooping figure; he had black hair, a thin 
face, and an aquiline nose, and was of vene- 
rable and awe-inspiring aspect (Historia 
Ecclesiastica, ii. 16). His name was inserted 
in the calendar, his day being that of his 
deposition. His memory was specially re- 
vered at Rochester, and, on the cathedral 
church being rebuilt, his body was translated 
by Archbishop Lanfranc, who laid his relics 
in a silver shrine, and gave a silver cross to 
stand above the feretory (Registrum Roffense, 
p. 120). A Glastonbury tradition represents 
Paulinus as residing some time there, and as 
covering the ancient church of the house 
with lead (WILL. MALM. De Antiquitatibus 
Glastonia, p. 300). Some of his bones and 
teeth were among the relics in York minster 
(Fabric Rolls, p. 151), and his name was in- 
serted in ' Liber Vitae ' of Durham (p. 7). 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl. ii. cc. 9, 12-14, 16-20 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.); Anglo-Saxon Chron. ann. 
601, 625, 633, 644; Alcuin's Carmen de SS. 

Ebor. 11. 135-6 ap. Historians of York, i. 353 
(Rolls Ser.); Will.of Malmesbury'sGresta Pontiff, 
pp. 134, 211 (Rolls Ser.), and De Antiq. Eccl. 
Glast. ap. Gale's Scriptt. iii. 300 ; Nennius, p. 54 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Ann. Carnbr. an. 6'26, ap. 
Mon. Hist. Brit. p. 832 ; Haddan and Stubbs's 
Eccl. Documents, i. 124, iii. 33, 75, 82, 83 ; 
Anglia Sacra, i. 154 ; Acta SS. Bolland. Oct. v. 
102 sqq. ; Reg. Roffense, pp. 120, 124, ed. Thorpe; 
Fabric Rolls of York, p. 151, Liber Vitse 
Dunelm. p. 7 (both Surfcees Soc.); Camden's 
Britannia, col. 709 (ed. 1695) ; Whitaker's 
Whalley, p. 50, and Loidis and Elrnete, pp. 299, 
300 ; Hodgson Hinde's Hist, of Northumberland ? 
i. 77; Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 152, vi. 1312;" 
Bright's Chapters of Early English Church 
Hist. pp. 55, 11-1-23, 128-30; Raine's Fasti 
Ebor. pp. 35-46, and his art. ' Paulinus ' (20) in 
Diet. Chr. Biogr. iv. 248 ; Churton's Early Eng- 
lish Church, p. 56 ; Lingard's Hist, of England, 
i. 58 (ed. 1854).] W. H. 

PAULL, JAMES (1770-1808), politician, 
born at Perth in 1770, was the son of a 
tailor and clothier, a parentage with which 
he was often twitted in after life. He was 
educated at the university of St. Andrews, 
and placed with a writer to the signet at 
Edinburgh, but soon tired of legal life. At 
the age of eighteen he went out as a writer 
to India, in the ship of Sir Home Popham, 
and about 1790 settled at Lucknow. Within 
two years from his arrival he earned sufficient 
money to repay the cost of his outfit and to 
provide an annuity for his mother, then 
a widow. In 1801 he quitted Lucknow 
and came to England for a time, but re- 
turned again to India in the following year. 
He had now established an extensive busi- 
ness, and occupied such a prominent posi- 
tion in commercial life at Lucknow that he 
was sent to Lord Wellesley as a delegate of 
the traders in that city. For a time viceroy 
and merchant, were on good terms, but they 
soon parted in anger. Paull was a little 
man, of a l fiery heart,' and in a duel in India 
with some one who taunted him with the 
meanness of his birth, he was so wounded 
as at the close of his life to lose the use of 
his right arm. In the latter part of 1804 he 
returned to England with the reputation 
of having amassed a large fortune. On his 
previous visit he had been graciously re- 
ceived by the Prince of Wales, and he con- 
sidered himself one of the prince's political 
adherents, expecting in turn to receive the 
support of the Carlton House party in his 
attack on Lord Wellesley. He was elected 
for the borough of Newtown, Isle of Wight, 
on 5 June 1805, and before the month was 
out proceeded to move for papers relating 
to the dealings of Lord Welles Ley with the 
nabob of Oudh. He had many friends, 




among whom was Windham, who introduced 
him to Cobbett in June 1805. It was un- 
derstood at that time that he was supported 
by the whigs and the prince ; but when the 
ministry of * All the Talents ' was formed, it 
was impossible for the new government, 
which included Lord Grenville, to support 
him in his opposition to Wellesley, although 
Fox, Windham, and many of its leading 
members were in agreement with his views. 
The Prince of Wales thereupon urged him 
to desist from any further proceedings. 

Paull declined to adopt this suggestion, 
and spent the session of 1806 in moving for 
additional papers and in formulating his 
charges against the viceroy. The friends of 
Lord Wellesley tried in July 1806 to force 
his hand, but, through the interposition of 
Sir Samuel Romilly, were prevented from 
carrying out their purpose. A dissolution of 
parliament intervened, and Paull, having 
been disappointed in his expectation of ob- 
taining a seat for one of the prince's boroughs, 
stood for Westminster against Sheridan and 
Sir Samuel Hood (November). The contest 
was animated. Sir Francis Burdett had met 
him at Cobbett's, and had introduced him 
to Home Tooke. Burdett had himself been 
asked to stand for Westminster, but declined 
in favour of Paull, supporting him with all 
his influence and subscribing 1,000/. towards 
the expenses of the contest. The poll lasted 
fifteen days, when Hood and Sheridan were 
elected. On one occasion, when the candi- 
dates were on the hustings, a stage was 
brought from Drury Lane, with four tailors 
seated at work, a live goose, and several 
cabbages. Gillray brought out several cari- 
catures, including (1) a view of the hustings 
in Covent Garden ; (2) l the high-flying can- 
didate, little Paull goose, mounting from a 
blanket ' held by Hood and Sheridan ; 
(3) ' the triumphal procession of little Paull, 
the tailor, upon his new goose.' The de- 
feated candidate, who polled 4,481 votes, 
petitioned against the return, and the matter 
came before the House of Commons on 
5 and 18 March 1807, when the allegations 
were voted ' false and scandalous.' 

Paull stood again for Westminster at the 
election in May 1807 with even less suc- 
cess. Home Tooke, who had said to him 
one day, ' You are a bold man, and I am cer- 
tain you'll succeed, only, as Cobbett says, 
keep yourself cool,' was now estranged. 
Cobbett was still his friend, and highly 
praised him in his * Political Register,' on 
9 May 1807, for the temptations which he 
had withstood ; but the time came when he 
remarked, ' Paull is too fond of the Bond 
Street set has too great a desire to live 

amongst the great.' Burdett had been ad- 
vertised by Paull as having agreed to take 
the chair at a dinner at the ' Crown and 
Anchor ' at an early stage in these election 
proceedings, but he repudiated the alleged 
engagement, and a duel ensued at Coombe 
Wood, near Wimbledon, on 2 May 1807. On 
the second exchange of shots, insisted upon by 
Paull, as Burdett declined to apologise, both 
were badly wounded. Gillray produced a 
caricature of the duel, and some ridicule was 
expressed over the circumstance that, through 
the absence of a medical officer and the lack 
of proper arrangements for carriages, both 
combatants were brought back to London in 
the same vehicle. At the close of the elec- 
tion Burdett and Lord Cochrane were at the 
head of the poll with 5,134 and 3,708 votes 
respectively, while Paull obtained only 269. 

Paull neglected his wounds, and passed, 
after his duel, ' three months of dreadful 
suffering, without any hope, and almost with- 
out the possibility of recovery.' His elec- 
tion expenses had exhausted "his resources, 
and he was disappointed in his expectations 
of assistance from India. For some weeks 
he showed signs of mental derangement, but 
his ruin was hastened by the loss of over six- 
teen hundred guineas at a gaming-house in 
Pall Mall on the night of 14 April 1808. On 
the next day he deliberately committed 
suicide, by piercing his right arm, and, when 
that did not effect his purpose, by cutting 
his throat. He died at his house, Charles 
Street, Westminster, on 15 April 1808, and 
was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly, on 
21 April. 

In 1806 a ' Lover of Consistency,' no doubt 
Paull himself, published 'A Letter to the 
Right Hon. C. J. Fox,' on his conduct upon 
the charges against Lord Wellesley. The 
accusations brought against the Prince of 
Wales were repelled in 1806 in 'A. Letter to 
the Earl of Moira.' After the duel with 
Burdett there appeared in the ' Times ' a 
letter from Tooke, which was published 
separately ; and he also issued a pamphlet, 
entitled <A Warning to the Electors of 
Westminster from Mr. Home Tooke.' alleging 
that Paull had thrust himself upon him ; but 
the accusation was rashly made, and easily 
dispelled in ' A Refutation of the Calumnies 
of John Home Tooke, by James Paull,' 1807. 
In 1808 there came out ' A Letter from Mr. 
Paull to Samuel Whitbread,' in which he 
attributed the loss of his election for West- 
minster to the influence of that politician. 
His letter to Lord Folkestone on the impeach- 
ment of the Marquis of Wellesley is in 
Cobbett's ' Political Register,' on 25 Oct. 
1806 (pp. 648-56). The charges against that 





viceroy were renewed in the House of Com- 
mons by Lord Folkestone on 9 March 1808, 
but were negatived by 182 votes to 81. 

Paull was possessed of wonderful per- 
severance and ardour, and was an adept at 
mob oratory. He had acquired great know- 
ledge of Indian affairs, but possessed little 
acquaintance with general matters. His zeal 
involved him in perpetual strife. A duel 
between him and a Westminster politician, 
called Elliot, was stopped by the authorities 
at the close of 1806. He was described by 
Jerdan as ' a dapper little fellow, touched 
with the smallpox, and dressed in blue coat 
and leather inexpressibles, the fashionable 
costume of the day ' (Autobiogr. i. 95). 

[Wilson's House of Commons, 1808, pp. 639- 
640; Gent. Mag. 1806 pt. ii. p. 1164, ISOSpt. 
i. pp. 373-4; Annual Eeg. 1808, pp. 151-2; 
Georgian Era, i. 563 ; Stephens's Life of Home 
Tooke,ii. 317-19,367-8; Oldfield's Representa- 
tive Hist. iv. 237 ; Bedding's Fifty Years, i. 85- 
86 ; Major Cartwright's Life, pp. 343, 347 ; 
Komilly ; s Life, ii. 153-5; Smith's Cobbett, ii. 
15-16, 25-30, 33; Cobbett's Political Reg. for 
1806; Hansard for 1805, 1806, and 1807; 
Pearce's Lord Wellesley, ii. 428-44.] 

W. P. C. 


(1812-1876), politician and journalist, was 
son of Walter Paulton of Bolton, Lancashire, 
where he was born in 1812. His family were 
Roman catholics, and he was sent to Stony- 
hurst College to be educated for the priest- 
hood. His views underwent a change, and 
on leaving college at the age of sixteen or 
seventeen he was apprenticed to a surgeon 
named Rainforth at Bolton. His thirst for 
general information was strong, and he began 
to take a deep interest in the political topics 
of the day, especially in the corn laws, then 
beginning to excite attention. He availed 
himself of opportunities for addressing public 
meetings, and soon became a good speaker. 
In July 1838 he was in the Bolton Theatre 
when the appointed lecturer, on the corn 
laws, proved himself unequal to the task 
set before him. Paulton was induced to 
mount the stage, and succeeded in quieting 
the turbulent audience by undertaking to 
lecture on the same subject the following 
week. The promised lecture was delivered, 
and proved a brilliant success ; and one of 
the consequences of this incident was the 
abandonment of the medical profession for 
politics. He was soon afterwards introduced 
to Cobden, and engaged himself as a lecturer 
for the Anti-Corn-Law League. He was 
called away from this work in April 1839 to 
edit the ' Anti-Corn-Law Circular ' (changed 
to ' Anti-Bread-Tax Circular ' in April 1841), 

the earliest organ of the league, and pub- 
lished in Manchester. This was succeeded 
in September 1843 by the ' League' news- 
paper, which had its headquarters in London, 
whither Paulton removed in order to un- 
dertake the editorship. The operations of 
the league were brought to a close in 184G 
by the repeal of the corn laws, and in 1848 
Paulton returned to Manchester, and, in con- 
junction with Henry Rawson, purchased the 
' Manchester Times/ a newspaper represent- 
ing the views of the more advanced section 
of the liberal party, with which afterwards 
was amalgamated the 'Manchester Ex- 
aminer,' the style of the paper being thence- 
forth the ' Examiner and Times.' This was 
conducted by Paulton from 1848 to 1854. 
In the latter year he married the daughter 
of James Mellor of Liverpool, and from that 
time resided in London, or at his country 
house, Boughton Hall, Surrey. In his re- 
tirement he still took the same deep interest 
in public questions, and remained on terms 
of close intimacy with Cobden, John Bright, 
and other old associates. He was a man of 
great ability, deeply versed in political ques- 
tions and the philosophy of politics, and in 
later years was keenly interested in the pro- 
gress of physical inquiry. He was a conver- 
sationalist of the first order. His writings, 
consisting mainly of newspaper articles, have 
not been collected. 

He died at Boughton Hall, Surrey, on 
6 June 1876, leaving a son and a daughter, 
and was buried at Kensal Green cemetery. 

[Manchester Examiner and Times, 12 June 
1876; Prentice's Anti-Corn-Law League, 1853, 
i.64 etseq.; Morley's Life of Cobden, 1881, i. 408, 
ii. 389, 395, 409, 411, 457, 458, 472 ; Ashworth's 
Recollections of Cobden, p. 35 ; Smith's Life of 
John Bright, 1881, i. 131, 133 ; Somerville's Free 
Trade and the League, 1853, ii. 482.] C. W. S. 

PAUPER, HERBERT (d. 1217), bishop 
of Salisbury. [See POOK.] 

PAUPER, ROGER (Jl. 1135), judge. 
[See ROGER] 

1375), soldier, was son of Walter de Paveley 
by Maud, daughter and heiress of Stephen 
Burghersh, elder brother of Bartholomew 
Burghersh (d. 1355) [q. v.], and Henry 
Burghersh [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln. Several 
families of the name of Paveley occur as 
holding lands in Northamptonshire, Kent, 
Somerset, and Wiltshire, during the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries (cf. HAKDY, Cal. 
Rot. Glaus.-, MADOX, Formulare Anglicanum, 
p. 424 ; HOARE, Hist, of Wiltshire, West- 
bury, p. 3). The family to which Walter 
belonged seems to have been connected with 




the two former counties (CaL Inquis. post 
mortem, ii. 1, 347; BRIDGES, Northampton- 
shire, i. 286). During the reign of Edward II 
the heads both of the Wiltshire and Kentish 
families were called Walter. Walter de 
Paveley of Northamptonshire sided with 
Thomas of Lancaster, and was taken 
prisoner at Boroughbridge in 1322. He was 
M.P. for Kent in 1324 (Par/. Writs, iii. 
1266). He had acquired lands in Kent 
through his marriage (cf. HASTED, Hist, of 
Kent, ii. 314), and died in 1327, when his 
son was seven years old. The younger Walter 
de Paveley is mentioned as defendant in an 
assize of novel disseizin in 1340 ( Year Book, 
13-14 Edward III, p. 304). On 8 July 1341 
he was returned as heir of his uncle, Henry 
Burghersh. He served under his uncle Bar- 
tholomew in Brittany in 1342 and 1345, and 
was present with Sir Walter de Manny [q. v.] 
at Rennes in 1342 (FROISSART, iv. 12). In 
1343 he was serving in Gascony (ib. iv. 218), 
and took part in the campaign of 1346, when 
he was one of the prince's counsellors at 
Cre9_y (ib. v. 35-6). In 1347 he was with his 
cousin Bartholomew Burghersh at Calais, 
and in 1349 took part in the campaign in 
Gascony. In 1350 he was chosen one of the 
first knights-companions of the order of the 
Garter (GEOFFREY LE BAKER, p. 109, ed. 
Thompson). In 1351 he served under Henry 
of Lancaster at sea. In 1355 he was in 
Gascony, and in 1358 in Brittany. His 
cousin Bartholomew Burghersh appointed 
him his executor in 1369, and left him a 
standing cup gilt and a suit of armour, to- 
gether with some of his Kentish estates 
(HASTED, Hist, of Kent, i. 83, ii. 190). Pave- 
ley occurs in the wardrobe accounts down 
to 1375 as receiving the customary robe as 
a knight of the Garter. The Black Prince 
gave him a nouche adorned with pearls and 
diamonds in 1346, and a charger called 
Morel More when in Normandy in 1349 
(Archceologia, xxxi. 149). Paveley died on 
28 June 1375, and was buried in the church 
of the Blackfriars, London. By his wife, 
who belonged to the family of St. Philibert 
(cf. BRIDGES, Northamptonshire, i. 286), he 
had two sons : Edward, who died on 7 Dec. 
1375, and Walter, who perished with Sir 
John Arundell (d. 1379) [q. v.] in December 
1379 (FROISSART, ed. Reynaud, ix. 211), and 
whose will, dated 21 Nov. 1379, was proved 
on 20 April 1380 (Testamenta Vetusta, p. 
109). Neither of his sons left any children. 
Paveley's arms, ' azure a cross flory or,' ap- 
pear in the thirteenth stall on the prince's 
side at Windsor (cf. Parl. Writs, ii. 198). 
Froissart refers to him as Sir William Pen- 
uiel, and Stow (Annales, p. 390) calls him 

Sir William Panele ; this is no doubt an 
error (cf. Rolls of Parliament, ii. 424, for a 
reference to Sir Walter de Panely in 1327). 

[Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove; Ash- 
mole's Order of the Garter, p. 708; Beltz's 
Memorials of the Order of the Garter, pp. 6-9, 
93-5 ; other authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

PAVER, WILLIAM (1802-1871), 
genealogist, born in 1802, was in 1867 act- 
ing as registrar of births and deaths at 
4 Rougier Street, York (WHITE, Directory 
for North and East Ridings, 1867, p. 425). 
He died at Rishworth Street, Wakefield, on 
1 June 1871, aged 69 (register of deaths at 
Somerset House). 

Paver's method of genealogical construc- 
tion caused his pedigrees to be condemned 
as worthless by genealogists of repute. 
Consequently he never received any en- 
couragement to publish his collections; but 
he sought to attract attention to them in 
a pamphlet called 'Pedigrees of Families 
of the City of York, from a Manuscript en- 
titled " The Heraldic Visitations of York- 
shire consolidated,'" 8vo, York, 1842, and 
by a list of Yorkshire pedigrees in his pos- 
session, furnished to the ' New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register ' for 
July 1857 (pp. 259-71). He also issued 
part i. of ' Original Genealogical Abstracts 
of the Wills of Individuals of Noble and 
Ancient Families now or formerly resident 
in the County of York, with Notes,' 4to, 
Sheffield, 1830, the contents of which were 
superseded by the four volumes of ' Testa- 
menta Eboracensia,' printed by the Surtees 

In 1874 Paver's extensive collections relat- 
ing to Yorkshire were acquired by the trustees 
of the British Museum, where they are cata- 
logued as Additional MSS. 29644-703. His 
consolidation of the Yorkshire ' Visitations ' of 
1584, 1612, and 1665, containing about nine 
hundred pedigrees, occupies three folio 
volumes, and is indexed. But by far the 
most valuable portion of the Paver MSS. is 
the transcripts of marriage licenses, com- 
mencing in 1567, formerly preserved in the 
registry of York, as the originals have dis- 
appeared. These transcripts have been printed, 
with notes, by the Rev. C. B. Norcliffe in 
the 'Yorkshire Archaeological and Topo- 
graphical Journal,' beginning in vol. vii. ; 
but it is to be regretted that Paver has not 
given the day of the month as well as the 
year. His son, Percy Woodroff'e Paver, also 
an industrious antiquary, made 'Extracts 
from his Father's Yorkshire Collections,' 
1852 (Addit. MS. 29692, f. 49) ; < Extracts 
out of Torre's MSS. at York,' 1848 (Addit. 




MS. 29689) ; and a useful general ' Index to 
York Collections' (Addit. MS. 29091). 

[Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ii. 387, 5th ser. 
i. 360, x. 248, 336 ; Cat. of Addit. MSS. Brit. 
Mus. (8vo, 1877), ii. 687-93, cf. Addit. MS. 
24873, f. 29.] G. G. 

PAXTON, GEORGE (1762-1837), Scot- 
tish secession divine, born 2 April 1762, at 
Dalgourie, a hamlet in the parish of Bolton, 
East Lothian, was eldest son of William 
Paxton, a joiner or house carpenter, and his 
wife, Jean Milne. Soon after George's birth 
his parents removed first to Melrose, and 
thence to Makerstoun, near Kelso and the 
Tweed. The picturesqueness of the place 
Paxton portrays in his poem ' The Villager.' 
The neighbouring laird, Sir Hay McDougal, 
colonel of the Scots Greys, became interested 
in the family, and young Paxton was edu- 
cated under his eye at the parish school of 
Makerstoun. He subsequently went to K elso, 
learning Latin and Greek, and, after a short 
experience as a carpenter, entered Edin- 
burgh University, but left without a de- 
gree ; went to Alloa in 1784 to study divinity 
under William Moncrieff, and 'became a 
firm seceder.' 

On 17 March 1788 he was licensed to 
preach by the associate presbytery of Edin- 
burgh, and his eloquence was at once recog- 
nised. He received calls from three churches 
almost simultaneously, viz., Greenlaw, Craig- 
end, and the united congregations of Kil- 
maurs and Stewarton. By decision of the 
synod he accepted the call of the last-named 
congregations 12 Aug. 1789, and took up his 
abode at Stewarton. 

After a few years the two congregations, 
at the advice of Paxton, separated, and Kil- 
maurs was assigned to him. Owing to a 
hepatic malady, he was soon forced to re- 
sign pastoral duty for seven years, and on 
his recovery the general associate synod 
elected him professor of divinity in 1807. He 
removed to Edinburgh, but disagreements 
with the majority of his co-religionists on 
the subject of the union between the synod 
and the burgher seceders led to his resignation 
of his professorship and his withdrawal from 
the associate synod in 1820 [see McCEiE, 
THOMAS, D.D.] He thereupon became pastor 
to a body of sympathisers who seceded with 
him, in a vacant chapel adjacent to the Grass- 
market under Castle Hill. A new church was 
afterwards built in Infirmary Street, which 
his eloquence soon filled, and he and his con- 
gregation effected a union with the constitu- 
tional presbytery of seceders to which Dr. 
McCrie belonged, and thus formed the new 
connection styled the Associate Synod of 

Original Seceders. Paxton was chosen to 
the professorship of divinity in the united 
body, but still exercised his function as 
pastor. Before entering the new connection 
he had espoused the cause of national esta- 
blishments in religion, and, when the question 
began to be heavily debated, continued to de- 
fend them. Some time after he was made 
honorary D.D. of St. Andrews University. 
He died on 9 April 1837, and was buried in 
the West Kirk burying-ground. In 1790 Pax- 
ton married Elizabeth Armstrong (d. 1800), 
a daughter of a manufacturer in Kelso. By 
her he had two sons and three daughters (cf. 
Villager, p. 301). 

Paxton's only surviving son, George, prac- 
tised medicine in India, and acquired con- 
siderable reputation. Paxton's second wife, 
Margaret Johnstone, daughter of a farmer in 
Berwick, survived him. A portrait of Paxton, 
in oils, belongs to the Rev. W. Macleod, the 
present minister of Paxton's church in Edin- 

Besides two sermons, Paxton wrote : 1. 'An 
Inquiry into the Obligation of Religious 
Covenants upon Posterity/ 1801, Edinburgh. 

2. ' Letters to the Rev. W. Taylor on Heal- 
ing the Divisions in our Church,' 1802. 

3. f The Villager, and other Poems,' Edin- 
burgh, 1813. 4. * Illustrations of the Holy 
Scriptures in Three Parts : (1) from the Geo- 
graphy of the East, (2) from the Natural His- 
tory of the East, (3) from the Customs of 
Ancient and Modern Nations,' Edinburgh, 
1819, 2vols.; 3rd edit, Edinburgh, 4 vols. 
1841-3. 5. ' The Sin and Danger of circu- 
lating the Apocrypha in connexion with the 
Holy Scriptures, with a brief statement of 
what is known concerning the Authors of 
the Apocryphal Books,' Edinburgh, 1828, 
2nd edit. 

[Brief Memoir by the Rev. John Mitchell, D.D., 
Glasgow, prefixed to vol. i. of the 1843 edition 
of the Bible Illustrations; Colburn's Biopr. Diet, 
of Living Authors, 1816; Reuss's Das gelehrte 
England; Autobiographical Memoranda in Pax- 
ton's Poems; information kindly furnished bythe 
Rev. W. Macleod.] W. A. 8. 

PAXTON, JAMES (1786-1 860), surgeon 
and medical writer, was born in London on 
11 Jan. 1786. He was admitted M.R.C.S., 
London, 1 6 March 1 810, and was created M.D. 
of St. Andrews 1845. For a time he acted as 
an army surgeon, but in 1816 took a practice 
at Long Buckley, Northamptonshire. Thence 
he removed to Oxford in 1821, where he had 
considerable success as a general practitioner. 
He was assistant-surgeon to the Oxfordshire 
militia. In 1843 he removed to a practice at 
Rugby. A small estate was bequeathed to 
him in 1858 atLedwell,a hamlet of the parish 




of Sandford St. Martin, seventeen miles from 
Oxford. There he died, at his residence, 
Ledwell House, after a very short illness, on 
12 March 1860, and was buried in the church- 
yard at Sandford. He married Miss Anna 
Griffin, who died in 1864, and one of his two 
daughters married the Rev. Henry Highton, 
headmaster of Cheltenham College. 

Paxton was a man of strong religious 
feelings, and was highly esteemed by his 
friends and patients. His writings had much 
success. Their titles are: 1. 'Specimen of 
an Introduction to the Study of Human 
Anatomy,' 1830. 2. 'An Introduction to 
the Study of Human Anatomy,' London, 
1831, 8vo, 2 vols.; new edit. 1841. This 
book was republished in America, where it 
went through three editions. 3. ' The Medi- 
cal Friend ; or Advice for the Preservation 
of Health,' Oxford, 1843. 4. 'Living Streams, 
or Illustrations of the Natural History and 
various Diseases of the Blood,' London, 8vo, 
1855. He contributed ' A Case of Scirrhous 
Pylorus and Mortification of the Stomach ' 
to the 'Edinburgh Medical and Surgical 
Journal,' xv. 328, and edited Paley's 'Na- 
tural Theology,' with ' a series of plates 
and explanatory notes,' Oxford, 1826, 8vo, 
2 vols. 

[Marshall's Account of Sandford ; Kugby 
Advertiser, March 1860 ; information from 
Librarian of Koyal College of Surgeons; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man.] E. H. M. 

PAXTON, JOHN (d. 1780), painter, 
appears to have been of Scottish origin, and 
to have been a student in Foulis's art 
academy at Glasgow. He subsequently 
studied at Rome. He was one of the ori- 
ginal members of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, and signed their declaration roll 
in 1766. In that year he sent to their ex- 
hibition from Rome ' Samson in Distress.' 
In 1769 and 1770 he exhibited portraits at 
the Royal Academy, and in the latter year 
settled in Charlotte Street, Rathbone Place, 
where he had considerable practice as a 
portrait-painter. He continued to exhibit 
with the Society of Artists, of which he 
was director in 1775, sending chiefly por- 
traits, but also scriptural, classical, and his- 
torical subjects. Subsequently he received 
some commissions to paint portraits in India, 
and went there about 1776. He died at 
Bombay in 1780. Paxton painted a portrait 
of Signorina Zamperini as ' Cechina.' A por- 
trait by him of his fellow-pupil, James 
Tassie [q. v.], is in the Scottish National 
Portrait Gallery at Edinburgh. Paxton is 
alluded to in John Langhorne's ' Fables of 
Flora,' 1771. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Pye's Patronage 
of British Art ; Catalogues of the Soc. of Artists, 
Royal Academy, &c.] L. C. 

PAXTON, SIE JOSEPH (1801-1865), 
gardener and architect, born at Milton- 
Bryant, near Woburn, Bedfordshire, 3 Aug. 
1801, was son of a small farmer of that place. 
He was educated at Woburn grammar 
school, and when fifteen was placed under 
his elder brother John, then gardener to Sir 
Gregory Page-Turner, at Battlesden Park, 
near Woburn. Two years later he was ap- 
prenticed to William Griffin, a skilful fruit- 
grower, gardener to Samuel Smith of Wood- 
hall Park, Watton, Hertfordshire. In 1821 
he returned as gardener to Battlesden, and 
there constructed a large lake. In 1823 he 
was for a brief period in the service of the 
Duke of Somerset at Wimbledon. But when, 
in the same year, the Horticultural Society 
leased the Chiswick gardens from the Duke 
of Devonshire, and engaged in reconstructing 
them, Paxton, to improve himself, obtained 
employment there in the arboretum. He 
became foreman in 1824, but in 1826 was on 
the point of starting for America in hopes of 
bettering his condition, as he was only earn- 
ing eighteen shillings a week. His trim, 
manly, and intelligent bearing had, however, 
attracted the attention of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, who was then president of the Horticul- 
tural Society ; and he was appointed superin- 
tendent of the gardens at Chatsworth. In 
1829 the woods were also placed under his care, 
and between 1832 and 1836 he superintended 
the erection of the stove, greenhouse, and 
orchid-houses, the formation of a magnificent 
arboretum the cost of which was entirely 
defrayed from the sale of timber cleared off its 
site and the making of many estate roads. In 
1836 he began the erection of the great con- 
servatory, three hundred feet in length, which 
was completed in 1840, and formed in some 
respects the model for the Great exhibition 
building of 1851. Having now been received 
into the duke's intimate friendship, he was 
invited to accompany him on a tour in the 
west of England ; in 1838 they visited Swit- 
zerland, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, 
Malta, Spain, and Portugal ; and in 1840 
they went together to the duke's estate at 
Lismore. Between 1839 and 1841 Paxton 
remodelled the village of Edensor, near 
Chatsworth, and his last great constructive 
work there was the fountains, the largest of 
which is 267 feet in height. In 1849 he 
was successful in flowering the ' Victoria 
regia ' water-lily for the first time in Europe. 
In 1850, after 233 other plans for the Indus- 
trial exhibition had been rejected, one pre- 
pared by Paxton in nine days was accepted. 




He had only decided to compete at the last 
moment. On the successful completion of 
the building in the following year, he was 
knighted. Between 1853 and 1854he superin- 
tended the re-erection of his Crystal Palace 
at Sydenham, becoming director of the gar- 
dens there, but he did not abandon the con- 
trol of the Duke of Devonshire's Derbyshire 
estate. His organised corps of navvies at 
Sydenham led him to suggest to the govern- 
ment the formation of the army works corps 
during the Crimean war, and the organisation 
proved of considerable utility. In 1854 
Paxton was elected member of parliament 
for Coventry in the liberal interest, and con- 
tinued to represent that borough until his 
death. He was also largely engaged in rail- 
way management, being an excellent man of 
business, and designed many important build- 
ings, including Baron Rothschild's mansion 
at Ferrieres. Paxton died at his residence, 
Rockhills, Sydenham, on 8 June 1865. In 
1827 he married Sarah Bown. He became 
a fellow of the Horticultural Society in 
1826, and was afterwards vice-president ; he 
was elected fellow of the Linnean Society in 
1833, and received the Russian order of St. 
Vladimir in 1844. His name was comme- 
morated by Lindley in the genus Paxtonia 
among orchids ; but this name is not re- 
tained by botanists. 

He edited: 1. With Joseph Harrison, 
* The Horticultural Register and General 
Magazine,' 1832-6, 5 vols. 8vo. 2. 'The 
Magazine of Botany and Register of Flower- 
ing Plants,' 1834-48, 15 vols. 8vo. 3. ' Pax- 
ton's Magazine of Gardening and Botany,' 
1849, 8vo. 4. With John Lindley, ' Pax- 
ton's Flower Garden,' 1850-3, 3 vols. 4to, 
of which seven numbers, containing 112 pp., 
were reissued by A. Murray in 1873-4, and 
a second edition, recast by T. Baines, was 
issued in 3 vols. 4to in 1882-4. 5. With 
the help of Lindley, 'A Botanical Pocket 
Dictionary,' 1840, 8vo, of which a second 
edition appeared in 1849, and a third, by 
S. Hereman, in 1868. Paxton was also one 
of the founders of the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' 
in 1841. His chief independent work was 
' A Practical Treatise on the Cultivation of 
the Dahlia,' 1838, 8vo, which was trans- 
lated into French, with an introduction by 
Jussieu ; into German, with an introduc- 
tion by Alexander von Humboldt ; and into 

[J. Payne Collier in Notes and Queries, 1865, 
quoting a manuscript biography by the Duke of 
Devonshire; Gardeners' Chronicle, 1865, p. 554; 
Journal of Horticulture, 1865, viii. 446, with 
engraved portrait; Gent. Mag. 1865, ii. 247- 
249.] G. S. B. 

PAXTON, PETER (d. 1711), medical 
writer and pamphleteer, was admitted to the 
degree of M.D. per literas reyias, at Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, in 1687. His name does 
not appearin the admission-book of Pembroke 
College, and he may have come from Oxford 
for an ad eundem degree. In 1704 he lived 
in Beaufort Street, London. His last work, 
' Specimen Physico-medicum,' is posthumous, 
and the bookseller speaks of the author as re- 
cently dead. Paxton wrote: 1. 'An Essay 
concerning the Body of Man, wherein its 
Changes or Diseases are consider'd and the 
Operations of Medicines observed,' London, 
1701 . This work, which traces all diseases to 
the fluids in the body, was reviewed in ' His- 
tory of the Works of the Learned ' for March 
1701 (Hi. 177-83). 2. 'The Grounds of Phy sick 
examined, and the Reasons of the Abuses 
prov'd to be different from what have been 
usually assign'd ; in answer to a Letter from 
the ingenious Dr. G.,' London, 1703, 8vo ; an 
attack on apothecaries. 3. 'A Discourse con- 
cerning the Nature, Advantage, and Improve- 
ment of Trade, with some Considerations why 
the charges of the Poor do and will increase/ 
London, 1704 (a sensible and remarkable ex- 
position of laissezfaire). 4. ' A Scheme for 
Union between England and Scotland, with 
Advantages to both Kingdoms,' London, 1705. 
5. 'A Directory Physico-medical, composed 
for the Use and Benefit of all such as design 
to study and practise the Art of Physick, 
wherein proper Methods and Rules are pre- 
scrib'd for the better understanding of that 
Art, and Catalogues of such Authors ex- 
hibited as are necessary to be consulted by 
all young Students,' London, 1707. 6. ' Speci- 
men Physico-medicum de corpore humano 
et ejus morbis : or an Essay concerning the 
Knowledge and Cure of most Diseases affect- 
ing Human Bodies, to which is annex'd a 
short Account of Salivation and the use of 
Mercury, with a copious Index,' London, 
1711, posthumous; an expansion by Paxton 
himself of No. l,and written in Latin, 'but I 
find,' says the printer to the reader, ' that he 
preferred to have it turned into English, and 
I have done so ' ( History of the Works of the 
Learned, xiii. 97). 

[Paxton's Tracts in the Brit. Mus. ; Luard's 
Grad. Cantabr.; information kindly supplied by 
the Rev. C. E. Searle, master of Pembroke.] 

W. A. S. 

PAXTON, STEPHEN (1735-1787), 
violoncellist and composer, was born in 1735. 
He played principal parts at oratorio meet- 
ings, and his full and sweet tone on the 
violoncello, together with his judgment in 
accompanying, was praised by Burney. In 
1780 Paxton was a professional member of 


the Catch Club, and the following part-songs 
by him gained prizes : ' How sweet, how 
fresh this vernal day/ 1779; ' Hound the hap- 
less Andre's urn/ 1781 ; ' Ye Muses, inspire 
me/ a catch, 1783; 'Blest Power/ 1784; 
' Come, oh come/ 1785. He wrote masses 
in D and in G, and motets for the Roman 
catholic church, to which he belonged ; and 
composed also pieces for his instrument, and 
sold his music at 29 Titchfield Street, London. 
Paxton died at Brompton Row on 18 Aug. 
1787, aged 52, leaving a widow, whom, in his 
will, he recommended to practise works of 
charity. Paxton himself was respected for 
'his exemplary virtues and universal charity' 
(Gent. Mag. 1787, ii. 837). He was buried 
in Old St. Pancras churchyard. 

Paxton published : 1. ' Six Solos for the 
Violoncello/ 1780. 2. 'Eight Duets for 
Violin and Violoncello.' 3. ' Six easy Solos 
for Violoncello or Bassoon.' 4. ' Four Duets 
for Violin and Violoncello, with two Solos.' 
5. ' A Collection of Glees ' (his own, nine- 
teen altogether). 6. ' Twelve easy Lessons 
for a Violoncello and Bass.' Many of Paxton's 
glees are included in l Ladies' Amusement/ 
1791, vols. i. and ii. ; and in Warren's ' Col- 
lection of Catches ; ' and the two masses were 
Printed in Webbe's volume of 'Masses/ 
792; other sacred music of Paxton's has 
been arranged by Butler and Robinson. 

To Paxton's brother, WILLIAM PAXTON 
(fl. 1780), another violoncello-player and 
composer of glees, has been ascribed the glee, 
' Breathe soft, ye winds/ which appears in 
Stephen Paxton's collection. William Paxton 
gained prizes at the Catch Club for two 
canons, ' O Lord, in Thee/ 1779 ; and ' O Is- 
rael, trust in the jLord:/ ITBOr^ 

[Grove's Diet. ii. 677, &c. ; Barney's Hist. iv. 
677; Roffe's Tomb-seeker, p. 35.] L. M. M. 

PAYE, HENRY (fi. 1405-1415), sea 
captain, appears to have belonged to Poole. 
In 1403 he was sent to Calais to aid in settling 
some Flemish claims, and in August 1404 he 
was directed to prepare to meet a threatened 
French invasion. In 1405 he was associated 
with Lord Berkeley in command of a fleet 
levied for the defence of the Channel, with 
the special object of preventing the French 
from sending assistance to Owen Glen- 
dower. They succeeded in landing a strong 
body of men in Milford Haven, but there 
their fleet was attacked by the English 
under Berkeley and Paye, and fifteen of 
their ships burnt. A strong reinforcement 
which was being sent to the French in Wales 
was met at sea, and fourteen ships laden 
with military stores were captured. Paye 
afterwards ravaged the coast of France, and 

5 Paye 

is said to have brought home 120 vessels 
laden with iron, salt, oil, and wine. The 
French soon obtained assistance from Spain, 
and a combined squadron of French and 
Spanish galleys came into the Channel. So 
far as can be made out from the confused geo- 
graphy, they sacked Looe, judged Falmouth 
too strong, were beaten oft' from Plymouth, 
and again from Portland. They then came to 
Poole, which the Spanish chronicler describes 
as belonging to a knight called Arripay 
Harry Paye who scours the seas as a cor- 
sair with many ships. This ' Arripay came 
often upon the coast of Castile, and carried 
away many ships ; he scoured the channel of 
Flanders, so that no vessel could pass that 
way without being taken; he burnt Gijon 
and Finisterre, and carried off" the famous 
and most holy crucifix from Santa Maria de 
Finisterre, and much more damage he did in 
Castile, taking many prisoners, and exacting 
ransoms ; and though other armed ships came 
there from England, he it was who came 
oftenest.' In revenge for Paye's ravages in 
Castile, the Spaniards now resolved to land 
and burn Poole ; but after a sharp fight, in 
which a brother of Paye was slain, they 
were driven back to their ships. They after- 
wards went to the Isle of Wight, and, meet- 
ing no good success there, returned to France. 
Paye's knighthood seems to have been con- 
ferred on him by the Spanish chronicler. 
On 19 July 1414 he was paid eight marks 
for going to Calais to report on the state of 
the garrison. 

[Southey's Naval Hist. ii. 15, 16, 27 (quoting 
Cronica Hel Conde D. Nero Ni-no) ; Nicolas's 
Royal Navy, ii. 374-81, 463; Annales Hen- 
rici IV, pp. 386-8, 415; Walsingham's Hist. ii. 
272-5, and his Ypodigma, pp. 416, 421 ; Cap- 
grave's Chron. p. 292 ; Rymer's Foedera, viii. 
304 ; Nicolas's Privy Couacil, i 234 ; Wylie's 
Henry 1\ T passim.] J. K. L. 

painter, is stated to have been born at Bot- 
ley (?) in Kent. His name first appears in 
1773, when he was living in London, and 
sent two portraits in oil and two models in 
wax to the Royal Academy. He continued 
to exhibit there not infrequently during the 
following years up to 1798, sending por- 
traits, miniatures, and small figure subjects. 
He also exhibited at the Society of Artists 
in 1783. He had some skill as a modeller 
and chaser, which accounts for a certain 
sculpturesque feeling in his pictures. Paye 
especially excelled in painting children, both 
as single portraits and in groups. A number 
of these were engraved by John Young 
[q. v.], who did much to assist the painter, 




V. Green, J. R. Smith, W. Ward, R. Pollard, 
and others, and are valuable, because truth- 
ful records of child-life in Paye's day. Paye 
was greatly helped in early life by the Rev. 
Joseph Holden Potts, vicar of Kensington 
and archdeacon of Middlesex, who purchased 
many of his works. Subsequently he was 
patronised by Dr. John Wolcot (Peter Pindar) 
[q. v.], who did much to promote Paye's 
success as a painter, until a breach took place 
between them. When left to his own re- 
sources Paye quickly sank into poverty and 
neglect, and was eventually crippled by ill- 
ness, though he continued painting after 
losing the use of his right arm. He received 
assistance from the artists' benevolent fund, 
but died quite forgotten and neglected in 
December 1821. At the exhibition of A 
Century of British Art (Grosvenor Gallery, 
1888-9) a picture was lent by Sir John 
Neeld, bart., representing a candle-light 
scene (a style in which Paye especially ex- 
celled), with a portrait of the artist engraving 
a portrait. A picture by Paye of an interior, 
with an old woman at work, was once sold 
as a fine Netherlandish work, and another 
picture, ' The Widow's Cruse,' was not only 
sold, but even exhibited in a well-known 
picture -dealer's shop as the work of Velasquez. 
A portrait of Paye, engraved from a drawing 
by himself, accompanies a memoir of him in 
Arnold's 'Library of the Fine Arts.' Paye 
appears to have had a son (C. W. Paye) and 
a daughter, who both painted miniatures, 
and were exhibitors at the Royal Academy 
from 1798 to 1808. 

[Arnold's Library of the Fine Arts, iii. 95 ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Catalogues of the 
Royal Academy, Society of Artists, &c.] L. C. 

PAYNE. [See also PAIN and PAINE.] 

PAYNE, GEORGE (1781-1848), con- 
gregational divine, born at Stow-on-the- 
Wold, Gloucestershire, on 17 Sept. 1781, was 
youngest son of Alexander Payne, a cooper, 
by his wife, Mary Dyer of Bampton. The 
father, who was a churchman, in early life 
turned baptist after hearing the sermons of 
Law Butterworth of Bingworth, and in 
1783 became the baptist preacher to the 
church of Walgrave, Northamptonshire. Two 
years later (June 1785) he baptised his own 
wife, and received ordination on 6 July. 
Along with Fuller and Carey he was 'a 
founder of the Baptist Missionary Society. 
Alexander Payne died on 13 Feb. 1819, 
aged 77, and after a pastorate at Walgrave 
of thirty-three years. His wife died on 
5 Jan. 1814, aged 71. There is a tablet to 
their memory in Walgrave church. 

George went to school at Walgrave, and 
subsequently at the Northampton academy. 
He entered Hoxton academy to study for 
the congregationalist ministry in 1802, and 
on 13 April 1804 he was elected, with 
Joseph Fletcher, Glasgow scholar on the 
Dr. Williams trust. The two proceeded to 
Glasgow University together (Memoirs of 
Thomas Wilson, Esq., pp. 275, 276, 279 ; 
Memoirs of Joseph Fletcher, p. 47). 
Payne graduated M.A. in the spring of 1807, 
and returned home, marrying, on 30 Oct. 
1807, a daughter of Alexander Gibbs, a corn 
factor, and member of the Scottish church, 
Hoxton. For a year he acted as assistant 
minister to Edward Parsons of Leeds. On 
28 Aug. 1808 he accepted an invitation to 
become George Lambert's permanent co- 
adjutor at Hull. Terminating his engage- 
ment at Hull on 14 June 1812, Payne was 
ordained at Edinburgh on the following 
2 July, and entered on his pastorate of a 
congregation of seceders who had divided 
from James Alexander Haldane [q. v.] in 
March 1808 on the latter's renouncing infant 
baptism. This body met in Bernard's rooms, 
Thistle Street, Edinburgh. A new chapel 
was built for Payne in Albany Street, and 
opened 2 May 1817, and here he laboured 
till 1823. While in Edinburgh he contri- 
buted to congregationalist literature, and 
assisted in the foundation of the Edinburgh 
Itinerant Society and the Congregational 
Union of Scotland. 

In April 1823 he left Scotland to become 
theological tutor of the Ulackburn academy, 
the precursor of the present Jjancashire 
Independent College. For the first twts-or 
three years of his residence in Blackburn 
Payne also acted as pastor to a congrega- 
tional church which met in Mount Street 
(Evany. Mag. 1823). On 18 Nov. 1828 he 
received the degree of honorary LL.D. from 
the university of Glasgow on the occasion 
of the publication of his ' Elements of 
Mental and Moral Science.' 

Payne left Blackburn to become theo- 
logical tutor to the western academy on 
its removal from Axminster to Exeter 
1 July 1829. In 1836 he was chosen chair- 
man of the Congregational Union of England 
and Wales. In 1844 he preached the eleventh 
series of the congregational lectures initiated 
by the committee of the congregational 
library in Bloomfield Street, Finsbury. His 
course of eight lectures was published in 
the following year under the title ' On the 
Doctrine of Original Sin.' 

In January 1846 the western college was 
removed from Exeter to a site between 
Devonport and Plymouth. In April 1848 




he visited Scotland as the delegate from the 
Congregational Union of England and Wales. 
He died on 19 June 1848, after preaching at 
Mount Street Chapel, Devonport. He was 
buried on 27 June at Emma Place chapel, 
Stonehouse, in the grave of his wife, who had 
died on 25 Oct. 1847. 

Payne's writings prove him to have had 
a genuine gift for metaphysical speculation. 
He wrote, apart from sermons and short 
tracts: 1. ' Remarks upon the Moral Influ- 
ence of the Gospel upon Believers, and on 
the Scriptural Manner of ascertaining our 
State before God,' Edinburgh, 1820, 12mo. 
2. ' Elements of Mental and Moral Science 
designed to exhibit the Original Suscepti- 
bilities of the Mind and the Rule by which 
the Rectitude of any of its States or Feel- 
ings should be judged,' London, 1828, 1842, 
1845. 3. 'The Separation of Church and 
State calmly considered in reference to its 
probable Influence upon the Cause and Pro- 
gress of Evangelical Truth in this Country,' 
Exeter, 1834, 8vo. 4. ' Lectures on Divine 
Sovereignty, Election, the Atonement, Jus- 
tification, and Regeneration,' London, 1836, 
1838, 1846. This work was answered by 
J. A. Haldane and others, to whom Payne 
replied in the last edition: 5. * The Opera- 
tion of the Voluntary Principle in America/ 
Exeter, 1836, 12mo. 6. 'The Church of 
Christ considered in reference to its Mem- 
bers, Objects, Duties, Officers, Government, 
and Discipline,' London, 1837, 12mo. 

7. ' Facts and Statements in reference to 
Bible-printing Monopoly,' Exeter, 1841, 8vo. 

8. * Elements of Language and General Gram- 
mar,' London, 1843, 12mo; college and school 
edit. 8vo, 1845. 9. ' The question " Is it the 
duty of the Government to provide the 
means of Education for the people ? " exam- 
mined ' (directed against Sir James Graham's 
Education Bill), London, 1843. 10. 'The 
Doctrine of Original Sin, or the Nature, 
State, and Character of Man unfolded,' 
London, 1845 ; forming the llth series of 
the ' Congregational Lectures.' 11. (Post- 
humous) ' Lectures on Christian Theology,' 
edited by Evan Davies, London, 1850, 2 vols. ; 
with a' ' Memoir ' by the Rev. John Pyer and 
' Reminiscences ' by the Rev. RalphWardlaw, 
D.D. Payne also assisted Greville Ewing in 
the selection of 'A Collection of Hymns from 
the Best Authors,' Glasgow, 1814; Edin- 
burgh, 1863. 

[Notice in Evangel. Mag. 1848: Pyer's Me- 
moir and Wardlaw's Reminiscences, prefixed to 
the posthumous Lectures on Christian Theo- 
logy ; Memoirs of the Rev. Joseph Fletcher; 
Memoirs of Thomas Wilson, Esq. ; Works in 
Brit. Mus.] W. A. S. 

PAYNE, GEORGE (1803-1878), patron 
of the turf, was born on 3 April 1803. His 
I father, George Payne of Sulby Hall, North- 
! amptonshire, was shot in a duel on Wimble- 
| don Common on 6 Sept. 1810 by one Clark 
; (Annual Register, 1810, pp. 277-8) ; he left 
j a widow, Mary Eleanor, daughter of R. W. 
Grey of Backworth House, Northumberland. 
i George, the son, was educated at Eton from 
j 1816 to 1822, and on 12 April 1823 matricu- 
; lated from Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
1 indulged his sporting tastes so freely that the 
I college authorities, after much delay'and long- 
suffering, requested him to leave the univer- 
sity. He came of age in 1824 and into the 
possession of the family seat, Sulby Hall, and 
the Northampton estates, with a rent-roll of 
17,000/. a year. In addition, he took up 
j the sum accumulated during his minority, 
! amounting to about 300,000/. The income 
i was, however, wholly incapable of keeping 
| pace with his extravagance ; Sulby passed 
I from his hands, the money disappeared in a 
I few years, together with two other large 
fortunes which he successively inherited from 
relatives. He served the office of sheriff of 
his native county in 1826, when he met the 
judges with unparalleled state. On a vacancy 
occurring in 1 835, he was unanimously elected 
master of the Pytchley hounds ; he gave way 
to Lord Chesterfield in 1838, but again served 
as the master from 1844 to 1848. His first 
tenure of office was marked by unwonted 
splendour. He owned racehorses, but he was 
notoriously unlucky on the turf with his own 
horses, though he was sometimes fortunate 
in backing those of his friends. His first 
partner on the turf was Edward Bouverie of 
D el apre Abbey, Northamptonshire. Bouve- 
rie's colours were all black, while those of his 
friend were all white. They amalgamated 
their colours, and so originated the famous 
' magpie jacket.' Popular as these colours 
were, and often as they were seen on race- 
courses in England, they were never asso- 
ciated with any greater success than the 
winning of a good handicap. The best horse 
he owned was Musket, bequeathed to him by 
Lord Glasgow, who left him at the same time 
25,000/. Musket never carried the magpie 
stripes, but always the white and crimson of 
his former owner. In connection with Charles 
C. F. Greville, he had horses trained for many 
years by the Dillys at Littleton, near Win- 
chester ; a few handicaps and a second to 
Crucifix for the Oaks with his filly Welfare 
in 1840 were all his successes of any con- 
sequence during these years. When Dilly 
retired from business, Payne sent his horses 
to George Dockeray at Epsom. After this 
trainer's death, Payne's horses went to Alec 




Taylor at Manton, Wiltshire, and there they 
remained to the last. Nat Flatman was 
Payne's favourite jockey, and for some time 
he had the first call on his services. His 
betting was very reckless ; he would some- 
times back twenty horses in a race for a big 
handicap, and then miss the winner. He lost 
33,000/. in 1824, when Mr. Gascoigne's Jerry 
won the St. Leger ; but in the succeeding year 
he recovered great part of the money by back- 
ing Memnon. He owned horses from 1824 
to 1878, yet his only victories of any impor- 
tance were with a purchased filly, Clementina, 
which won the One Thousand Guineas in!847, 
and with Glauca, which won the Cesare- 

He was an infatuated gambler, not only 
on the turf, but also at the card-table. He 
was one of the persons who, in the winter 
of 1836, accused Henry William, twenty- 
second Baron de Ros, of not playing fairly. 
At the trial, on 10 Feb. 1837, he was one of 
the witnesses, and had his character most un- 
fairly aspersed by Sir John Campbell (after- 
wards the first Baron Campbell). Payne had 
serious thoughts of publicly horsewhipping 
Campbell, but the latter, through the medium 
of Colonel Anson, made an apology {Times, 
11 Feb. 1837, pp. 2-4, 13 Feb. pp. 2-4). 

Payne had hosts of friends and admirers, 
and no enemies. He died unmarried at 
10 Queen Street, Mayfair, London, on 2 Sept. 
1878, and was buried at Kensal Green 
cemetery on 6 Sept., the Prince of Wales 
and a large number of friends being present. 
His only brother, William Payne, died at 
Pitsford Hall, Northamptonshire, in 1858. 
His sister Elizabeth Martha married, in 1827, 
Sir Francis Holyoake Goodricke, bart., who 
died in 1865. 

[Baily's Mag. 1860 i. 183-6 (with portrait), 
1883 xli. 148-53; New Sporting Mag. 1837, xiii. 
364 ; Westminster Papers, 1878, x. 139 (with 
portrait); Nethercote's Pytchley Hunt, 1888, 
pp. 4,99, 117-48 (with portrait); Thormanby's 
Famous Kacing Men, 1882, pp. 113-20 (with 
portrait); Eice's British Turf, 1879, ii. 296-308 
(with portrait); Cecil's Eecords of the Chase, 
1877, pp. 135-6 ; Daily Telegraph, 3 Sept. 1878, 
p. 5; The Field, 7 Sept. 1878, p. 312 ; Times, 
3, 5, and 7 Sept. 1878 ; Sporting Times, 8 May 
1875. pp. 305, 308 (with portrait); Illustrated 
Sporting and Dramatic News, 1876, iv. 475, 496 
(with portrait) ; Illustrated London News, 1844, 
v. 72 (with portrait) ; Graphic, 1878, xviii. 276 
(with portrait) ; Racing, in Badminton Library 
(1886), pp. 75, 198, 204-5.] G. C. B. 

1710), conspirator and author, is credited by 
Lord Macaulay with having been l an inti- 
mate friend of the indiscreet and unfortunate 

Coleman ' [see COLEMAN, EDWAED], and with 
having been committed to Newgate as an 
accomplice to the ' popish plot ' (History of 
England, ed. 1883, ii. 217). Macaulay seems, 
however, to have confounded Payne with 
Edward Neville (1639-1709) [q.v.j, a Jesuit. 
Another statement of Macaulay, that ' Payne 
had been long known about town as a dabbler 
in poetry and politics/ has more evidence to 
support it. Downes ascribes to him three 
plays : the ' Fatal Jealousie,' a tragedy, acted 
at the Duke's theatre, licensed 22 Nov. 1672,. 
and published in 1673 ; ' Morning Rambles, 
or the Town Humours,' a comedy, acted at 
the Duke's theatre in 1673, and published in 
1673; and the 'Siege of Constantinople,' a 
tragedy, acted at the Duke's theatre in 1674, 
and published in 1675. The latter contains 
various indirect allusions to the politics of 
the period. In all probability he is also identi- 
cal with the Henry Payne who wrote 'The 
Persecutor Exposed ; in Reflections by Way 
of Reply to an Ill-bred Answer to the Duke 
of Buckingham's Paper,' 1685 ; and ' An 
Answer to a scandalous Pamphlet entitled a 
Letter to a Dissenter concerning his Majes- 
tie's late Declaration of Indulgence,' 1687. 
The latter called forth ' An Answer to Mr. 
Henry Payne's Letter concerning his Ma- 
jesty's Indulgence writ to the Author of 
the 'Letter to a Dissenter by T. T.' 'Mr. 
Payne,' writes the author of this pamphlet, 
' I cannot help asking you how much money 
you had from the writer of the Paper which 
you pretend to answer ; for as you have the 
character of a man who deals with both 
hands, so this is writ in such a manner as to 
make one think you were inclined to it by 
the adverse party ; ' and he adds : ' Both in 
your books of Constitution and Policy, and 
even in your poems, you seem to have entered 
into such an intermixture with the Irish that 
the thread all over is linsey-wolsey.' 

After the revolution Payne became, accord- 
ing to Bishop Burnet, ' the most active and, 
determined of all King James's agents,' and, 
although he had ' lost the reputation of an 
honest man entirely,' succeeded by his ' arts 
of management ' in inducing those to employ 
him who were well aware of his indifferent 
character (Own Time, ed. 1838, p. 546). He 
was generally believed to have been the 
chief instigator of the Montgomery plot in 
1690 [see MONTGOMERY, SIR JAMES, tenth 
Baronet of Skelmorlie]. Balcarres affirms 
that each was the dupe of the other : Payne 
promising Montgomery 'all his ambition, 
vanity, or avarice could pretend to,' and per- 
suading him that he (Payne) was entrusted 
by King James to dispose ' of money, forces, 
and titles as he pleased; ' while Montgomery 




made Payne believe that ' he could win the 
whole nation with a speech ' (Memoirs, p. 51). 
Payne came north to Scotland to manage the 
conspiracy there, and, on the discovery of the 
plot, was arrested. Burnet states that Robert 
Ferguson (d. 1714) [q. v.] the plotter in- 
formed against him (Own Time, p. -561); but 
there is no confirmation of this, and Balcarres 
mentions Montgomery as the informer (Me- 
moirs, p. 66). As the use of torture was still 
permitted in Scotland, it was resolved to apply 
it on Payne, Sir William Lockhart having in- 
formed Lord Melville that if it were applied 
to Payne those that knew him were of 
opinion he would not abide it, ' for he is but 
a dastardly fellow ' (Melville Papers, p. 529). 
An order for its application was therefore 
sent by the privy council on 4 Aug. 1690, and, 
as the order was not immediately acted on, 
a special order was sent by King William on 
18 Nov. It was carried into effect on 10 
and 11 Dec., the torture being first applied to 
his thumbs, and afterwards by means of ' the 
boot ' to one of his legs ; but Payne endured 
his excruciating sufferings with the utmost 
firmness, and they failed to elicit from him 
the slighest information. ' It was surprising 
to me and others,' wrote the Earl of Crawford 
to Melville, that he could ' endure the heavy 
penances he was in for two hours ' (ib. p. 583). 
This was the last occasion on which torture 
was applied to a prisoner in Scotland. 

Notwithstanding the representation of 
the privy council that, by the claim of 
right, delay in putting a prisoner to trial was 
contrary to law, it was not until 19 May 1693 
that a warrant was given to the lord advocate 
to raise an indictment against Neville 
Payne for high treason before the parliament. 
In connection with the proposed trial there 
was printed for the informationof members of 
parliament 'Nevil Payn's Letter, and some 
other Letters that concern the Subject of the 
Letter, with Short Notes on them,' 1693; 
but parliament decided that the process be 
remitted ' to the commissioners of Justiciary, 
or otherwise that the process be continued j 
until next meeting of parliament as his ma- | 
jesty shall think fit to order.' Burnet states ' 
that Payne ' sent word to several of the lords, 
in particular to Duke Hamilton, that as long 
as his life was his own, he would accuse none ; 
but he was resolved he would not die, and 
he could discover enough to deserve his par- 
don.' 'This' adds Burnet, 'struck such 
terror into many of them whose sons or near 
relatives had been concerned with him that, 
he moving for a delay on pretence of some 
witnesses that were not then at hand, a time 
was given him beyond the continuance of 
the session ; so he escaped, and the inquiry 

was shifted' (Own Time, p. 597). On the 
petition of his nephew, Francis Payne, he was 
for some time after his torture allowed the 
benefit of the open prison, and permitted to 
be attended by his own physicians and sur- 
geons ; but the order was overruled by the 
king on 23 Dec. 1690, and it was decided 
that he should be received into close confine- 
ment. While in imprisonment in Stirling 
Castle in 1699, he stated, in a letter to the 
privy council, that he had been preparing an 
experiment for river navigation, and to at- 
tend to this he was granted liberty for a 
range of half a mile from the castle during 
a portion of each day (CHAMBEKS, Domestic 
Annals of Scotland, 2nd edit. ii. 218). He 
was still in prison as late as 9 Dec. 1700, when 
the Duke of Queensberry informed Cars tares 
that it was not in their power to detain 
him, and advised that he should be set at 

[Burnet's Own Time ; Balcarres's Memoirs and 
Leven and Melville Papers in the Bannatyne 
Club ; Lord Macaulay's History of England ; 
Chambers's Book of Days, ii. 371 ; Mark Napier's 
Memorials of Graham of Claverhouse, viscount 
Dundee.] T. F. H. 

PAYNE, JOHN (d. 1506), bishop of 
Meath, was an Irishman by birth, and early 
entered the order of St. Dominic. Proceed- 
ing to Oxford, he became D.D., and professor 
of theology in the Dominican convent there. 
He was subsequently elected provincial of 
the Dominicans in England. On 17 March 
1483-4 he was appointed to the bishopric of 
Meath by a bull of Sixtus IV, having been 
granted custody of the temporalities a year 
before ; he was enthroned on 4 Aug. following. 
He formed a close friendship with Gerald 
Fitzgerald, eighth earl of Kildare [q. v.], and, 
like most of the inhabitants of the Pale, was 
a strenuous Yorkist. When Lambert Simnel 
landed in Ireland in 1487, Payne became one 
of the foremost of his adherents ; he preached 
the sermon at Simnel's coronation in Christ 
Church, Dublin, on Whit-Sunday, 24 May 
1487. But after the battle of Stoke he was 
among the first to make his peace with 
Henry VII. He accompanied Sir Richard 
Edgcumbe (d. 1489) [q. v.], whom Henry had 
sent over to ' settle Ireland' from Malahide to 
Dublin, and was also employed as an inter- 
mediary between him and Kildare. Henry VII 
had asked the pope to excommunicate Payne, 
but on 25 May 1488 the bishop received a gene- 
ral pardon for his share in the rebellion, and he 
appears to have sought to further ingratiate 
himself with the king by accusing his metro- 
politan, Octavian de Palatio, archbishop of 
Armagh, of complicity in the rebellion (Let- 




t ers and Papers of Henry VII, ed. Gairdner, 
i. 384, ii. 370). He was selected by Edg- 
cumbe to proclaim the pope's absolution and 
the king's pardon to all who should return 
to their duty, and was subsequently com- 
missioned by Kildare and the council to assure 
Henry VII of their allegiance, and to thank 
him for his pardon. 

From this time Payne's relations with Kil- 
dare became strained. On one occasion, after 
a fray, the earl pursued the bishop into the 
chancel of a church and made him prisoner, 
onlv releasing him on a peremptory command 
from the king (Book of Howth, pp. 178-80). 
WhenKildare was in England in 1496, Payne 
accused him vehemently to the king, and the 
earl is said to have retorted by making reve- 
lations about the bishop's character ; but the 
story is not more credible than it is credit- 
able to the bishop's morals. It was on this 
occasion that the bishop is reported to have 
said of Kildare to the king, l You see, all Ire- 
land cannot rule this man,' and the king to 
have replied, ' Then this man shall rule all 

In 1489 Payne assisted at a provincial 
synod in St. Mary's Church, Ardee, and was 
arbitrator between the rival claims of Thomas 
Brady and Cormac to the bishopric of Kil- 
more. He seems to have remained loyal 
during Warbeck's attempt, but was obliged 
to give pledges for the observance of peace. 
In July 1495 he attended the provincial 
synod of Drogheda, and issued a pastoral 
which is printed in Brady's ' Episcopal Suc- 
cession' (pp. 86-7) and Cogan's ' Diocese of 
Meath ' (i. 376-7). After his return from Eng- 
land he was on 3 Oct. 1496 appointed master 
of the rolls in Ireland. He died on 6 May 
1506, and was buried in the Dominican 
church of St. Saviour's, Dublin. Ware says 
he was noted for hospitality and alms- 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VII, ed. Gairdner, 
i. 95, 379, 384, ii. 305, 370; Book of Howth, 
pp. 1 79-80 ; Annals of the Four Masters, v. 1 289 ; 
Cotton's Fasti, iii. 114; Lascelles's Liber Mun, 
Hibern. i. 99, ii. 10, &c. ; Rymer's Foedera, xii. 
196, and Syllabus ; De Burgo's Hib. Dominicana, 
ed. 1762-72, pp. 86, 195, 477; Wood's A thense 
Oxon.ii.696; Dodd's Church Hist.i. 181 ; Ware's 
Annals of Ireland and Bishops, i . 1 5 1 -2 ; Echard's 
Scriptt. Ord. Prsedicatorum, vol. i. p. xxvi ; 
Brady's Episcopal Succession, i. 234 ; Lansdowne 
MS. 978, f. 74 ; Cotton MS. Titus B. xi., ff. 332- 
377 ; Bacon's Henry VII ; Wright's Hist, of Ire- 
land, i. 252, 256 ; Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland, 
p. 54 ; O'Flanagan's Lord Chancellors of Ireland, 
i. 139, 150; Gilbert's Viceroys, pp. 428-3, 436- 
437, 461 ; Richey's Lectures on Irish Hist. i. 217 ; 
Cogan's Diocese of Meath, i. 81, 376 ; Bagwell's 
Ireland under the Tudors, i. 104.] A. F. P. 

JOHN (rf. 1647?), engraver, 
was one of the earliest exponents of the art 
of line-engraving in England. He appears 
to have learnt it from Simon and William 
Pass [q. v.], and his manner very much re- 
sembles theirs. Two of his portraits those 
of Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, 
and Henry Vere, earl of Oxford are printed 
in frames engraved by William Pass. Payne 
had considerable skill in engraving, and many 
of his portraits and title-pages have great 
merit. His chief work is the large engraving, 
done on two plates, of the great ship ' The 
Sovereign of the Seas,' built by Peter Pett 
[q. v.] at Deptford in 1637. Evelyn in his 
1 Scultura' extols this engraving, as well as 
Payne's portraits of Dr. Alabaster, Sir Ben- 
jamin Rudyerd, and others. Payne, though 
recommended to the king's favour, was idle, 
and died in indigent circumstances. This 
must have been about 1647, as Thomas Raw- 
lins [q. v.] in his ' Calanthe,' published in 1 648, 
has an epitaph on Payne, as * lately deceased/ 
Among other portraits engraved by Payne 
were those of Bishop Joseph Hall, Bishop 
Lancelot Andrews, Sir Edward Coke, Hobson 
the Carrier, Sir James Ley, Christian of 
Brunswick, &c., and among the title-pages 
those to ' The Works of John Boys, D.D./ 
1629, and to Gerarde's ' Herball,' 1633. 

[Wai pole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. Wor- 
num) ; Vertue's Diaries (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
23070; Evelyn's Scultura; Strutt's Diet, of En- 
gravers.] L. C. 

PAYNE, JOHN (d. 1787), publisher, 
whose brother Henry was a bookseller in 
Pall Mall, established himself in Paternoster 
Row, at first by himself, but afterwards in 
partnership with Joseph Bouquet (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 668). He became intimate 
with I)r. Johnson, and was elected a mem- 
ber of the Rambler Club in Ivy Lane, which 
was formed by Johnson in the winter of 
1749 (ib. ix. 502,779). When Johnson started 
the 'Rambler,' in March 1750, Payne agreed 
to give him two guineas for each paper as it 
appeared, and to admit him to a share of 
;he profits arising from the sale of the col- 
.ected work (TIMPERLEY, Encyclopedia, 
2nd edit. p. 678). The bargain proved pro- 

Meanwhile Payne had been admitted to 
;he service of the Bank of England on 
7 March 1744. In 1769 he was a chief clerk, 
in 1773 deputy accountant-general, and in 
1780 accountant-general, a post which he 
held until 1785 (Royal Kalendars). 

But through life Payne retained an interest 
in the publishing business (cf. NICHOLS, iii. 
223). In 1785 he arranged to print an Eng- 


article is superseded by the collected informa- 
tion and list of engravings given by Sir 
Sidney Colvin, 4 Early Engraving and En- 
gravers in England/ pp. 106-9, l6 3-4- 

E. S. de B. 


lish translation of Thomas a Kempis's ' Imi- 
tatio.' He wrote and published : 1. l New 
Tables of Interest,' oblong- 16mo, London, 
1758, a useful compilation, for which Johnson 
wrote a preface. 2. ' A Letter occasioned by 
the Lord Bishop of Gloucester's [Warburton] 
" Doctrine of Grace," ' 8vo, London, 1763 (ib. 
v. 620). An anonymous ' Letter to a modern 
Defender of Christianity,'12mo,London,1771, 
attributed to a John Payne in Halkett and 
Laing's ' Dictionary,' p. 1373, may be by the 
accountant-general. His letters to Dr. Thomas 
Birch, extending from 1752 to 1754, are in 
Additional MS. 4316 in the British Museum. 
He died unmarried at Lympston, near Exeter, 
on 10 March 1787 (Probate Act Book, 
P. C. 0. 1787; will registered in P. 0. 0. 142, 
Major ; information from the Bank of Eng- 

Payne has been confused with another 
JOHN PAYNE (fl. 1800), compiler, who also 
began his career as a publisher in Pater- 
noster Row. After 1760 he entered into 
partnership with Joseph Johnson [q. v.], 
and continued with him until 1770, when 
nearly the whole of their property was 
consumed by fire (TIMPERLEY, pp. 836, 
838 w.) Payne then betook himself to Mar- 
sham Street, Westminster, and turned author. 
He is described as an ' indefatigable manufac- 
turer ' of books, issued in weekly numbers 
under the high-sounding names of ' George 
Augustus Hervey,' ' William Frederick Mel- 
moth,' &c. (Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, 
p. 265). Under the former pseudonym he 
issued a creditable * Naval, Commercial, and 
General History of Great Britain, from the 
earliest time to the rupture with Spain in 
1779,' in 5 vols. 8vo (RIVEES, Literary 
Memoirs of Living Authors, ii. 117). His 
own avowed compilations, the first two of 
which were published by Johnson, are: 

1. * Universal Geography,' 2 vols. fol. Lon- 
don, 1791, with maps and copperplates, a 
work which occupied him eight years. 

2. 'An Epitome of History,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1794-5 (a second edition of vol. i. 
appeared in 1795). 3. ' Geographical Ex- 
tracts,' 8vo, London, 1796. 4. ' A concise 
History of Greece,' 8vo, London, 1800, of 
which the first volume only was issued 
(REUSS, J&#. of Authors, 1790-1803, ii.177). 

[Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Croker, 1848, 
pp. 58 n., 78, 79; authorities cited in the 
text.] G-. G-. 

1803), rear-admiral, youngest son of the lieu- 
tenant-governor of St. Christopher's, was 
born there in 1752. He received his early 
education at a private school at Greenwich, 

i Payne 

in 1767 entered the Royal Academy at Ports- 
mouth, after two and a half years' study 
joined the Quebec frigate as an 'able sea- 
man,' and went out to the West Indies. There 
he was moved into the Montagu, flagship 
of Rear-admiral Man, and continued in her 
two years and a half. He was then moved 
into the Falcon sloop ; returned to England 
in 1773 ; joined the Rainbow with Commo- 
dore Thomas Collingwood, and, after some 
time on the coast of Guinea, again went to 
the West Indies, returning to England in 
the beginning of 1775. On 10 May he passed 
his examination ; towards the end of the 
year was appointed to the Bristol ; went out 
to the coast of North America, took part in 
the attack on Sullivan's Island, and proceeded 
to New York [see PARKER, SIR PETER, 1721- 
1871]. There he was moved by Howe into 
his flagship the Eagle, and on 9 March 1777 
was promoted to be lieutenant of the Brune 
frigate, with Captain James Ferguson, a man 
equally distinguished for his gallantry, abi- 
lity, and eccentricity. Between Ferguson and 
Payne there arose a" warm friendship, which 
lasted till Ferguson's death in 1786. Early 
in 1778 Payne was moved into the Phoenix 
with Sir Hyde Parker (1739-1807) [q. v.], 
and was present with the squadron under 
Lord Howe in the defence of Sandy Hook 
and off Rhode Island in July. He returned 
to England in the Roebuck, and in April 
1779 was appointed to the Romney, one of 
the Channel fleet under Sir Charles Hardy 
the younger [q.v.J, and afterwards bearing the 
broad pennant of Commodore George John- 
stone [q. v.] Payne was appointed by John- 
stone commander of the Cormorant on 6 Nov. 
1779, and on 8 July 1780 was posted to the 
Artois, a magnificent French frigate which 
was captured by the squadron. 

In the following month a complaint was 
made by the Portuguese government that 
while lying in the Tagus the Artois had en- 
tered a considerable number of Portuguese 
subjects ; that these men were forcibly de- 
tained, and that an attempt to release them 
had been resisted by Payne's orders. Payne 
showed that the complaint was unfounded, 
and was probably concocted in the desire to 
sow dissension between England and Portu- 
gal. The Portuguese government admitted 
the mistake, which they attributed to the 
interpreter. In August 1781 Payne was 
appointed to the Enterprise, a 28-gun frigate, 
which he commanded on the Jamaica sta- 
tion, cruising with marked success against 
the enemy's trade. In December 1782 he 
was moved by Admiral Pigot into the 50-gun 
ship Leander, and in her, near Guadeloupe, 
on the night of 18 Jan. 1783, fought a severe 




action with a large ship carrying troops. In 
the evening this ship had showed Spanish 
colours ; but her shot, many of which were 
afterwards found on board the Leander, were 
of thirty-six pounds and had the French mark, 
so that Payne and his officers were convinced 
that she was a French ship of 74 or 80 guns. 
At the time it was believed that she was 
the Couronne of 80 guns ; later on she 
was said to be the Pluton of 74. French 
writers make no mention of the circum- 
stance ; and as the two ships separated, both 
having sustained heavy loss, but without any 
definite result, it w r as never known in Eng- 
land what she was. Very possibly she was 
really a Spaniard. In recognition of his gal- 
lant conduct on this occasion Payne was 
moved into the 80-gun ship Princess Amelia, 
which he took to England at the peace. 

The restless energy which had won him 
distinction in war carried him, in time of 
peace, into reckless dissipation. He attracted 
the notice of the Prince of Wales, who con- 
stituted him his private secretary, comp- 
troller of the household, and personal friend. 
There is no doubt that he was the associate 
of the prince in his vices and his supporter 
in his baser intrigues. In 1788, when the 
prince claimed the regency during the king's 
insanity, Payne, then member of parliament 
for Huntingdon, urged his right in persistent 
and unscrupulous language ; and on one oc- 
casion his manner of speaking of the queen 
is said to have drawn from Jane, duchess of 
Gordon [q. v.], the retort : ' You little, in- 
significant, good-for-nothing, upstart, pert, 
chattering puppy, how dare you name your 
royal master's royal mother in that style ! ' 
Towards the end of 1705 he made a tour 
through France and Italy, in company with 
Lord Northington. At Rome he received 
great civilities from the Cardinal York [see 

In May 1793 Payne was appointed to the 
Russell of 74 guns, one of the Channel fleet 
under Lord Howe; and in her had a dis- 
tinguished part in the battle of 1 June 1794, 
for which he received the gold medal. In 
December he was ordered to hoist a broad 
pennant on board the Jupiter, in command of 
the squadron appointed to bring over the 
Princess Caroline. It sailed from the Nore 
on 2 March 1796 ; the princess embarked at 
Cuxhaven on the 28th, and arrived at Graves- 
end on 4 April. Payne was at this time in 
bad health, but towards the end of the sum- 
mer he was appointed to the Impetueux, an 
80-gun ship formerly called the Amerique, 
and captured from the French on 1 June 
1794, mainly by the Russell. During the 
summer of 1797 he was again ordered to hoist 

a broad pennant in command of a detached 
squadron, as also in March 1798 for a cruise 
in the Bay of Biscay. The inclement season 
and exposure brought on severe illness, which 
compelled him to resign the command. On 
14 Feb. 1799 he was promoted to the rank 
of rear-admiral, and in August he was ap- 
pointed treasurer of Greenwich Hospital, 
where he died on 17 Nov. 1803. On the 25th 
he was buried at St. Margaret's,Westminster. 
His portrait, by Hoppner, has been engraved. 

[The Memoir in the Naval Chronicle (iii. 1) 
was presumably written by Clarke, and certainly 
under Clarke's supervision; it touches but lightly 
on the faults of his civil career, which were many, 
and dwells on his distinguished services in the 
navy. See also Gent. Mag. 1803 ii. 1 187 ; Molloy's 
Court Life Below Stairs, vol. iv.] J. K. L. 

PAYNE, JOSEPH (1808-1876), first 
professor of education in England, was born 
of poor parents, on 2 March 1808, at Bury 
St. Edmunds. After receiving little besides 
an elementary education, he earned his own 
living as a boy by teaching and writing for 
the press, while continuing his studies in 
classics and English literature. In 1828 he 
was an assistant-master in a school in New 
Kent Road. Accidentally, he met with an 
account of Jacotot's system of teaching, made 
himself acquainted with the principles, and 
in 1830 wrote a pamphlet, ' A compendious 
Exposition of Professor Jacotot's celebrated 
System of Education.' Impressed by his 
account of Jacotot's system, Mrs. David 
Fletcher, a Camberwell lady, invited him to 
teach a small class, consisting of three chil- 
dren of her family and two others. His 
success was so marked that other parents 
wished to send their children, until the class 
became a school, known as the Denmark 
Hill Grammar School, with seventy or eighty 
boys. In 1831 Payne published a textbook, 
' Universal Instruction. Epitome Historic 
Sacrse. Adapted by a literal translation to 
Jacotot's Method. With a synopsis of the 
plan to be pursued in applying that method 
to the acquisition of Latin.' Jacotot himself 
acknowledged the value of Payne's disciple- 
ship ( Works of Joseph Payne, ii. 158). 
Throughout Payne's teaching life he taught 
in the spirit of Jacotot's methods, though cir- 
cumstances rendered literal adherence some- 
times impossible. A favourite maxim of his 
in teaching was ' Lessoning, not Lecturing.' 

In 1837 Payne married the daughter of the 
Rev. John Dyer, secretary of the Baptist 
Missionary Society. Miss Dyer was herself 
the head of a large school, which she con- 
tinued after marriage. She had spent some 
years in the house of Mark Wilks of Paris, 
and had an unusual knowledge of French 



literature. She was a stimulating and capable 
teacher, of great energy of character. In 
1845 the two schools in London, conducted 
respectively by himself and his wife, were 
given up, and Payne went to Leatherhead, 
where he established the Mansion House 
School for boys. This he continued with 
great success for nineteen years. 

In 1865 Payne was examined by the 
Schools Enquiry Commission, and admitted 
the need of modifications in Jacotot's system 
of teaching languages, but thought ' the 
general principle multmn non inulta quite 
unquestionable.' In his school time-table 
the following were the percentage of forty- 
two working hours : classics 43 per cent., 
mathematics 30 per cent., French and Ger- 
man 14 per cent., history and geography 10 
per cent., spelling 2 per cent., reading 1 per 
cent. He advocated before the commission 
the (permissive) registration of teachers. 

In 1863 Payne retired from school-work 
and lived at 4 Kildare Gardens, Bayswater, 
London. He interested himself in linguistic 
studies, wrote a paper for the Philological So- 
ciety on the * Norman Element in the Spoken 
and Written English of the 12th, 13th, and 
14th Centuries.' In 1873-4 he was chairman 
of the council of the Philological Society. 
In 1871 he was on the council of the Social 
Science Association, and in the same year, at 
the Leeds meeting, and in 1872, at Plymouth, 
read papers in the education section. 

The most vigorous of all Payne's writings 
was an article on Eton, in the ' British 
Quarterly Review' (April 1868) ; this was not 
republished in the collected works. Payne's 
view was that the ' pretensions of Eton are 
utterly unfounded, and that her boasted edu- 
cation is a lamentable failure.' His lively 
attack provoked considerable attention. 

From 1871 onwards Payne especially de- 
voted himself to the higher education of 
women, the development of educational 
method, and the improvement of the status of 
the teacher by increasing his technical and pro- 
fessional qualifications. He energetically sup- 
ported the Women's Education Union (from 
which sprang the Girls' Public Day School 
Company), and was chairman of the central 
committee of the union from its first organi- 
sation in 1871 until 1875. In 1866 he gave 
two lectures at the College of Preceptors on 
' The Curriculum of Modern Education and 
the claims of Classics and Science to be repre- 
sented in it considered.' In 1868 he read a 
paper on ' The Past, Present, and Future of 
the College of Preceptors/ in which he pleaded 
that the college should undertake the train- 
ing of secondary teachers. 

In 1872, after much discussion and in face 


of reactionary opposition, the College of 
Preceptors established the first professorship 
in education in England, and elected Payne 
to the post. He took great pains with 
the lectures, and during 1873 and 1874 
140 students of both sexes attended the 
courses. In 1874 Payne urged the founding 
of a training college, with model and prac- 
tising schools. He had some time previously 
urged the college to undertake the examina- 
tion of teachers for diplomas in the science 
and art of teaching. 

In 1874 Payne made a tour in North Ger- 
many, to visit some of the kindergartens, 
primary schools, and training colleges, and 
to investigate methods and theories as to 
the education of children between the ages 
of three and ten. In the spring of 1875 Payne 
wrote an account of his tour, but this was 
not published until after his death, which 
took place in April 1876. Mrs. Payne had 
died in 1875. Their son, Dr. Joseph Frank 
Payne, is a well-known physician. 

There is a portrait of Payne in the common 
room of the College of Preceptors, painted 
from a photograph, and an engraving of the 
same photograph forms the frontispiece to 
vol. i. of Payne's ' Works/ A memorial 
prize was founded in the Maria Grey Train- 
ing College, now at Brondesbury. 

Payne wrote the following : 1. ' Universal 
Instruction. Epitome Historiae Sacrse. A 
Latin reading book on Jacotot's System,' 
1831, 12mo. 2. < Select Poetry for Children,' 
1st edit. 1839 (?) 12mo; (this school-book has 
run through a large number of editions). 

3. ' Studies in English Poetry,' 1845, 8vo. 

4. < Studies in English Prose,' 1868, 8vo. 

5. ' A Visit to German Schools. Notes </ 
a Professional Tour to inspect some of tin 
Kindergartens, Primary Schools, Public 
Girls' Schools, and Schools for Technical In- 
struction,' 1876, 8vo. Payne's lectures, pam- 
phlets, and papers best worth preserving in 
a collected form were published in a single- 
volume, with an introduction, by the Rev. 
Robert Hebert Quick [q. v.] This work re- 
appeared in 1883 as the first volume of the 
works of Joseph Payne, edited by his son, 
Dr. J. F. Payne : Vol. i. ' Lectures on the 
Science and Art of Education.' Vol. ii., 
containing * Lectures on the History of Edu- 
cation, with a Visit to German Schools,' was 
published in 1892, 8vo. 

[Obituary notice in the Educational Times of 
I June 1 876 by Payne's friend, Mr. C. P. Mason ; 
Minutes of Evidence taken before the Commis- 
sioners, in vol. iv. of the Schools' Inquiry Com- 
mission Keport, 1868; information kindly given 
by Dr. J. F. Payne, by Mrs. Offord of Dover, and 
by Mi=s Emily A. E. Shirreff.] F. W-N. 





PAYNE, PETER (d. 1455), lollard and 
Taborite, was born at Hough-on-the-Hill, 
uear Grantham, Lincolnshire, where a family 
of the name survived till the middle of the 
eighteenth century, when by the marriage of 
Ethelred, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Payne, the property passed to Sir John Oust 
[q. v.] (BAKER, pp. 32-3). Thomas Gas- 
coigne [q. v.] expressly states that Payne was 
the son of a Frenchman by an English wife 
(Loci e Libra Veritatum, pp. 5-6, 186-7). 
Payne must have been born about 1380, and 
was educated at Oxford, where he was a con- 
temporary of Peter Partridge [q. v.], by whom 
he was first introduced to the doctrines of 
Wiclif; Partridge alleged that he in vain 
urged Payne to abandon heresies which, even 
if true, would be an obstacle to his advance- 
ment in "preaching and teaching (PETRUS 
ZATECENSIS, p. 344). Payne had graduated as 
a master of arts before 5 Oct. 1406. Under 
this date a letter purporting to be issued by 
the congregation of the university was ad- 
dressed to the Bohemian reformers, declaring 
that all England was on the side of Wiclif, 
except for some false mendicant friars. Gas- 
coigne roundly asserts that Payne had 
stolen the seal of the university and affixed 
it to this document (Loci e Libro Veritatum, 
p. 20). The letter was quoted by John 
Huss, and in the convocation at St. Paul's 
in 1411 reference was made to the seal having 
been secretly affixed to some lying letters in 
support of heresy ( WILKINS, Concilia, iii. 336) ; 
allusion was also made to the letter at the 
council of Constance (H. voisr DER HARDT, 
Cone. Constantiense, iy. 326), and it was pro- 
bably in reference to this incident that in 
1426 the university took precautions to pre- 
vent an improper use of the seal. Mr. 
Maxwell Lyte (Hist, of the University of 
Oxford, p. 279) has suggested that the letter 
was passed by a snatch vote of congregation 
during the long vacation. In 1410 Payne 
became principal of St. Edmund Hall, and 
retained this position till 1414; he was also 
principal of the adjoining White Hall (WOOD, 
Colleges and Halls, ed. Gutch, p. 663). louring 
his tenure of the office he was involved in 
a quarrel with the mendicant orders. Ac- 
cording to Thomas Netter or Walden [q. v.], 
Payne was chosen by a certain noble (per- 
haps Sir John Oldcastle) to dispute with 
William Bewfu, a Carmelite, and so be- 
came involved in a controversy with Netter 
himself. Netter alleges that Payne, ' suffo- 
catus vecordia/ withdrew from "the contro- 
versy before they had come to close quarters 
(Docfrinale Fidei Ecclesiee, i. 7-8, ed. 
Blanciotti). Payne himself refers to a 
quarrel which arose from his refusal to give j 

bread to begging monks at his hall, and 
from his having said some things of them 
that they did not like (PETRUS ZATECEXSIS, 
p. 344). Bui; elsewhere he admitted that 
when at Oxford an attempt was made to 
make him swear not to teach Wiclifite doc- 
trines, and alleged that, on an appeal to the 
king (Henry V), he obtained protection 
(JOHN OF RAGUSA, De Reductione Bohemo- 
rum, pp. 269-70). Payne would seem to 
have taught his doctrines at London and 
elsewhere in England, besides Oxford ; 
Ralph Mungyn, who was tried for heresy in 
1428, was his disciple (WiLKisrs, Concilia, 
iii. 498). Afterwards, apparently in 1416, 
he was diffamed for heresy, and, failing to 
appear when cited, was excommunicated ; 
Payne pleaded that he had already left 
England at the time of the citation, but Par- 
tridge declared that he met him on the very 
day (PETRUS ZATECENSIS, p. 343). Partridge 
also alleged that Oldcastle had been led 
into a course of treason through Payne's in- 
fluence, and there appears to have been some 
charge of treason against Payne himself; 
this Payne vehemently denied, though ad- 
mitting that he left England to escape mar- 
tyrdom (ib. pp. 334, 343-4). Payne may 
have known Jerome of Prague at Oxford, but 
he says he never saw Huss (JOHN OF 
RAGUSA, p. 276). He was, however, clearly 
on friendly terms with the Bohemian re- 
formers, and on his flight from England took 
refuge at Prague, where he was received 
among the masters of the university on 
13 Feb. 1417 (PALACKY, Geschichte von 
Bb'hmen, bk. vii. p. 184). According to 
Gascoigne (Loci e Libro Veritatum, p. 10), 
Payne took with him to Bohemia many of 
Wiclif s writings, and the statement is con- 
firmed by other writers (cf. LOSERTH, Wiclif 
and Huss, English transl. p. 72). 

In Bohemia Payne obtained the protec- 
tion of Elizabeth, widow of King Wences- 
laus, and soon acquired a prominent position. 
According to Dlugosz (Historia Polonica, 
i. 432), he was one of the Bohemian en- 
voys sent to offer the crown to Wladyslaw 
of Poland in August 1420; but there is some 
doubt as to the accuracy of this statement 
(cf. PALACKY, vii. 154 n.} He may, however, 
as stated by Dlugosz (Hist. Pol i. 436), have 
formed one of the embassy which for the 
second time unsuccessfully offered the crown 
to Wladyslaw on 2 Feb. 1421. In the pre- 
vious autumn he had been instrumental in in- 
ducing the ' Old Town ' of Prague to agree with 
the propositions of the Taborites relative to 
the fourth of the Prague articles, and in No- 
vember 1421 he again appears as mediating 
between John the Priest and the nobles at 


Prague (PALACKY, vii. 185, 262). After this 
Payne is not mentioned for five years ; but 
in the autumn of 1426 John Pribram began 
to attack the doctrines of Wiclif ; and on 
25 Dec. a disputation was held at Prague 
before Prince Korybut between Pribram and 
Payne, in which the latter maintained the 
doctrines of his countryman against the 
romanising teaching of the former. After 
the outbreak against Korybut, who was in- 
triguing with the pope, articles were drawn 
up in May 1427 with the intention of pre- 
serving unity among the Hussites. The 
article setting forth the doctrine on trans ub- 
stantiation was specially directed against 
Payne, who now dissociated himself from 
the Praguers, and joined the sect of the 
1 Orphans ' (ib. vii. 427-8). In the follow- 
ing summer came the crusade of Henry Beau- 
fort [q. v.], the cardinal arid bishop of Win- 
chester, against the Bohemian reformers. 
After his defeat at Tachau, Beaufort arranged 
for a conference between Bohemian and papal 
delegates. In the discussions which took 
place at Zebrak on 29 Dec., Payne and John 
Eokycana appeared as the Hussite theolo- 
gians (ib. vii. 459). The year 1428 was filled 
with fighting, but in the spring of 1429 an 
endeavour was made to arrange peace. A 
number of Bohemian representatives, of 
whom Payne was one, came to Sigismund 
at Pressburg on 4 April. The conference 
lasted till 9 April, Sigismund urging the 
Bohemians to submit to the council, which 
was to met at Basle two years later. The 
Bohemian representatives pleaded that they 
had not full power to act, and the meeting 
broke up with an arrangement that a 
Landtag should be held at Prague on 23 May. 
In the Landtag Payne took no prominent 
part. But afterwards he held a fresh dis- 
putation with Pribram, which lasted for 
three weeks from 20 Sept., in the presence 
of an assembly of Bohemian and Moravian 
notables at Prague. Pribram charged Wiclif 
with heresy ; Payne maintained the catho- 
licity of all his opponent's citations ; but the 
debate ended in a species of truce, the terms 
of which Pribram did not well observe, and 
he again charged Payne and the Taborite 
party with heresy (ib. vii. 485-7 ; HOEFLER, 
Geschichtsschreiber der Hussitischen, ii. 594- 
596). In March 1431 a fresh conference of 
the sects with a view to the proposed council 
was arranged to take place at Cracow in the 
presence of Wladyslaw of Poland. Payne 
was present as a representative of his party ; 
but the congress effected nothing, and the 
Bohemians went home very wroth before 
Easter (DLTJGOSZ, i. 577-8). 

The terms on which the Bohemians would 

5 Payne 

appear at the council were still unsettled, 
though the time for its assembly had ar- 
rived. In May 1432 representatives of the 
Bohemians, including Payne, met at Eger, 
and began negotiations with the council. 
The discussion was renewed at Kuttenberg 
in September, and at length terms were 
agreed upon. In a letter from the Praguers 
on 5 Sept. 1432 Payne was named one of 
the Bohemian delegates to the council, and 
on 6 Dec. he set out with his colleagues for 
Basle, where they arrived on 4 Jan. 1433. 
On 6 Jan. the Bohemians held religious ser- 
vices, the 'Orphan ' representatives, of whom 
Payne was one, preaching publicly in Ger- 
man (Mon. Cone. Gen. i. 64). Next day 
Procopius the Great, the principal Bohemian 
delegate, entertained his colleagues and 
some members of the council at dinner. 
Payne engaged in a hot dispute with John 
of Ragusa, who says ' the Englishman was 
like a slippery snake the more closely he 
seemed to be tied down to a conclusion, the 
more adroitly would he glide away to some 
irrelevant matter ' (ib. i. 260). On 13 Jan. 
Payne was one of the delegates who peti- 
tioned Cardinal Julian to grant the Bohe- 
mians a public reception in the cathedral. 
The request was refused, and three days 
later they had their first audience, when 
Payne, as one of the orators, delivered a brief 
allegorical address on the text (Psalm civ. 22) 
'ortus est sol, et congregati sunt in cubilibus 
suis/ in which he compared the doctrines of 
Wiclif and Huss to the rays of the sun. In the 
subsequent meetings the Bohemian envoys 
spoke at length on various set themes ; on 
26 Jan. Payne began a discourse ' De civili 
dominio clericorum,' which lasted three 
days, and which he finally summed up in a 
short schedule, to be recorded in the acts of 
the council (MARTENE, viii. 215 E). The 
month of February was occupied with the 
replies of the catholic representatives. John 
of Ragusa spoke for eight days amid con- 
stant interruptions from Payne. On 4 Feb. 
Payne declared that certain opinions were 
falsely attributed to Wiclif by John of 
Ragusa. John Keninghale [q. v.] at once de- 
clared that he would produce extracts from 
Wiclif's works in refutation of Payne (JOHN 
OF RAGTJSA, p. 278). On 10 Feb. Payne started 
a controversy with John as to the institution 
of holy water by Alexander V (ib. p. 282 ; 
PETRTTS ZATECENSIS, p. 307). In the last 
week of February John de Palomar replied 
to Payne's speech ' de civili dominio.' After 
this the discussion was referred firstly to a 
committee of fifteen, and on 19 March to 
one of eight from each side. At length it 
was decided that the council should send 





representatives to discuss the matter in the 
Landtag at Prague, the debates to continue 
at Basle until the arrangements for this 
purpose were complete. In these final dis- 
cussions Payne took a prominent part ; on 
31 March and 1 April he spoke in reply to 
Henry of Kalteisen on the freedom of preach- 
ing ; on 6 April he had a hot dispute with 
Partridge on the incidents of his English 
career, and on the following day endeavoured 
to make Keninghale produce his promised 
proofs of Wiclif's alleged heresies (ib. pp. 
343-4). His interventions in the debate 
were received with much impatience by his 
opponents, and his unyielding temper pro- 
bably contributed to the failure of the 
Bohemians to come to terms with the 
council. He had tried to prevent the re- 
ception of a friendly apology for the title of 
heretics, which John of Ragusa applied to 
the Bohemians on 7 Feb., and early in 
March the more moderate of the Hussites 
had considered whether an arrangement 
would not be practicable if Payne and other 
extremists were left out (w, pp. 304-6, 

On 14 April the Bohemians left Basle 
with the delegates of the council, chief of 
whom were Gilles Charlier and John de 
Palomar. Prague was reached on 8 May, 
and after some negotiations, in which Payne 
took part, the Landtag met on 8 June. As 
the chief representative of the Orphans, 
Payne had a prominent part in the debates 
(ib. pp. 367, 372 ; THOMAS EBENDOKFEK, pp. 
707, 710). The Landtag broke up on 3 July 
without any decisive result, and a second 
Bohemian embassy was sent with the dele- 
gates of the council to Basle. On 22 Oct. 
they brought back with them certain articles 
which might form the basis of a concordat, 
and in a second Landtag which met on 
16 Nov. the aristocratic party accepted the 
agreement known as the First Prague Com- 
pact. The Orphans and Taborites resisted, 
Payne being foremost in the opposition. 
On 18 Nov. he attempted to speak, but was 
shouted down ; and in a speech on 28 Nov. 
he complained that ' the lords want to tie 
us up in a sack.' He is asserted to have 
declared that he had a knife which would 
cut whatever the delegates of the council 
se wed together (CARLERITJS, DeLegationibus, 
pp. 450-68, 512, 515). The split between 
the two parties grew wider, and in the 
spring of 1434 resulted in open war. On 
29 May the nobles were victorious in the 
battle of Lipau, where Procopius, the Taborite 
leader, was killed; it was falsely reported 
in England that Payne was also among the 
slain (Chron. Giles. Henry VI, p. 14); 

another account states that he was taken 
prisoner ( NICOLAS, Chron. London, p. 120). 
In the subsequent negotiations the party of 
the nobles continued to gain ground, and in 
the November Landtag the majority of the 
Orphans were won over by the moderate 
party under John Rokycana. Payne then 
joined the Taborites. Certain doctrinal 
points were nevertheless referred to him for 
arbitration, but in the interests of his 
friends he postponed his decision for two 
years (Geschichtschreiber der Husitischen, 
ii. 704-5 ; PALACKY, viii. 181-2). As one 
of the Taborite representatives, Payne at- 
tended the conference before Sigismund at 
Brunn in June-July 1435 (CARLERIFS, De 
LegationibuSj pp. 565-74). But from the 
subsequent proceedings that led up to Sigis- 
mund's reconciliation with the Bohemian 
nobles at Iglau in July 1436 he held aloof. 
After Sigismund came to Prague, Payne was 
compelled to give his decision on the points 
submitted to his arbitration. He pronounced 
in favour of Rokycana, though avowing 
that his own convictions were on the other 
side. The Taborites at once protested, and, 
after some discussion, the debatable points 
were on 16 Nov. submitted to four doctors, 
of whom Payne was one ( Geschichtsschreiber 
der Hussitischen, ii. 728). As a result, the 
Taborites obtained permission to worship 
after their own fashion. 

The remaining years of Payne's life were 
troublous. In 1433 it had been reported at 
Basle that the English wanted to prosecute 
him on behalf of their king, and still earlier 
Martin V had demanded a subsidy for 
his prosecution from the English church 
and Monuments, iii. 538). On 13 Feb. 1437 
a papal bull was received at Prague, request- 
ing the emperor to send him to the council 
for trial on a charge of heresy (JOHANNES BE 
TURONIS, p. 852). At this time Payne had 
a pastorate at Saaz, whence on 15 April he 
came to Prague under a safe-conduct. A dis- 
cussion between Payne and Pribram was held 
before Sigismund, who, when the former 
proved obstinate, ordered him to leave 
Bohemia as soon as his safe-conduct had ex- 
pired. Payne withdrew from Prague ; but his 
English clerk, John Penning,was arrested, and 
the people of Saaz agreed not to support him 
(ib. pp. 861-2). According to Matthias 
Colinus, Payne now took refuge with Peter 
Chelcicky, the Bohemian author (PALACKY, 
ix. 48, 469). In February 1439 he was cap- 
tured by John Burian, who imprisoned him 
in his castle of Gutenstein (ib. viii. 326). 
Burian, by order of the Emperor Albert, 
offered to deliver Payne to the represents- 




tives of the English king at Nuremberg. 
Henry VI thanked Burian for his courtesy, 
and wrote to Eugenius IV proposing that, 
on account of the dangers of the road, Payne 
should be sent instead to the council at 
Florence {Correspondence of T. Bekynton, 
i. 187-9, Rolls Ser.) This was on 18 May 
1440 ; but before the matter was arranged 
the Taborites procured Payne's liberty by 
paying a ransom of two hundred schock 
(twelve thousand) of groschen (PALACKY, 
ix. 48). Payne returned to Saaz ($.), but 
no more is " heard of him for three years. 

Hussite sects (PALACKY, ix. 454). He 
passed under a variety of names : Clerk in 
England as an Oxford master ; Payne or 
English in Bohemia; and also as Freyng 
from his father's nationality, and Hogh or 
Plough from his own birthplace (GAS- 
COIGNE, Loci e Libro Veritatum, p. 187 ; 
Correspondence of T. Bekynton i. 187). Bale 
wrongly distinguishes Payne and Clerk. 

Payne had apparently published some 
writings before he left England, for in 1428 
Ralph Mungyn was charged with having 
possessed and distributed them (WILKINS, 

When the Taborites met the party of Concilia, iii. 498). They, however, seem to 
Rokycana in conference at Kuttenberg on have perished. Bale ascribes to him : 1. 'De 

6 July 1443, Payne was one of the two 
presidents and directors of the assembly. 
During the subsequent debates the Taborites 
complained that Pribram had persistently 
attacked Payne in Bohemian, which lan- 
guage the latter did not well understand. 
Eventually the discussion was adjourned to 
the Landtag at Prague in January 1444, 
where Payne appears to have been again 
present (ib. ix. 97-9 ; Geschichtsschreiber der 
Hussitischen, ii. 749, 752). This conference 
proved the death-blow to the Taborite party, 
though the town of Tabor held out till 
1452. In that year George Podiebrad^ who 
was now king, with the support of Rokycana 
and his party, marched against Tabor, which 

surrendered to him on 1 Sept. Certain j approbantis"; ' inc. ' In principio tractatus 
questions of conscience were submitted to j scribitur.' Manuscript at Vienna (DENIS, 
a committee of six doctors, of whom Payne j ii. 1752). 3. A tract inc. i Omnipotentis 
was one. The decision of the majority was 
to be binding ; but the Taborite leaders, 
Niklas Biskupec and Wenzel Koranda, held 
out, and died in captivity. Payne possibly 
submitted, though Gascoigne seems to sug- 
gest that he died in prison (cf. WOOD, 
Hist, and Antiq. i. 586 ; LEWIS, Life of 
Wiclif, p. 229). His death took place at 
Prague in 1455. 

Payne was a learned and ardent contro- 
versialist. Peter of Saaz notes the delight 
with which he obtained access to the ' Doc- 
trinale Fidei Ecclesias ' of Thomas Netter 
at Basle (Mon. Cone. Gen. i. 307). His 
incisive eloquence made him invaluable 
in debate, though he appears but little 
when there was need for action. His acute 
logic perhaps carried him to extremes of 
opinion, and his stubborn temper was an 
obstacle to conciliation. But, on the other 
hand, he possessed a fund of humour which 
enlivened the proceedings at Basle with 
constant sallies of wit (PETRTJS ZATECENSIS, 
passim). He was somewhat of an intellectual 
adventurer, though he deserves credit for 
his strict adherence to Wiclif 's principles, 

temporali dominio clericorum ; ' inc. ' Haec 
sunt verba quse hesterna.' 2. * De pre- 
destinatione et arbitrio.' 3. ' Contra cere- 
moniarum abusiones.' 4. ' Pro utraque 
sacramenti specie.' 5. l Concilium esse supra 
papam.' 6. 'Ad Antichrist! synagogam.' 
7. ' Contra mendicantes fraterculos.' Tanner 
adds : f Contra plenam pontificis potestatem.' 
The following seem to be extant : 1 . t De- 
fensio articulorum Wiclevi contra Johannem 
Pribram;' inc. 'Quianuper in regno Bohemias.' 
There are two manuscripts at Vienna, and 
one at Prague (DENTS, Cat. Cod. Bibl. Pala- 
tine Vindobonensis, ii. 1521, 2193; PA- 
LACKY, ix. 454 n.) 2. ' Contra scriptum 
cujusdam juramentum tanquam licitum 

o-r\T\T*-kVvQ Yi f i a ' irr ^ Tr> T4iTnr*Tnirfc "f.T*Qrf"ti".nG 

Dei magnificentia,' MS. Vienna, 3935 ff. 
309-40. 4. A. tract inc. ' Quia ut con- 
cipio omnes propositiones,' MS. Budis- 
sin Gersdorf, No. 7, 8vo (PALACKY). 
5. ' Provocatio Nic. Sloyczin ad disputan- 

Petri Anglici Speculum aureum 
papas seu Dialogus de potestate ecclesiae ' 
(COOPEE, Appendix A to Report on Fcedera, 
pp. 228, 231). Palacky also gives the first 
words of two tracts against Pribram that 
seem to have perished. Some of the sub- 
stance of his speeches at Basle may be found 
in the writers in the first volume of the 
' Monumenta Conciliorum Generalium See- 
culi XV.' All Payne's extant writings are 
concerned with the exposition of Wiclifite 
doctrine (cf. COCHL^TJS, p. 231). John de 
Torrequemada wrote a treatise, ' De efficacia 
aquae benedictae contra Petrum Anglicum 
hereticorum in Bohemia defensorem '(COOPER, 
p. 11). 

[Our knowledge of Payne's English career is 
chiefly due to Gascoigne's Theological Dic- 
tionary, extracts from which were published by 
J. T. Rogers as Loci e Libro Veritatum ; later 
English writers for the most part simply re- 

and he never completely joined any of the j produce Gascoigne. For his Bohemian career 




the original authorities are John of Ragusa, 
De Reductione Bohemorura ; Petri Zatecensis 
(Peter of Saaz) Liber Diurnus; yEgidius Car- 
lerius (Gilles Charlier), De Legation! bus ; 
Thomas Ebendorfer's Diarium ; Johannis de 
Turonis Registrum ; John de Segovia, Hist. 
Synodi Basilensis (these are contained in the 
Monumenta Couciliorum Generalium Sseculi XV, 
vols. i. ii. iii., published by the Kaiserliche 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, 1857, 
1873, 1892-4) ; Dlugosz's Historia Poloriica, 
i. 432-6, 578-9 ; Hoefler's Geschichtsschreiber 
der Hussitischen, in the Fontes Eerum Austria- 
carum ; Scriptores Rerum Bohemorum, vols. i. 
ii., Prague, 1783-1829 ; ^Eneas Sylvius, Historia 
Bohemiae and Historia Universalis ; Fordun's 
Scotichronicon, iv. 1299, sub anno 1432, where 
he is called Creyk ; Zantfliet's Chron. ap. Mar- 
tene and Durand, v. 431 ; Cochlseus, Historia 
Hussitarum . Some other original authorities 
are cited in the text. For the Council of Basle, 
see Martene aud Durand' s Veterum Scrip- 
torum Amplissima Collectio, vol. viii., and 
Man si's Concilia, vols. xxix. xxx. Palacky's 
Geschichte von Bohmen, bks. vii. viii. ix., con- 
tributes some information not otherwise readily 
accessible. See also Tomek's Dejepis Prahy 
(History of Prague), vol. iv. passim ; Bale's 
Centurise, vi. 86, 97; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 
p. 582 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. Univ. Oxford, 
ed. Gutch, i. 543, 560, 585-6, ; Creighton's His- 
tory of the Papacy during the Reformation, esp. 
ii. 94-102 ; Robertson's Hi story of the Christian 
Church, vols. vii. viii. Baker's Forgotten Great 
Englishman , 1894, is an imperfect and over-partial 
biography, for the most part based on Palacky's 
Geschichte von Bohmen.] C. L. K. 

PAYNE, SIE PETER (1763-1 843), third 
baronet dejure, of Blunham House, Bedford- 
shire, born in February 1763, was third son 
of Sir Gillies Payne, second baronet, of 
Tempsford, Bedfordshire. His grandfather 
Sir Charles (d. 1746) had inherited from his 
wife large property in St. Christopher's, 
West Indies, and had been created a baronet 
on 31 Oct. 1737. 

Sir Gillies Payne (d. 1801) was high 
sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1771. He formed 
in his youth a connection with Maria Keel- 
ing, daughter of a farmer at Potton, Bed- 
fordshire, but delayed marriage with her 
until the death of his mother in 1761. 
Peter was the first child born subsequently. 
Nevertheless on the death of his father in 
1801 he allowed his elder brother, John, 
to succeed to the title ; and, when John 
died two years later, acted as guardian to 
his young children. It was not until 1828 
that Sir Peter, having vainly offered to sub- 
mit his claims and those of liis brother's 
heir to a court of arbitration, was induced 
to allow the matter to be raised incidentally 
in the chancery suit Glascott v. Bridges. 

In the course of the trial Sir John's widow 
made affidavit that she and her sister had 
burned the marriage-certificate of Sir Gillies ; 
but evidence brought forward convinced the 
court of its existence, and Sir Peter was 
declared the eldest son born in wedlock. 
This decision was however reversed by the 
lord chancellor in January 1829, and an 
issue was directed to be tried as to the legi- 
timacy of John and Peter Payne. The 
question never again came before the courts : 
but during his lifetime Sir Peter's claim to 
the baronetcy was acknowledged. He re- 
fused, however, to register himself as a 

Peter was educated at Hackney and at 
Queens' College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1784 and M.A. in 1787. A 
handsome youth, though delicate, he took 
an active part in field sports, was a captain 
in the Bedfordshire militia, and was a deputy- 
lieutenant for the county for upwards of 
half a century. In politics lie was a strong 
whig, and he exerted much political influence 
in the Midlands. 

In 1810 he published two pamphlets, en- 
titled respectively ' England the Cause of 
Europe's Subj ugation, addressed to the British 
Parliament,' and ' The Character and Con- 
duct of British Ministers in War and Nego- 
tiation illustrated by Facts.' In 1812 he 
attacked Pitt and attempted to convict Wil- 
berforce of inconsistency in * Mr. Pitt the 
grand Political Delinquent ; with a Dedica- 
tion to the Solemnisers of his Birthday, and 
an Address to Wm. Wilberforce, Esq., M.P.' 
In the same year he issued at Birmingham, 
under the pseudonym ' Philagathos,' l Seven 
Short and Plain Letters to the Inhabitants 
of Birmingham on the Leading Points con-, 
nected with the Orders in Council.' 

Payne was intimate with Major John Cart- 
wright [q. v.], for whom he acted as bail when 
Cartwright was charged with sedition in Au- 
gust 1819 (CARTWRIGHT, Life of Major Cart- 
wright, ii, 169, 175-6). Among other friends 
were Sir Herbert Taylor and Dr. Parr. With 
the latter he had much familiar correspon- 
dence, which is now in the possession of his 
youngest daughter, Mrs. Elsdon Everard. 

In 1819 he published at Birmingham a 
' Letter to Lord Erskine in Defence of the 
Whigs.' On 5 May 1831 lie was returned, 
with the Marquis of Tavistock, as a whig 
member for Bedfordshire, but retired at the 
dissolution in December 1832. He printed 
at Bedford in 1832 a pamphlet advocating 
repeal of the corn laws. He was also a 
strong opponent of the slave trade, and an 
advocate of higher education of women. In 
favour of the latter cause he wrote a pam- 

Payne i 

phlet, which was printed at Birmingham and 
London in 1811, under the title Trial be- 
tween the Governess of a Ladies' Boarding 
School and the Mother of a Pupil committed 
to her Charge.' He died atBlunham House, 
Bedfordshire, on 23 Jan. 1843. 

Payne married, in August 1789, Elizabeth 
Sarah, only daughter of Samuel Steward, 
esq., of Stourton Castle, Staffordshire. She 
died on 12 April 1832, having had two sons 
and four daughters. 

The eldest son, Sir Charles Gillies, called 
fourth baronet (1796-1870), graduated B.A. 
1815 and M.A.. 1818 from Merton College, 
Oxford, and joined the Middle Temple. He 
left a son, Sir Salusbury Gillies Payne (1829- 
1893), who, born in the West Indies, was 
educated at Rugby and Brasenose College, 
Oxford (B.A. in 1852), was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple in 1857, and was 
chosen high sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1875, 
but did not serve. Sir Salusbury married 
Catherine, third daughter of Robert Chad- 
wick of High Bank, Manchester. His son, 
Charles Robert Salusbury (b. 1859), retired 
lieutenant in the navy, claimed to succeed to 
the baronetcy in 1893. In 1863 the Rev. 
Coventry Payne, grandson of Sir John, the 
titular third baronet, raised the claims of the 
elder branch of the family in a pamphlet, 
which was replied to by Sir Charles Gillies 
Payne. Sir Bernard Burke, after giving par- 
ticulars of the separate claims in the editions 
of his ' Peerage and Baronetage ' between 
1868 and 1878, thenceforth ignored the title. 
Foster's ' Baronetage ' of 1882 relegates it to 
the Appendix ' Chaos.' 

[Lodge's Genealogy of the Peerage and Baro- 
netage and Peerage (1893) ; Walford's County 
Families; Stockdale's Peerage and Baronetage 
for 1831 ; Ann. Reg. 1843, Append, to Chron. 
p. 231 ; O'Byrne's Represent. Hist, of Great 
Britain and Ireland, p. 43 ; Alumni Oxon. ; Grad. 
Cant. ; Ret. Memb. Parl. ; The Journal of 
Emily Shore (1891); information kindly sup- 
plied by Miss C. L. Johnstone, who has had 
access to numerous family papers.] 

G. LE G. N. 

TON (1738 P-1807), politician, was born at 
Basseterre, St. George parish in St. Chris- 
topher's, on 19 March 1737-8 or 1738-9. 
His father, Ralph Payne (d. 1763), chief 
justice and afterwards governor of St. Kitts, 
came of a family which had long been resi- 
dent at St. Christopher's, whither it had 
migrated from Lavington in Wiltshire. His 
mother, whose ancestors came from Bridg- 
water in Somerset, was Alice, daughter and 
heiress of Francis Carlisle. After being 
educated in England, Payne returned to his 

9 Payne 

native island, where he was at once elected 
a member of the House of Assembly, and at 
its first meeting unanimously called to the 
chair. In 1762 he was again in England, 
and he then made the tour of Europe. On 
1 Sept. 1767 he married, at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, Francoise Lambertine, 
daughter of Henry, baron Kolbel of Saxony; 
he was then spoken of in society as ' a rich 
West Indian.' His wife had Jived, before 
her marriage, with the Princess Joseph 
Poniatowski, and was one of the few charm- 
ing women on terms of intimacy with Queen 
Charlotte. After his marriage Payne plunged 
into politics, and from 1768 to 1771 sat in 
parliament for the borough of Shaftesbury. 
In 1769 he made his maiden speech as the 
seconder of Blackstone's motion, that the 
complaint of Wilkes against Lord Mansfield 
was frivolous and trifling. He is said to have 
been connected with Mansfield, and to have 
been inspired by him with legal arguments, 
the speech being received 'with much ap- 
plause, although the language was wonder- 
fully verbose.' Later in the session he made 
another elaborate oration, on which occasion, 
according to Horace Walpole, after protesting 
on his honour that the speech was not pre- 
meditated, he inadvertently pulled it out of 
his pocket in writing. Payne had ' a good 
figure, and possessed himself well, having 
been accustomed to act plays in a private 
set ; ' but his language was turgid, and he 
became ' the jest of his companions and the 
surfeit of the. f louse of Commons,' so that 
he soon became dissatisfied with his parlia- 
mentary prospects. On 18 Feb. 1771 he\vas 
created at St. James's Palace a knight of the 
Bath, and in the same year was appointed 
captain-general and governor-in-chief of the 
Leeward Islands, where he inherited a con- 
siderable estate from his parents. Thomas 
Hearne (1744-1817) [q. v.j spent some time 
with him there, and was employed by him in 
making drawings. 

Payne's appointment was very popular, 
and his recall in 1775 was much against 
the wish of the inhabitants, who petitioned 
for his continuance in office, and, by a 
unanimous vote of the assembly, presented 
him with a sword set in diamonds. He en- 
tered once more on political life, sitting for 
Camelford in Cornwall from November 1776 
to 1780, and for Plympton in Devonshire 
from 1780 to 1784. 

From June 1777 until the suppression of 
the office in 1782 Payne was a clerk of the 
board of green cloth. He was one of Fox's 
political allies, and for many years his house 
in Grafton Street was known, through his 
love of hospitality and the personal attrac- 




tions of his wife, as the favourite resort of 
the whig leaders. Erskine, when taken ill 
at one of Payne's banquets, replied to Lady 
Payne's anxious inquiries with the lines 

"Tis true I am ill, but I need not complain ; 
For he never knew pleasure who never knew 

It was rumoured in 1783 that Payne 
might be the secretary to Lord Northington, 
the new lord lieutenant of Ireland ; but the 
post was given to Windham. In 1788 he 
made a lengthened tour on the continent, 
visiting Vienna, Zurich, and Lyons (SMYTH, 
Memoir of Sir . M. Keith, ii. 198-200). 
With the support of the Prince of Wales as 
Duke of Cornwall, he contested the borough 
of Fowey, in the whig interest, in 1790, when 
a double return was made, Payne and Lord 
Shuldham being credited with a majority of 
votes; but they were unseated -by the House 
of Commons. At a by-election he was re- 
turned for Woodstock" (21 Oct. 1795), and 
represented it until 1799. 

But after his election disappointment in 
1790 he wavered in his attachment to the 
whigs, and on 15 Aug. 1793 he gave a 'con- 
siderable dinner ' at his house, at which Pitt 
was a guest. Windham was also invited, 
but did not go, and thought that Payne 
should have told him of the invitation to the 
premier ( WINDHAM, Diary, pp. 198, 288, 
310). This change of politics was rendered 
necessary by the shrinking of his resources, 
and it soon bore fruit. He was created Baron 
Lavington of Lavington in the peerage of 
Ireland on 1 Oct. 1795, and a privy coun- 
cillor on 30 Oct. 1799. In February 1799 he 
was reappointed as governor of the Leeward 
Islands, and the assembly voted him an 
allowance of 2,OOOZ. a year, that he might 
the better support the dignity of the position. 
His Christmas balls and his routs were mag- 
nificent, and were distinguished by the ob- 
servance of the strictest etiquette. He was 
attended by an army of servants, but he 
would not allow any of the black servitors 
about him to wear shoes or stockings, their 
legs being rubbed daily with butter so that 
they shone like jet ; and he would not, if he 
could avoid it, handle a letter or parcel from 
their fingers. To escape the indignity, he 
designed a golden instrument, like a tongs, 
with which he held any article which was 
given him by a black servant. 

Lord Lavington died at Government 
House, Antigua, on 3 Aug. 1807, being then 
the senior member of the order of the Bath. 
He was interred on his mother's estate of 
Carlisle. The tomb was still visible in 1844, 
but the garden was overgrown with weeds, 

and the walls were falling into ruins. An 
elaborate monument of marble was erected 
to his memory by the legislature of Antigua, 
in St. John's Church in that island. As 
his widow was left all but destitute, a com- 
passionate allowance of 300/. a year was voted 
to her by the assembly, for her life. Her 
married life appears to have been unhappy, 
and Sheridan once found her in tears, ' which 
she placed, with more adroitness than truth, 
to the account of her monkey, who had just 
died.' He thereupon exclaimed : 

Alas ! poor Ned, 
My monkey's dead ; 
I had rather by half 
Jt had been Sir Ralph. 

Payne's speeches are in the ' Debates ' of Sir 
Henry Cavendish, i. 133, 368-70, 372, and 
many letters from him are among the Ross- 
lyn MSS., two being printed in Lord Camp- 
bell's * Lives of the Lord Chancellors,' vi. 
161-2, 359. 

[Burke's Extinct Peerage; Gent. Mag. 1763 
p. 97, 1776 p. 94, 1807 pt. ii. pp. 889, 974 ; Jesse's 
Selwyn, ii. 166; Corresp. of George III and 
Lord North, i. 56, ii. 75; Oldfield's Parl. Hist, 
iii. 207 ; Courtney's Parl. Rep. of Cornwall, pp. 
108-9, 351 ; Malmesbury's Diaries and Corresp, 
iv. 385 ; Campbell's Chancellors, vi. 229, 686 ; 
Wraxall's Memoirs, ed. Wheatley, iii. 410-11 ; 
Corresp. of Right Hon. J. Beresford, i. 239 ; 
Antigua and the Antiguans, i. 113-14, 131-7, 
226-7, ii. 346-7 ; Walpole's George III, ed. Le 
Marchant, iii. 321-2,359.] W. P. C. 

PAYNE, ROBERT (ft. 1589), writer on 
agriculture, was born apparently in Notting- 
hamshire. He subsequently described himself 
of Poynes-End, co. Cork. He was presum- 
ably the author of ' Rob. Payn his Hill- 
man's Table, which sheweth how to make 
Ponds to continue water in high and drie 
grounde, of what nature soeuer. Also the 
Vale-man's Table, shewing how to draine 
moores, and all other wette grounds, and 
to lay them drie for euer. Also how to 
measure any roufe ground, wood or water, 
that you cannot come into,' &c., 1583 (AMES, 
Typogr. Antiq. iii. 1662). In consequence 
of the exceptional inducements offered by 
government to Englishmen to settle in 
Munster after the suppression of the rebel- 
lion of Gerald Fitzgerald, fifteenth earl of 
Desmond [q. v.], Payne and twenty-five of 
his neighbours proposed to remove thither. 
But Englishmen were chary of risking their 
lives and fortunes in Ireland, and it was ac- 
cordingly thought advisable to send Payne 
over to report on the situation. The result 
was : ' A Briefe Description of Ireland : 
Made in this Yeere 1589, by Robert Payne. 




Vnto xxv. of his partners, for whom he is 
vndertaker there. Truely published verba- 
tim, according to his letters, by Nich. 
Gorsan, one of the said partners, for that he 
would his countrymen should be partakers 
of the many good Notes therein conteined. 
With diuers Notes taken out of others, the 
Authoures letters written to the said 
partners, sithenes the first Impression, well 
worth the reading. At London, printed by 
Thomas Dawson, 1590.' The first edition, 
though mentioned by Ames (Typogr. Antiq, 
ii. 1127), is not known to be extant. The 
pamphlet was reprinted and edited for the 
Irish Archaeological Society in 1841 by Dr. 
Aquilla Smith ; but whatever its utility may 
have been to Payne's partners, it cannot be 
regarded as of any great value for historical 
purposes. Payne, on the whole, wrote 
iavourably of the situation : there were 
good undertakers as well as bad ; the natives 
were not so black as they were painted ; 
justice was firmly administered ; the prospect 
of a Spanish invasion was remote; the country 
was rich and fertile, and prices were low. 
But from the absence of Payne's name from 
the survey of 1622, it may probably be con- 
jectured that he did not settle permanently 
'in Munster. 

[Payne's Brief Description of Ireland, ed. 
Aquilla Smith (Irish Archaeol. Society); Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq.] K. D. 

PAYNE, ROGER (1739-1797), book- 
binder, was born at Windsor in 1739. It is 
said that after having learned the rudiments 
of his art from Pote, the Eton bookseller, he 
came to London about 1766, and worked for 
a short time for Thomas Osborne (d. 1767) 
[q. v.] in Gray's Inn. Soon afterwards be- 
tween 1766 and 1770 through the kindness 
of ' honest Tom Payne,' the bookseller at the 
Mews Gate, who was not related to him, he 
was enabled to set up in business for him- 
self as a bookbinder, near Leicester Square 
[see PAYNE, THOMAS, 1719-1799]. He was 
then joined by his brother Thomas, who at- 
tended to the forwarding department, while 
Roger, who possessed artistic talent far 
superior to that of any of his fellow-crafts- ' 
men of the eighteenth century in England, 
devoted himself to the finishing and decora- 
tion of the volumes entrusted to his care. 
After a time, however, the brothers parted, 
and Roger, late in life, took as his fellow- 
worker Richard Wier, whose wife became 
known as a clever repairer and restorer of old 
books. The partners were alike addicted to 
immoderate indulgence in strong ale, which 
led to frequent quarrels and at last to sepa- 
ration. Roger's aspect betrayed his inor- 

dinate liking for barley broth.' < His ap- 
pearance/ says Dibdin, l bespoke either 
squalid wretchedness or a foolish and fierce 
indifference to the received opinions of man- 
kind. His hair was unkempt, his visage 
elongated, his attire wretched, and the in- 
terior of his workshop where, like the Turk, 
he would " bear no brother near his throne " 
harmonised but too justly with the general 
character and appearance of its owner. With 
the greatest possible display of humility in 
speech and in writing, he united quite the 
spirit of quixotic independence.' 

Payne died in Duke's Court, St. Martin's 
Lane, London, on 20 Nov. 1797, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields, at the expense of his old friend 
Thomas Payne, ' to whom,' writes John 
Nichols, 'in a great measure the admirers 
of this ingenious man's performances may 
feel themselves indebted for the prolongation 
of his life, having for the last eight years 
provided him with a regular pecuniary 
assistance.' Thomas Payne had also a por- 
trait taken of his namesake, at his work in 
his miserable den, which was etched and 
published by Sylvester Harding in 1800, and 
again engraved by William Angus for Dib- 
din's * Bibliographical Decameron.' 

Payne is considered by some to have origi- 
nated a new style of bookbinding ; but he 
was undoubtedly influenced by the beautiful 
work of Samuel Mearn and other binders of 
the end of the seventeenth century. His 
bindings united elegance with durability ; 
and the ornaments, which are said to have 
been designed by himself, were chosen with 
excellent taste. His best work was executed 
either in russia leather or in straight- grained 
morocco, usually of a dark blue, bright red, 
or olive colour. The sheets of the books were 
often sewn with silk, and the backs lined with 
leather, to give them additional strength. As 
a rule the backs only were elaborately tooled, 
while the sides were left almost plain. The 
ornamental devices were chiefly circlets, cres- 
cents, stars, acorns, running vines, and leaves, 
placed at intervals in the spaces to be deco- 
rated, and studded between with golden 
dots. The end papers were usually purple 
or some other plain colour. Each volume 
was accompanied by a bill describing the 
work done, and the ornaments used, written 
in a most precise and quaint style. Many of 
these bills are still extant in the volumes 
which he bound. 

Payne's chief patrons were Earl Spencer, 
the Duke of Devonshire, Colonel Stanley, 
and the Rev. Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode. 
The books which he bound for Lord Spencer 
are now in the John Rylands Library at 




Manchester. Among them are many very 
beautiful bindings, as well as the large-paper 
copy of Potter's translation of ' yEschylus,' 
printed at Glasgow in 1795, in which are con- 
tained Flaxman's original drawings, bound 
in blue morocco. This is thought by some 
to be Roger Payne's masterpiece. The same 
collection includes also the Aldine edition of 
Homer's ' Iliad/ printed on vellum in 1504, 
on which he was at work at the time of 
his death. The Cracherode collection, now 
in the British Museum, likewise contains 
many excellent examples of his work, among 
which may especially be noted Cicero's ' De 
Oratore,' printed at Rome by Ulrich Han in 
1468, bound in red morocco ; the ' Historia ' 
of Justinus, printed at Venice by Jenson in 
1470, in blue morocco ; Cicero's ' DeFinibus,' 
Venice, 1471, in red morocco, with blind 
tooling on the outside ; Cicero's ' Epistolee 
ad Familiares,' printed by Jenson at Venice 
in 1475, in red morocco ; the ' Erotemata ' 
of Lascaris, Venice, 1495, in olive-brown 
morocco ; the Cambridge edition of Euri- 
pides, 1694, in blue morocco ; and the Aldine 
Virgil of 1505, in blue morocco, with a 
cameo inserted in each cover. The British 
Museum also possesses, in the Grenville col- 
lection, two good specimens : East's undated 
edition of the ' Storye of Kynge Arthur,' 
bound in red morocco; and the Genoa edition 
of Tasso's ' Gierusalemme Liberata,' 1590, in 
olive morocco. A copy of the first folio 
Shakespeare, 1623, bound in russia, is in the 
library of Mr. Christie-Miller at Britwell 
Court, Buckinghamshire. 

[Gent. Mag. 1797, ii. 1070, notice by John 
Nichols; Dibdin's Bibliographical Decameron, 
1817, ii. 506-18; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
vi. 131 ; Andre ws's Roger Payne and his Art, 
New York, 1892; Miss Prideaux's Historical 
Sketch of Bookbinding, 1893; Portfolio, 1893, 
p. 101; Home's Binding of Books, 1894, pp. 
199-205.] R. E. G. 

PAYNE, THOMAS (1719-1799), book- 
seller, son of Oliver and Martha Payne of 
Brackley, Northamptonshire, was baptised at 
Brackley 26 May 1719. His elder brother, 
Oliver Payne, established himself as a book- 
seller at Round Court in the Strand, London, 
which was opposite York Buildings, but has 
been effaced by the Charing Cross Hospital, 
and originated the practice of printing lists 
of the books for sale at his shop. Thomas 
Payne was at first his assistant, and after- 
wards his successor in the business. About 
1745 he married Elizabeth Taylor, and suc- 
ceeded her brother, who was also a book- 
seller, in his house and shop in Castle-Street, 
next the Mewsgate, the entrance by St. 
Martin's Church to the King's Mews. In 

1750 he rebuilt the premises and constructed 
the shop in the shape of the letter L. The con- 
venience of the situation made it the favourite 
place of resort for the literati of the day, and 
it became known as the Literary Coffee- 
house. Among the frequenters of the sale- 
room were Cracherode, Gough, Person, 
Burney, Thomas Grenville, George Stevens, 
Cyril Jackson, Lord Spencer, Malone, and 
Windham. Mathias refers to it in the first 
dialogue of the ' Pursuits of Literature ' 
(11. 190-4) with the question : 

Must I as a wit with learned air, 
Like Doctor Dewlap, to Tom Payne's repair, 
Meet Cyril Jackson, and mild Cracherode 
'Mid literary gods, myself a god ? 

and in a note calls Payne ' one of the best 
and honestest men living. ... I mention this 
Trypho Emeritus with great satisfaction.' 

The first of his book-lists was issued on 
29 Feb. 1740-1, and for thirty-five years, 
beginning with 1755, a new catalogue, 
usually of not less than two hundred pages, 
was issued each year, most of which are at 
the British Museum. A list of them is 
printed in Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes ' 
(iii. 655-60), and among the collections 
which passed through his hands were those 
of Francis Peck, Ralph Thoresby, Dr. Ken- 
nicott, Francis Grose, Cornwall the speaker, 
and the Bishops Beauclerk and Newton. 
One of his assistants was John Hatchard, 
the founder of the bookselling firm in Picca- 

Payne continued in business with in- 
creasing success until 1790, when he retired 
in favour of his son Thomas (1752-1831) 
[q. v.], who had been his partner for more 
than twenty years. He died on 2 Feb. 1799, 
and was buried on 9 Feb. at Finchley, near 
his wife, who had died many years previously, 
and brother. A poetical epitaph was written 
for him by Hayley (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, 
ix. 666). His children were two sons and 
two daughters, who were described in 1775 
as ' pretty and motherless.' Sally married, on 
6 Sept. 1785, Admiral James Burney [q. v.], 
and their daughter Sarah married John 
Payne, of the firm of Payne Foss. 

Payne was ; warm in his friendships and 
politics, a convivial, cheerful companion, and 
unalterable in the cut and colour of his 
coat,' and was universally known as ' honest 
Tom Payne.' All the copperplates in 
Gough's edition of Camden's ' Britannia ' 
were engraved at his expense, and Gough 
gave him in return the whole of the printed 
copies, with the exception of about fifteen 
impressions, and left him a legacy of 5007. 
Roger Payne [q. v.], the bookbinder, was for 




the last 

He was introduced into Beloe's ' Sexagena- 
rian ' (vol. i. ch. xxxii.) by name, and again 
into the second volume (ch. xlii.) as the honest 
bookseller. A print of a portrait of him is 
in Dibdin's ' Bibliographical Decameron '(iii. ! 
435) ; a second portrait represents him at 
whist, with the cards in his hands (CoUKT- 
NEY, English Whist, pp. 251-2). 

ist eight years of his life supported by | at the Larcher, MacCarthy, and subsequent 
Payne, though theyjvvere not related. | sales are given in Dibdin's ' Bibliographi- 

' cal Decameron ' (iii. 149, 161-80, cf. ii. 

John Payne, after the cessation of the 
business in 1850, withdrew to Rome. He 
and his wife, Sarah Burney, received much 
foreign company, and were especially friendly 
with Cardinal Antonelli. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, viii. 504 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1831, pt. i. p. 276; Early Diary of Frances 
Burney, ii. 130-1.] W. P. C. 

PAYNE, WILLIAM, D.D. (1650-1696), 
controversialist, was born at Hutton, Essex, 
in 1650. He was educated at the free school 
of Brentwood, Essex, and proceeded to Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge, in May 1665. 
He obtained a fellowship there on 6 July 
1671, and retained it till 1675, when he' 
married Elisabeth, daughter of John Squire, 
vicar of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, London. 
He was in the same year presented to the 
livings of Frinstead and Wormshill in Kent, 
and settled at the latter place. In June 1681 
he received the rectory of Whitechapel, and 
speedily won a reputation among the Lon- 
don clergy as a preacher. On 29 June 1682 
he was chosen to preach before the first 
annual feast instituted at Brentwood school. 
He took an active part in the agitation 
aroused by the ' popish plot,' in the course 
of which he wrote many anti-catholic tracts. 
Of these the best known are : ' A Discourse 
of the Adoration of the Host' (1685) ; < A 
Discourse of the Communion in one Kind, in 
answer to a Treatise of the Bishop of Meaux ' 
(1687); 'The Sixth Note of the Church 
examined, viz. Agreement in Doctrine with 
the Primitive Church' (1688); and 'The 
Texts examined which the Papists cite out of 
the Bible concerning the Celibacy of Priests 
and Vows of Continence' (1688). All these 

[Baker's Northamptonshire, i. 586 ; Cunning- 
barn's London, ed. Wheatley, ii. 532 ; Lysons's 
Environs, Suppl. 1811, p. 143; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 131-2, 5th ser. vii. 112; 
Gent. Mag. 1799 pt. i. pp. 171-2, 236, 1831 
pt. i. pp. 275-6 ; Dibdin's Bibl. Decameron, iii. 
435-7 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. History, v. 428, 
435 ; Early Diary of Frances Burney, vol. i. 
p. Ixxiii, vol. ii. pp. 130-1 ; Austin Dobson's 
Eighteenth-Century Vignettes, 2nd ser. pp. 192- 
203.] W. P. C. 

PAYNE, THOMAS, the younger (1752- 
1831), bookseller, eldest son of'Thomas Payne ' 
(1719-1799) [q. v.], by his wife Elizabeth 
Taylor, was born on 10 Oct. 1752. He was ! 
educated at the classical school of M. Metayer i 
in Charterhouse Square, London, and was ' 
trained in modern and dead languages for j 
the further development of the family busi- 
ness. After he had been for more than j 
twenty years a partner with his father, the j 
latter retired in 1790 in favour of his son. \ 
In 1806 he transferred the business to more i 
commodious premises in part of Schom- i 
berg House, on the south side of Pall Mall, 
which also became a literary centre. He 
took into partnership in 1813 his apprentice 
and connection, Henry Foss, when Charles 
Lamb playfully designated the new firm as 
'Pain & Fuss.' In 1817 he was the 
master of the Stationers' Company, but a 
few years later his health began to decline, 
and he could no longer travel on the con- 
tinent in quest of books. About 1825 he 
was succeeded in business by his nephew 
John Payne, who continued the establish- 
ment, in partnership with Foss, until 1850. 
Thomas Payne was seized by apoplexy on 
8 March 1831, and died at Pall Mall on 
15 March. He was buried in St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields on 24 March. 

Payne, at the time of his death, was the 
father of the London booksellers, He pos- 
sessed a vast store of literary anecclote. 
Among the collections which he sold were 
the libraries of Dean Lloyd and Rev. Henry 
Homer, and that of M. de Lamoignon, keeper 
of the seals of France. An account of the 
sale of the Borromeo collection of novels and I 
romances, which Payne and Foss had pur- 
chased, and the details of their acquisitions 

tracts went through several editions, and 
were collected in Edmund Gibson's ' Preser- 
vative against Popery ' (1738). 

After the accession of William and Mary 
to the throne in 1689, Payne, who in this 
year took the degree of D.D. at Cam- 
bridge, was appointed to the lectureship of 
the Poultry Church in the city of London, 
and received the post of chaplain-in-ordinary 
to their majesties. He strongly supported 
the comprehension scheme, brought for- 
ward in 1689 for facilitating the inclusion 
of protestant dissenters in the established 
church. The proposal was opposed, among 
others, by Thomas Long [q. v.l, whose 

gamphlet on the subject, entitled 'Vox 
leri,' was answered by Payne in an 'Answer 
to Vox Cleri ' (1690)/ Being subsequently 




denounced by the nonjurors for his latitu- 
dinarian views, Payne in 1691 published a 
defence of his position, entitled ' An Answer 
to a printed Letter to Dr. William Payne, 
concerning Non-resistance and other Reasons 
for not taking the Oath.' In 1693 Dr. Payne 
was appointed, by a commission under the 
great seal, ' visitor- royal ' over certain Lon- 
don churches, popularly called ' lawless 
churches,' because they were exempt from 
visitation by the bishop, and were subject 
solely to the king. The appointment, how- 
ever, caused resentment at Doctors' Com- 
mons, and in 1694 he resigned it. During 
the last two years of his life Payne preached 
a series of sermons on behalf of Sherlock, 
who was engaged in defending the dogma of 
the Trinity against South. These sermons 
were published in 1696 under the title of 
'The Mystery of the Christian Faith and 
oft-blessed Trinity vindicated.' Payne was 
engaged on a larger work on this subject 
when he died, on 20 Feb. 1696. Besides 
the tracts mentioned, Payne was author of: 
1. 'Family Religion' (1691). 2. < A Dis- 
course of Repentance'' (1693). 3. 'Dis- 
courses upon several Practical Subjects,' 
published in 1698 from his manuscript ser- 
mons by his friend and executor, Joseph 

Payne's son, Squier Payne, fellow of Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge (B.A. 1694, and 
M.A. 1698), was son-in-law and biographer 
of Richard Cumberland [q. v.], bishop of 
Peterborough, and being made archdeacon 
of Stow, in the diocese of Lincoln, in 1730, 
held that office till 1751. 

[Preface to Payne's posthumous Discourses, 
1698; archives of Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, communicated by A.G.Peskett; Nichols's 
Illustr. of Lit. v. 271-6 ; Brit. Mus. Cat,] 

G-. P. M-Y. 

PAYNE, WILLIAM (/. 1800), water- 
colour painter, who is supposed to have been 
a native of Devonshire, held an appointment 
in the engineers' department at Plymouth 
Dockyard, and resided at Plymouth Dock 
(now Devonport) till 1790, when he came to 
London, and took up his residence in Thorn- 
haugh Street, Bedford Square. He was al- 
ready known as a landscape-painter, having 
exhibited at the Incorporated Society of 
Artists in 1776, and at the Royal Academy 
since 1786. Some of his views of slate 
quarries at Plympton had been praised by 
his fellow-countryman, Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
the president of the Royal Academy, and 
others, drawn in 1788 and 1789, were en- 
graved for Samuel Middiman's i Select Views 
in Great Britain ' (1784-92). He had hit 

upon certain methods which considerably 
increased the resources of water-colour art, 
especially in the rendering of sunlight and 
atmosphere. His ( style,' as it was called, was 
one which was not only new and effective, 
but could be learnt without much difficulty, 
and he soon became the most fashionable 
drawing-master in London. Among the in- 
novations with which he is credited were 
' splitting the brush to give forms of foliage, 
dragging the tints to give texture to his fore- 
grounds, and taking out the forms of lights 
by wetting the surface and rubbing with 
bread and rag.' He also abandoned the use of 
outline with the pen, but the invention by 
which he is best known is a neutral tint 
composed of indigo, raw sienna, and lake. 
A compound pigment called Payne's grey is 
still sold by artists' colourmen. His methods 
were regarded as tricky by the old-fashioned 
practicians of the day. but there is no doubt 
that he did much to advance the technique of 
water-colour painting, and was one of the first 
'draughtsmen' to abandon mere topography 
for a more poetical treatment of landscape 
scenery. In 1809 he was elected an associate 
of the Water-colour Society, but left it on the 
disruption of the original society in 1812. 
During the four years of his connection with 
the society he sent seventeen drawings to 
their exhibitions. By this time his art had 
degenerated into mannerism. He was sur- 
passed by better artists, and forgotten before 
he died. The date of his death is unknown ; 
it is supposed to have been about 1815, 
but, according to Algernon Graves's ' Dic- 
tionary of Artists,' he was still exhibiting 
in 1830. 

Four books, ' Landscapes from Drawings 
by Payne,' engraved by Black, are advertised 
at the end of ' A Treatise on Ackerman's 
Water-colours,' &c., 1801. There are ex- 
amples of Payne's drawings at South Ken- 
sington Museum, the British Museum, and 
the Whitworth Museum at Manchester. 

[Redgrave's Diet. ; Redgraves' Century of 
Painters ; Redgrave's Descriptive Catalogue of 
Water-colours at South Kensington Museum ; 
Bryan's Diet. (Graves and Armstrong) ; Roget's 
' Old 'Water-colour Society ; Art Journal, March 
1849 ; Graves's Diet. ; Somerset House Gazette, 
i. 133, 162; Alston's Hints to Young Prac- 
titioners in the Study of Landscape Painting ; 
Monkhouse's Earlier English Water-colour 
Painters ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. i. 522, ii. 
227.] C. M. 

FIELD (1804-1878), actor and pantomimist, 
was born in the city of London in 1804, and 
was apprenticed to Isaac Cowen, a stock- 
broker ; but in his eighteenth year he ran 


I2 5 

Payne Smith 

away, and joined a travelling theatrical com- 
pany in the Warwickshire circuit. He rose 
to play small parts at the Theatre Royal, Bir- 
mingham. Returning to London, he studied 
under Grimaldi and Bologna at Sadler's 
Wells Theatre, and then obtained an engage- 
ment at an east-end theatre, and in the fol- 
lowing year (1825) migrated to the Pavilion 
Theatre. Here he remained some years, play- 
ing small parts, which he raised into impor- 
tance by the admirable expression of his 
pantomimic action. At Christmas he re- 
presented the clown, with Miss Roimtree 
(afterwards his first wife) as columbine. On 
26 Dec. 1831 he made his first appearance at 
Covent Garden Theatre in the pantomime 
'Hop o' my Thumb and his Brothers,' by 
Charles Farley [q. v.], in which he played j 
Madoc Mawr, the Welsh ogre, Miss Poole 
being Little Jack, and PriscillaHorton (after- 
wards Mrs. German Reed) the Genius of the 
Harp. The next year he was still more suc- 
cessful in the pantomime produced on 26 Dec. 
and called 'Puss in Boots,' in which his cha- 
racter was Tasnar, chief of the Long Heads 
and No Bodies. 

During his long career Payne played many 
parts, ranging from pantomime to tragedy. 
He was harlequin to Joe Grimaldi's clown 
at Sadler's Wells in 1827 ; he was Dandy 
Lover to young Joe Grimaldi's clown, and 
made a capital clown himself. He acted in 
tragedy with Charles Young, Charles Kemble, 
James Wallack, and Edmund Kean, and on 
Kean's last appearance (Covent Garden, 
25 March 1833), when playing Othello, and 
unable to finish the part through illness, it 
was Payne, then acting Ludovico, who 
carried him off' the stage. He prominently 
figured in grand ballet with Pauline Leroux, 
Cerito, Carlotta Grisi, the Elsslers, and 
other dancers of note, and played in state 
before George IV, William IV, Victoria, 
Napoleon III, and the Empress Eugenie. 

In 1841 he was still at Covent Garden, 
and filled the role of Guy, earl of Warwick, 
in the pantomime produced at Christmas. 
On 31 March 1847 he opened at Vauxhall 
Gardens in a ballet with his wife and his 
sister, Miss Annie Payne. In 1848 he was 
engaged by John Knowles for the Theatre 
Royal, Manchester, and here he remained 
seven years, increasing the annual run of 
the pantomime from its usual twenty-four 
nights to one hundred, and making ( Ro- 
binson Crusoe ' so attractive that it was 
represented 125 nights consecutively. On 
leaving Manchester he^ appeared with his 
sons at Sadler's Wells in the pantomime of 
the * Forty Thieves' at Christmas 1854. 
Latterly the Payne family were regularly 

engaged for Covent Garden, where they 
became the chief actors and pantomimists in 
the openings, as well as the contrivers and 
performers of the harlequinades. They were 
also frequently seen at the Standard Theatre, 
theCrystal Palace, and other places. Through 
the whole of his career Payne's private virtues 
commanded the respect of the profession. He 
died at Calstock House, Dover, on 18 Dec. 
1878. A writer in the ' Spectator ' said : ' The 
last true mime has departed in the person ot 
W. H. Payne.' 

By his first wife Payne had four children : 
(1) Harriet Farrell, who married Aynsley 
Cook, and, with her husband, took leading 
roles in operatic performances ; (2) Annie, 
a dancer and actress, who married William 
Turner ; (3) Harry, the well-known panto- 
mimist and clown at Drury Lane ; (4) Fre- 
derick, born January 1841, who came from 
Manchester to London with his father in 
1854, and made his first appearance in a ju- 
venile part in the pantomime of the i Forty 
Thieves ' at Sadler's Wells. When the Payne 
family became regularly engaged for the 
Covent Garden pantomimes, he acquired 
distinction as the harlequin and as a graceful 
and grotesque dancer. His ( hat dance ' in 
the pantomime of ' Cinderella ' in 1865 was 
singularly quaint and clever. In 1877, while 
engaged in the pantomime at the Alexandra 
Palace, his mind became affected, and from 
this affliction he never thoroughly recovered, 
and he died at 3 Alexandra Road, Finsbury 
Park, London, on 27 Feb. 1880, aged only 
thirty-nine (Era, 29 Feb. 1880, p. 6). 

[Era, 22 Dec. 1878, p. 12 ; Spectator, 28 Dec. 
1878, pp. 1633-4; Stirling's Old Drury Lane/ 
1881, ii. 204-5; Dramatic Peerage, 1891, pp. 
185-6; Blanchard's Life, 1891, i. 57, 127, 214, 
303, 318, ii. 444.] G. C. B. 

1895), dean of Canterbury, orientalist and 
theologian, was born at Chipping Campden in 
Gloucestershire on 7 Nov. 1819. His father, 
Robert Smith, who died in 1827, was a land 
agent, and was directly descended from Sir 
Thomas Smith, to whom the manor of Camp- 
den was granted by Queen Elizabeth. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Esther 
Argles Payne, was a native of Surrey. He was 
educated at Campden grammar school, whence 
he obtained in 1837 an exhibition at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, then under the head- 
ship of Dr. Jeune, to whose friendship Payne 
Smith owed much of his later promotion. At 
Oxford he studied the ordinary subjects of 
the classical schools, but devoted himself as 
well to the oriental languages, and gained the 
Sanskrit scholarship in 1840, and the Pusey 

Payne Smith 


Payne Smith 

and Ellerton Hebrew scholarship in 1843. 
A post was then offered him at Benares, 
which, at his mother's wish, he declined ; 
and in the same year he obtained a fellow- 
ship at Pembroke College, and was ordained. 
He at first devoted himself to pastoral work, 
and undertook successively the curacies of 
Crendon and Long Winchenden, and of 
Thame in Buckinghamshire; but in 1847 he 
accepted a classical mastership at the Edin- 
burgh Academy, with which from 1848 he 
combined the incumbency of Trinity Chapel. 
In 1853 he left Edinburgh to become head- 
master of the Kensington proprietary school. 
While in London he resumed his oriental 
studies, and worked at the Syriac manu- 
scripts in the British Museum, being encou- 
raged by Dr. Cureton ; and, partly with the 
view of obtaining leisure for these studies, 
partly because the climate of Kensington 
did not suit his wife's health, he accepted in 
1857 the post of sub-librarian at the Bod- 
leian Library, a step involving great 
pecuniary loss. During his tenure of this 
post he published, in 1859, the commentary 
of Cyril of Alexandria on St. Luke in Syriac 
and English ; in 1860 a translation of the 
third part of the ' Ecclesiastical History of Jo- 
hannes Ephesius,' which had been edited in 
Syriac by Cureton, to whom the translator 
acknowledges his obligations for assistance 
in his studies ; and, in 1865, a ' Catalogue of 
the Syriac MSS. in the Bodleian Library.' 
During the preparation of these works, all of 
which displayed very accurate scholarship, 
and were published at the Clarendon Press, 
Payne Smith had become aware of the im- 
perfections of the Syriac dictionary of Castell 
and Michaelis, the only one at the time in the 
hands of students, and as early as 1859 he 
proposed to the delegates of the Clarendon 
Press a scheme for a new dictionary. The 
proposal was favourably received, and he set 
to work on his ' Thesaurus Syriacus,' the 
compilation and publication of which formed 
his chief literary occupation for the remain- 
ing thirty-six years of his life. At his death 
all but the last of the ten fasciculi into which 
the work was divided had appeared. The book 
bears on its title-page, besides the editor's 
name, that of S. M. Quatremere, G. H. 
Bernstein, G. W. Lorsbach, A. J. Arnoldi, 
C. M. Agrell, F. Field, and A. Rodiger. 
Several of these scholars had planned works 
similar to Payne Smith's, but had not lived 
to complete more than small portions of 
them ; their manuscripts were put into Payne 
Smith's hands, and their materials were em- 
bodied in the work which so generously ac- 
knowledges its indebtedness to them. The first 
fasciculus began to be printed at the end of 

1864, and was published in 1868. The num- 
ber of copies was 350, but this was afterwards 
found to be insufficient, and, after fasc. 6, was 
raised to 750, fresh copies of the earlier 
fasciculi being produced by photography. 
Besides the collections mentioned, care was 
taken by the editor to utilise the numerous 
Syriac texts published in Europe (especially 
in Germany) during the second half of the 
century, and every other available source 
whence his dictionary could be enriched. 
Payne Smith's undertaking started a new 
era in the study of Syriac, and there seems 
little chance, owing to its exhaustive cha- 
racter, of its being superseded as a storehouse 
of the facts of that language. 

Payne Smith was also a voluminous writer 
on controversial theology, in which he 
favoured the conservative and evangelical 
side. His course of sermons vindicating * The 
Authenticity and Messianic Interpretation of 
the Prophecies of Isaiah' (1862) led to his ap- 
pointment in 1865 to the regius professorship 
of divinity at Oxford, chiefly through the 
influence of the Earl of Shaftesbury and Dr. 
Jeune, then bishop of Peterborough. In 1869 
he delivered the Bampton lectures, and took 
for his subject { Prophecy a Preparation for 

As regius professor at Oxford he played a 
leading part in establishing the theological 
tripos (for which he was one of the first 
examiners in 1870), an institution which had 
far-reaching effects in rendering the study of 
theology more systematic than it had been in 
Oxford. It was also at_his request that Henry 
Hall-Houghton [q. v.] founded in 1871 the 
Syriac prize that bears his name. With the 
view of providing special training in theo- 
logy for clergymen of the evangelical school, 
he helped to found in 1877 Wycliffe Hall, of 
which he was chairman of council to the end 
of his life. He also interested himself in edu- 
cational institutions at his native town of 
Chipping Campden and Canterbury, and 
helped to found the South-eastern College, 
Ramsgate. The intermediate church schools 
at Canterbury, with which he was closely 
associated, have been rechristened the Payne 
Smith schools. 

In January 1870 he resigned his profes- 
sorship at Oxford on accepting Mr. Glad- 
stone'soffer of the deanery of Canterbury. He 
sat on the Old Testament revision committee, 
which occupied a part of his time for fifteen 
years from 1870 to 1885. As dean of Can- 
terbury he won the affection of the various 
nonconformist bodies represented there, as 
well as of the different parties in the church ; 
and the controversies in which he was at 
times engaged were conducted without 




bitterness on his or his opponents' sides. He 
died at Canterbury on 31 March 1895. A 
memorial has been placed in the cathedral. 

His publications from 1865 till his death 
in 1895 (apart from, the ' Thesaurus Syriacus ') 
were all of them in defence of the evangelical 
school. They include an i Exposition of the 
Historical Portion of Daniel' (1886), a ' Com- 
mentary on Jeremiah ' contributed to the 
* Speaker's Commentary/ on * Samuel ' in 
the ' Pulpit Commentary/ on ' Genesis ' in 
Bishop Ellicott's ' Commentary/ and his 
essay f On the Powers and Duties of the 
Priesthood ' contributed to a volume directed 
against Ritualism, called ' Principles at 

He married, in 1850, Catherine Freeman, 
by whom he had two sons and four daughters, 
one of whom was associated with him in 
editing the later fasciculi of the ' Thesaurus.' 

[Payne Smith's Thesaurus Syriacus, i. prsef. ; 
private information.] D. S. M. 


LEEDS (1184P-1230). [See GAUNT or GANT.] 

PAYNELL, THOMAS (/. 1528-1567), 
translator, was an Austin friar, educated at 
Merton Abbey, Surrey, where he became a 
canon. He then proceeded to the college 
of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, which was 
designed for the education of the canons of 
certain Augustinian houses, of which Merton 
was one (WooB, City of Oxford, ed. Clark, 
ii. 228-9). He subsequently returned to 
Merton, and devoted himself to literary and 
medical studies. His first book, an edition 
of the ' Regimen Sanitatis Salerni/ appeared 
in 1528, and from that date Paynell's activity 
as a translator was incessant. In 1530 a Tho- 
mas Paynell was admitted member of Gray's 
Inn (FOSTER, Register, p. 8). On 13 April 

1538 Merton Abbey surrendered to the crown, 
and its inmates received pensions. Paynell 
accepted 10. per annum. On 16 Oct. in the 
same year Paynell was licensed to export 
from England five hundred woollen cloths, 
and in December he was despatched, with 
Christopher Mount [q. v.], on a mission to 
the protestant princes of Germany; he was 
present at the diet of Frankfort on 12 Feb. 

1539 (State Papers Henry VIII, i. 604-6, 
609, 614). Before 1541 he had become chap- 
lain to Henry VIIl, perhaps as a reward 
for diplomatic services. He seems to have 
escaped molestation on account of his reli- 
gious opinions, and remained in favour with 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, to all of 
whom he dedicated books. Among others 
to whom his dedications are addressed were 

Mary (1496-1533) [q. v.], queen-dowager of 
France, John de Vere, fifteenth earl of Oxford 
[q. v.], Anthony Browne, first viscount Mon- 
tague [q. v.],the lord chamberlain, and Wil- 
liam Blount, fourth lord Mountjoy [q. v.] 
He was also an intimate friend of Alexander 
Barclay [q. v.], the author of the < Ship of 
Fools.' He is probably the Thomas Paynell 
who resigned the living of St. Dionys, Lime 
Street, London, on 13 Feb. 1549-50 (STRYPE, 
Eccl. Mem. n. ii. 261), and succeeded his 
friend Richard Benese [q. v.] at All Hallows, 
Honey Lane, which he resigned before 21 Feb. 
1560-1. The latest mention of him appears 
in the ' Stationers' Register ' in December 
or January 1567-8. 

The translator's works are: 1. 'Regimen 
Sanitatis Salerni. This boke techyng al people 
to governe them in helthe is translated out 
of the Latyne tonge in to englyshe by T. 
Paynell/ T. Berthelet, London, 1528, 4to. 
The British Museum copy contains a few 
manuscript notes ; the work consists of tl;e 
' Regimen' which was originally compiled 
by Joannes de Mediolano, and dedicated to 
Robert, duke of Normandy, who stayed at 
Salerno for the cure of a wound received in 
Palestine, and of a commentary by Arnaldus 
of Villa Nova, but only the commentary is 
in English ; it is dedicated to John de Vere, 
fifteenth earl of Oxford. Other editions ap- 
peared in 1530, 1535, 1541, 1557, 1575, and 
1634. The British Museum has copies of all 
these editions, and the Britwell Library of 
the earlier ones. 2. ' The preceptes teachyng 
aprynceor a noble estate his duetie, written 
by Agapetus in Greke to the emperour Jus- 
tinian, and after translated into Latin, and 
nowe to Englysshe by T. Paynell/ T. Ber- 
thelet, London [1532?], 8vo (Brit. Museum 
and Britwell). It is undated, but the dedica- 
tion to ' my lorde Montjoy, lord-chamberlaine 
to the queene/ i.e. William Blount, fourth 
lord Mountjoy, lord chamberlain to Queen 
Catherine, places it before his death in 1534, 
and probably before the divorce proceedings. 
Another edition, dated 1563, and bound 
with Ludovicus Vives's ' Introduction to 
Wisdom/ translated by Sir Richard Morison 
[q. v.], is in the Brit well Library (cf. LOWNBES, 
1. 18). 3. Erasmus's * De Contemptu Mundi, 
translated in to englysshe' [by T. Paniell], 
T. Berthelet, London, 1533, 16mo (Brit. 
Mus.) ; another edition, undated and perhaps 
earlier, is in the Britwell Library. It is dedi- 
cated to Mary, queen-dowager of France, to 
whom Paynell describes himself as ' your 
daily oratour.' 4. Ulrich von Hutten's ' De 
Morbo Gallico ' [translated into English by 
T. Paynell], T. Berthelet, London, 1533, 8vo 
(Brit. Mus.) \nother edition appeared in 




1730 (Brit. Mus.) This work is, except the 
title-page, identical with * Of the wood called 
Guaiacum, that healeth the Frenche Pockes 
. .-' [translated by T. Paynell], T. Berthelet, 
London, 1536, 8vo (Brit. Mus. and Britwell). 
Other editions appeared in 1539 and 1540 
(Brit. Mus.) 5. ' A moche profitable treatise 
against the pestilence, translated into eglyshe 
by Thomas Paynel, chanon of Martin Abbey,' 
T. Berthelet/ London, 1534, 12mo (Brit. 
Mus.) 6. Erasmus's ' Comparation of a Vyr- 
gin and a Martyr,' T. Berthelet, London, 
1537, 12mo, dedicated to John Ramsay, prior 
of Merton, at whose request Paynell under- 
took the translation. The only "known copy 
is in the Lambeth Library (MAITLAND, Early 
Printed Books in the Lambeth Library, p. 199 ; 
cf. LOWNDES, i. 750 ; AMES, ed. Herbert, i. 
429 ; MAIJNSELL, p. 47 ; DIBDIN, iii. 297). 
7. ' A Sermon of St. Cyprian made on the 
Lordes Prayer,' T. Berthelet, London. 1539, 
8vo (Brit. Mus. and Britwell), dedicated to Sir 
Anthony Denny [q. v.] 8. ' The Conspiracie 
of Lucius Catiline, translated into englishe 
by Thomas Paynell, worthy, profitable, and 
pleasaunttoberead,'T. Berthelet, 1541 (Brit- 
well and Huth), dedicated to Henry VIII. 
Another edition, with Barclay's translation 
of Sallust's ' Catiline/ revised by Paynell, 
was published by J. Waley in 1557, 4to, 
and dedicated to Anthony Browne, viscount 
Montagu (Brit. Mus.) 9. ' A compedious -7 
moche fruytefulle treatyse of well livynge, 
cotaynyng the whole suine ... of all vertue. 
Wrytten by S. Bernard *j translated by T. 
Paynell,' T. Petyt, London [1545 ?], 16mo 
(Lambeth and Brit. Mus.) ; dedicated to the 
Lady Mary. 10. < The Piththy and moost 
notable sayinges of al Scripture gathered 
by T. Paynell, after the manner of common 
places . . .' T. Gaultier, London, 1550, 8vo ; 
dedicated to the Lady Mary. Copies are in 
the British Museum, Britwell, and Bodleian 
libraries (cf. STKYPE, Eccl. Mem. i. i. 75, n. 
i. 415). Another edition, ' newly augmeted 
and corrected,' was published in the same 
year by W. Copland for R. Jugge (Britwell 
and Brit. Mus.), and a third in 1560 by 
W. Copland. 11. 'The faythfull and true 
storye of the Destruction of Troy, compyled 
by Dares Phrygius . . .' John Cawood, London, 
1553, 8vo (Bodleian) (cf. HAZLTTT, Hand- 
book, p. 140 ; WOOD, Athena, i. 340). 12. ' The 
Pandectes of the Evangelicall Law, com- 
prisyng the whole Historye of Christes Gos- 
pell,' Ny colas Hyll for Wyllyam Seres and 
Abraham Vele,1553,8vo (Britwell). 13. 'The 
office and duetie of an husband made by the 
excellet Philosopher, L. Vives, and translated 
into Englyshe by T. Paynell,' J. Cawood, 
London [1553], 8vo (Brit. Mus. and Brit- 

well). The date is determined by the dedi- 
cation to f Sir Anthony Browne,' who was 
created Viscount Montagu on 2 Sept. 1554 ; 
it refers to his intention to marry again (his 
first wife died on 22 July 1552), and Cawood 
is described as printer to the ' Queenes high- 
nesse' (i.e. Queen Mary). 14. * Certain^ godly 
and devout prayers made in latin by the 
reverend father in God, Cuthbert Tunstall, 
bishop of Durham,' London, John Cawoode, 
1558, 12mo (Brit. Mus.); dedicated to Queen 
Mary. 15. < The Complaint of Peace . . .' 
Jhon Cawoode, 1559, 8vo (Brit. Mus. and 
Brit well ); translation of Erasmus's ' Querela 
Pacis,' reprinted in 1802. 16. ' The Civilitie 
of Childehoode, with the discipline and in- 
stitution of children . . . translated out of 
Frenche,' John Tisdale, 1560, 8vo (HAZLITT, 
Collections, i. 101) ; apparently a version of 
Erasmus's 'De civilitate morum puerilium 
libellus,' which was translated into English 
by Udall in 1542. 17. 'The Ensamples of 
Vertue and Vice gathered out of holye scrip- 
ture . . . By N. Hanape. And Englyshed by 
T. Paynell,'' John Tisdale [1561], 8vo ; dedi- 
cated to Queen Elizabeth (cf. AEBEK, i. 153) 
(Brit. Mus. and Britwell). 18. < A frutefull 
booke of the common places of all St. Pauls 
Epistles . . . sette foorthe by T. Paniell,' J. 
Tisdale, 1562, 8vo (Brit, Mus., Bodleian, and 
Britwell); dedicated to Thomas Argall. 
19. 'The moste excellent and pleasaunt booke 
entituled ' Thetreasurie of Amadis of Fraunce 
. . . translated out of Frenche,' Thomas Hacket 
[1568], 4to (Brit. Mus. without title-page). 
The ' Stationers' Register' for 1567-8 assigns 
the authorship to ' Thomas Pannell.' Paynell 
also edited and wrote a preface for Richard 
Benese's ' Boke of Measurynge of Lande ' 
[1537 ?], 4to ; other editions were 1540 ? 1562, 
and 1564 ? He likewise supplied a table for 
the 1557 edition of the works of Sir Thomas 
More. Other works which Wood and Bale 
attribute to him have not been identified. 

Paynell is confused by Wood, Cooper, and 
others with a contemporary Thomas Paynell 
or Parnell, apparently one of the Paynells of 
Lincolnshire, who was born at Boothby Pag- 
nell or Paynell, and educated at Louvain 
under Robert Barnes [q, v.], then an Augus- 
tinian friar. When Barnes became prior of 
the Austin friars at Cambridge, Paynell went 
thither with him, and together ' they made 
the house of the Augustinians very famous for 
good and godly literature ' (Athence Cantabr. 
i. 78). It may be he who was in the king's 
service at Boston in 1538, and wrote to Crom- 
well certifying the suppression of the friars' 
houses there, and urging the application of the 
building materials to the repair of the haven 
and town (ELLIS, Original Letters, 3rd ser. iv. 




170-2). A third Thomas Paynell studied 
at St. Bernard's (afterwards St. John's) Col- 
lege, Oxford, became rector of Cottingham, 
near Beverley, Yorkshire, and left benefac- 
tions to the place by will, which was proved 
at the prerogative court of Canterbury on 
'22 March 1563-4 (Wooo, Athena Oxon. i. 
337-40). A Nicholas Paynell of Yorkshire 
was elected fellow of Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1515, and subsequently became 
public lecturer in mathematics (STRYPE, Eccl. 
Mem. i. i. 75). 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Library; Catalogues of 
the Bodleian and Huth Libraries ; Maunsell's 
Cat. ; Dibdin's Cat. of Spencerian Library ; Mait- 
land's Early Printed Books in the Lambeth 
Library; Hazlitt's Handbook and Collections, 
pn&sim ; Collier's Bibl. Lit. iii. 135 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Manual ; Jamieson's edit, of Barclay's Ship 
of Fools, vol. i. p. cviii ; Bale's Scriptores, ed. 
1557-9, pp. 724-5; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib.; 
Wood's A thenae Oxon. i. 337-40 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 
78; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 243; Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments, v. 415, 426-7 ; Strype's Works, 
Index; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 252 ; Cotton 
MS. Galba B. xi. 103 ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, ed. Gairdner, passim ; State Papers 
of Henry VIII, i. 604-6, &c. ; Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon, ed. Cayley, Ellis, and Bandinel ; Willis's 
Hist, of Mitred Parliamentary Abbeys, ii. 232 ; 
Manning and Bray's Surrey, i. 254 ; Archseo- 
logia, xxxix. 445 ; Arber's Transcript of the 
Stationers' Kegistsr ; information kindly sup- 
plied by Mr. E, E. Graves.] A. F. P. 

1823), author, son of Richard Walter Paynter, 
attorney, was born at Manchester in 1791, 
and educated at the grammar school of that 
town. He was intended for the medical pro- 
fession, but early evinced a predilection for 
poetry and the drama, and became closely 
associated with James Watson, a local literary 
character, with whom he frequently figured 
in the magazines and newspapers as ' Corporal 
Trim/ while Watson called himself ' Uncle 
Toby.' His separate publications were : 
1. * The History and Adventures of Godfrey 
Ranger,' 1813, 3 vols., a sort of novel, in 
coarse imitation of Smollett. 2. { Eurypilus, 
King of Sicily: a Tragedy,' 1816, 4to. 3. ' The 
Muse in Idleness,' 1819. This volume was 
the subject of a sarcastic article by James 
Crossley [q. v.] in ' Blackwood's Magazine.' 
4. ' King Stephen, or the Battle of Lincoln : 
an Historical Tragedy,' 1822. 5. ' The Wife 
of Florence : a Tragedy,' 1823 (posthumous). 
In 1820 he edited Watson's literary remains, 
under the title of ' The Spirit of the Doctor/ 
to which he appended some of his own fugi- 
tive pieces, including letters from Lancaster 
Castle, where he was for some time a pri- 


soner for debt. In the introduction to ' King 
Stephen' he tells of his efforts to get his pro- 
ductions put on the stage. After they had 
been declined by several managers he col- 
lected a company of his own, and brought 
out 'King Stephen' at the Minor Theatre, 
Manchester, on 5 Dec. 1821. This seems to 
have been the only occasion on which a 
piece of his was acted. He died at Man- 
chester on 14 March 1823, and was buried at 
Blackley, near that city. He married in 
1813, and left children. 

[Manchester Guardian, 6 Oct. 1841 ; Procter's 
Literary Eeminiscences and Gleanings, 1860, 
p. 57 ; Manchester School Kegister (Chetham 
Soc.), ii. 229; Blackwood's Mag. 1821, ix. 64, 
196.] C. W. S. 

LIAM (1637-1716), rector of Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, born at Trelissick in St. Erth 
parish, Cornwall, and baptised at St. Erth 
on 7 Dec. 1637, was son of William Paynter 
or Cambourne,by Jane, sixth child of Richard 
Keigwin of Mousehole in that parish. He 
matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford, 
29 March 1656, and was a poor scholar there 
from 27 Feb. 1655-6 to 3 July 1657, when he 
was elected to a fellowship. He graduated 
B.A. 3 May 1660, M.A. 21 Jan. 1662-3 
(being incorporated at Cambridge 1664),B.D. 
7 July 1674, and D.D. 27 June 1695. In 
1669 he was suspended from his fellowship 
on the ground that, although a Cornishman, 
he had ' succeeded to a Devon fellowship.' 
He was appointed to the rectory of Wotton, 
Northamptonshire, on 24 July 1686, and 
vacated his fellowship in February 1687-8. 
On the deprivation of Dr. Arthur Bury [q.v.], 
he was elected to the rectorship of Exeter 
College, 15 Aug. 1690. The circumstances 
came before the court of king's bench, and 
on 11 Feb. 1694-5 the election was con- 
firmed, whereupon he was again appointed 
fellow. He held the rectorship until his 
death, and he was vice-chancellor of the uni- 
versity in 1698 and 1699. Paynter died at 
Wotton on 18 Feb. 1715-16, and was buried 
on 22 Feb., an inscription to his memory 
being placed upon a freestone monument in 
the chancel, and his will being proved in the 
court of the chancellor of Oxford University 
on 2 April 1716. His first wife was Mary, 
daughter of John Conant, rector of Exeter 
College, and widow of M. Pool. M.D. She was 
born in 1657, and died on 7 May 1695, being 
buried at Wotton, near her two children, 
W 7 illiam and Elizabeth. His second wife 
was Sarah, daughter of Francis Duncombe 
of Broughton, Buckinghamshire. She was 
buried at Ilsington, Devon, 22 Sept. 1725, 
aged 76. 




When Paynter was rector of Exeter Col- | 
lege a benefactor's book was begun, and in | 
1685 he inscribed a gift of 1007. The sub- j 
stance of some letters which passed between | 
him and Kennett on the patronage admini- 
stered by the college is in Boase's ' Re- ; 
gistrum Collegii Exon. ' (1894, p. 336). j 
Among his pupils was Sir George Treby the 
lawyer. Antony Wood more than once ap- 
plied to him for information. Letters to and 
from him are in Harleian MSS., Addit. MSS. 
4055 f. 50, and 28886 f. 37. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 434-5 ; 
Boase's Collect. Cornub. pp. 670-1 ; Boase's Exeter 
Coll. (1894 ed.), pp. cxxix-xxxiv, clxxv. 114, 
269 ; Wood's Colleges, ed. Crutch, ii. App. 
pp. 156-9 ; Vivian's Visit, of Cornwall, pp. 353, 
558 ; Bridges's Northamptonshire, i. 393-4 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, i. 102; Wood's Life 
(Oxford Hist. Soc.), ii. 506, iii. 139, 142,174, 
338, 349, 477.] W. P. C. 

PEABODY, GEORGE (1795-1869), 
philanthropist, was born in Danvers, Massa- 
chusetts, on 18 Feb. 1795. His ancestors 
were of a Leicestershire family, one of whom, 
Francis Paybody, sailed for New England in 
1635. His parents, who came of an old puri- 
tan stock, were poor, and at the age of eleven 
the boy was apprenticed to a Danvers grocer. 
In 1811 he became clerk in a dry goods 
store, which his brother David had opened 
in Newburyport ; but a fire burned the pre- 
mises to the ground, and in May of the fol- 
lowing year he went to Georgetown, Co- 
lumbia, to manage a business for an uncle. 
Shortly afterwards Peabody joined the volun- 
teer company of artillery raised in George- 
town to oppose the progress of the British 
fleet, which had entered the Potomac, and 
was threatening Washington. But on the 
withdrawal of the fleet he returned to his 
uncle, and remained with him for two years, 
when, fearing financial complications, he 
deemed it expedient to seek other employ- 

In 1814 the foundation of his future pro- 
sperity was laid, when, in conjunction with 
Elisha Riggs, who supplied the money, he 
opened a wholesale dry goods warehouse at 
Georgetown. Next year the house was esta- 
blished in Baltimore, and in 1822 branches 
were opened in New York and Philadelphia. 
In connection with this business Peabody first 
came to England in 1827, and after several 
such visits took up his abode permanently 
in London ten years later. Meanwhile Mr. 
Riggs had retired, and Peabody became 
senior partner in 1829. In 1843 he withdrew 
from the firm of Peabody, Riggs Co., and 
began business in London as a merchant and 
banker. He was thus engaged when he 

died, at the house of a friend in Eaton Square, 
on 4 Nov. 1869. His body, after lying for a 
month in Westminster Abbey, was removed 
to Portsmouth in December, was taken to 
America on board the Monarch, specially 
granted for the purpose by the queen, and 
was buried at Danvers on 8 Feb. 1870. 

Peabody is justly esteemed as a public- 
minded citizen and humane philanthropist. 
Throughout his life he was a zealous Ame- 
rican, and his first great public service was 
rendered to his native state, Maryland. Dur- 
ing a visit to London on business in 1835, 
at a time when Maryland was on the verge 
of bankruptcy, he succeeded in negotiating 
a state loan of 1, 600,0007. For this he re- 
fused the monetary reward to which he was 
entitled, but received the special thanks of 
the state assembly in 1848. Again in 1837, 
when American credit in England was greatly 
shaken, he freely used his influence and 
name to restore confidence ; and when the 
United States Congress refused to support 
the American section of the industrial ex- 
hibition of 1851, and the English press were 
commenting unfavourably on the American 
exhibits, Peabody promptly paid for arrang- 
ing and decorating the section. With a view 
to promoting friendly relations between Eng- 
land and America, he made his London 
residence the meeting-ground for English 
and American public men, and his Fourth of 
July dinners were important political func- 
tions. Another of his earlier services to the 
honour of America was his contribution of 
2,0007. , which enabled Dr. Elisha Kane, in 
1852, to fit up his expedition in search of 
Franklin. From this circumstance Peabody 
Bay has its name. 

But it is as the friend of education and 
the reformer of the homes of the working 
classes that Peabody is best known. In 
1852, when his native town was celebrating 
the centenary of its corporate existence, he 
gave 6,0007. , afterwards increased to 50,0007., 
to found an educational institute ; on the 
occasion of his visit to the United States in 
1857 he founded the Peabody Institute at 
Baltimore with a gift of 60,0007., afterwards 
increased to 200,0007. ; and when he revisited 
America in 1866 he gave Harvard University 
a sum of 30,0007. to found an institute of 
archaeology, and Yale received a similar gift 
from him in aid of physical science teaching. 
In the same year he gave 420,0007. for negro 
education in the south, and three years after- 
wards increased the sum to 700,0007. The 
presentation of 150,0007. to the city of London 
in 1862, to be spent for the benefit of the poor, 
was the beginning of a series of gifts amount- 
ing in all to 500,0007., from which the ' Pea- 


Peach am 

body Dwellings' have been built. The first 
block of these buildings was opened in 1864 
in Spitalfields ; others quickly followed in 
Chelsea, Bermondsey, Islington, and Shad- 

Although many public honours were offered 
to him, he accepted few. In 1867 the United 
States Congress voted him its thanks and 
conferred a gold medal on him ; and in the 
same year he accepted an address from the 
working men of London. The queen offered 
him a baronetcy and the grand cross of the 
Bath, both of which he declined. During 
Peabody's absence in America in 1869 the 
Prince of Wales unveiled a bronze statue of 
him by Story, erected on the east side of the 
Royal Exchange, and the city of London 
conferred its freedom upon him. Oxford 
University also made him a D.C.L. in 1807. 
The centenary of his birthday was comme- 
morated in Newburyport on 18 Feb. 1895. 

[Times, 5 Nov. 1869 ; Appleton's Journal, 
21 Aug. 1869; Winthorp's Eulogy on Peabody; 
H. E. Fox-Bourne's English Merchants ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, iii. 1082.] J. It. M. 

1886), naturalist and geologist, was born at 
Wansford in Northamptonshire on 30 Sept. 
1800, being son of Charles William Peach 
and his wife Elizabeth Vellum, both of a 
yeoman stock. The lad was educated at 
Wansford and Folkingham (Lincolnshire), 
and was appointed by the Earl of Westmor- 
land to the revenue coastguard in January 
1824. Weybournewas his first station; then, 
after sundry moves, he was sent to Gorran 
Haven in Cornwall, where he remained till 
1845. He performed his duties most effi- 
ciently. They gave him opportunities for the 
study of natural history of which he was 
not slow to avail himself, and before long 
he became known as a keen and accurate 
observer. A paper read before the meeting 
of the British Association at Plymouth in 
1841 brought him to the notice of leading 
men of science, who in 1844 urged Sir R. 
Peel to give Peach a more lucrative position. 
In the following year he was appointed to a 
place in the customs at Fowey. In 1849 he 
was promoted to Peterhead, and in 1853 to a 
higher position at Wick, retiring on a pension 
in 1861. After his retirement he settled in 
Edinburgh, where he died on 28 Feb. 1886. 

He married Jemima Maleson on 26 April 
1829, by whom he had seven sons (only two 
of whom survived, one, Benjamin Neeve 
Peach, F.R.S., of her majesty's geological 
survey) and two daughters, one of whom 
married George Hay, the historian, of 

Peach's life, like that of his friend Robert 

Dick, was a noble instance of the pursuit of 
knowledge under difficulties, and of an irre- 
pressible love of nature. For many years 
his income was less than 100/. a year ; the 
average from the date of his appointment to 
his death cannot have greatly exceeded that 
sum. As he had not enjoyed the advan- 
tage of a scientific training, his work was 
that of an observer rather than of a theorist. 
In natural history he added largely to the 
knowledge of marine invertebrates, discover- 
ing many new species of sponges, cselente- 
rates, and molluscs; he also made valuable 
observations on fishes. In geology he was 
the first to discover fish remains in the 
Devonian rocks of the south-west, fossils 
which determined the age of the quartzites 
of Gorran Haven and of the Durness lime- 
stone of Sutherlandshire. In addition to this 
he worked much in the boulder clay of Caith- 
ness, the old red sandstone, and the car- 
boniferous plants of Scotland, the last being 
more especially the occupation of his later 

In the Royal Society's ' Catalogue of Papers ' 
seventy-one appear under Peach's name, 
rather more than half being geological ; they 
were chiefly printed in the publications of the 
Geological and the Polytechnic Society of 
Cornwall and of the Physical Society of 
Edinburgh. He had the happiness of feeling 
that his work was appreciated. Grants were 
made by scientific societies in aid of his work, 
among them from the Wollaston donation 
fund of the Geological Society of London. 
He received two medals from the Royal 
Cornwall Polytechnic Society, and the Neill 
medal from the Royal Society of Edinburgh; 
while his help was frequently acknowledged 
in the works of the leading naturalists and 
geologists of his time. 

[Obituary notices in Nature, xxxiii. 446 ; 
Athenaeum, No. 3040, p. 362; private info rma- 
tion; Smiles's Life of Robert Dick.] T. G. B. 

PEACHAM, EDMOND (d. 1616), re- 
puted traitor, was instituted to the rectory 
of Hinton St. George, Somerset, on 15 July 
1587. The patron was Sir Amias Paulet 
(1536 P-1688) [q. v.] Peacham adopted puri- 
tan opinions in early life, and sympathised 
with the popular party in politics. In 1603 he 
was accused, without, apparently, any serious 
result, of 'uttering in a sermon seditious and 
railing words against the king, and more espe- 
cially against his counsellors, the bishops and 
judges '(CW. State Papers, Dom. 1603-10, 
p. 26). The development of James I's policy 
in both church and state stirred in him a deep 
disgust, of which he made no concealment in 
the pulpit. James Montagu (1568P-1618) 

K 2 




[q. v.], who in 1608 became his diocesan, 
found it necessary to mark his resentment of 
Peacham's plainness of speech, and repri- 
manded him in his consistory court. Peacham 
retaliated by writing a book against that court 
for private circulation in manuscript, and 
either there or in conversation he brought 
grave charges against his bishop's character. 
Before the parliament of 1614 was dissolved 
he came to London, apparently to arrange 
for the presentation of a petition against one 
Dr. James and other officials of the eccle- 
siastical courts in the diocese of Bath and 
Wells. When, later in the year, he was 
asked to subscribe to the benevolence de- 
manded by the king, he is said to have an- 
swered, with St. Peter, ' gold and silver he 
had none, but that he had he would give, 
which was his prayers for the king.' 

In December 1614 Peacham was arrested on 
Montagu's complaint by order of the court 
of high commission. He was brought to 
London, and was detained in the Gatehouse. 
On 9 Dec. he was transferred to the Tower. 
Ten days later he was brought to trial before 
the high commission court at Lambeth on 
a charge of libelling Montagu. He was 
found guilty, and was deprived of his orders. 

But more serious accusations were soon 
brought against him. While his house was 
being searched for his writings against Mon- 
tagu, the officers discovered some carefully 
prepared notes of a sermon in which the 
king and the government were denounced 
with reckless vehemence. Not only were 
James's ministers charged with misconduct, 
the king with extravagance, and the eccle- 
siastical courts with a tyrannical exercise of 
their powers, but the king's sudden death and 
a rebellion of the people were declared to be 
the probable outcome of the government's 
alleged misdeeds. The council treated Pea- 
cham's words as of treasonable intent. He 
was at once examined (December), but offered 
no defence, and declined all explanation. His 
defiant attitude suggested to the ministers' 
minds that he was implicated in some con- 
spiracy in his neighbourhood. The Somer- 
set gentry had shown exceptional unwilling- 
ness to contribute to the benevolence of 1614, 
and Peacham was known to be in friendly 
relations with many of them. The king, who 
bitterly resented Peacham's remarks on him- 
self, urged the government to test their sus- 
picions to the uttermost. But it was needful 
to obtain fuller information from the silent 
prisoner. Although the common law did 
not recognise the legality of torturing a pri- 
soner to extort a confession, it was generally 
admitted that torture might be lawfully ap- 
plied by the privy council to a prisoner who 

deliberately refused to surrender information 
in his possession respecting a plot against the 
life of the sovereign or the security of the 
government. Bacon, who was attorney- 
general, laid it down as a legal maxim that 
' in the highest cases of treason torture is 
used for discovery and not for evidence ' 
(SPEDDING, iii. 114) that is to say, torture 
might be used to extract from a suspected 
conspirator information respecting the con- 
spiracy and his fellow-plotters, although not 
to obtain evidence to be employed against him- 
self. Accordingly the king issued a warrant 
on 18 Jan. 1614-15 to two privy councillors 
(Winwood and Sir Julius Csesar), the at- 
torney-general Bacon, Serjeant Henry Mon- 
tagu, brother of the bishop of Bath and" Wells, 
and the officers of the Tower to ' put Peacham 
to the manacles as in your discretion you shall 
see occasion if you find him obstinate and 
perverse, and not otherwise willing or ready 
to tell the truth.' Next day the torture was 
applied in the presence of the persons named, 
and he was examined ' before torture, in tor- 
ture, between tortures, and after torture.' 
But ' nothing could be drawn from him.' He 
still persisted * in his obstinate and insensible 
denials and former answers.' Peacham is de- 
scribed as an old man at the time, and the 
inhumanity of the proceedings was revolting. 
On 21 Jan. 1614-15 Bacon wrote to James 
that he was l exceedingly grieved that your 
majesty should be so much troubled with 
this matter of Peacham, whose raging 
devil seemeth to be turned into a dumb 
devil.' The council, to satisfy the king's 
wishes, determined to bring the prisoner to 
trial on a charge of high treason ; but doubt 
was entertained whether the offence was 
legally entitled to that description. Bacon 
undertook to consult the judges separately 
on the point before the indictment was 
drawn up. The king approved the sugges- 
tion. Bacon was confident that by private 
persuasion he could obtain from the bench 
a unanimous decision in favour of the coun- 
cil's contention. His anticipations were 
realised except in the case of Coke, who 
protested against ' such particular and auri- 
cular taking of opinions,' andfurther asserted 
that unless a written attack on the king 
1 disabled his title ' no charge of treason 
could be based upon it. The arrangements 
for Peacham's trial were not interrupted by 
Coke's want of compliance ; but Peacham, 
perceiving that his trial meant his death, 
resorted to desperately dishonest expedients 
in order to interpose delay. He declared 
that Sir John Sydenham, brother-in-law of 
Paulet, the patron of his living, had sug- 
gested to him the objectionable words. Syden- 




ham and Paulet were summoned before the 
council, and Peacham was re-examined ; but, 
although Peacham continued to give mys- 
terious hints that he was abetted by persons 
of influence, no evidence on the point was ad- 
duced, and Peacham fell back on a denial of 
the authorship of the incriminating papers 
(10 March 1614-15). They were by a name- 
sake, ' a divine, a scholar, and a traveller,' who 
dwelt ' sometimes at Ilounslow as a minister,' 
who had visited Hinton St. George, and had 
left some manuscripts in the rectory study. 
Peacham was apparently referring at random 
to the contemporary writer, Henry Peacham 

.[q- v -] 

In July Peacham was sent to Taunton to 
stand his trial. On 7 Aug. 1615 he was 
arraigned at the assizes before Sir Christopher 
Taufield and Serjeant Montagu. Sir Randal 
Crewe, the king's Serjeant, and Sir Henry 
Yelverton, solicitor-general, came from Lon- 
don to conduct the case (YoNGE, Diary, 
Camd. Soc.) ' Seven knights were taken 
from the bench to be of the jury.' Peacham 
defended himself ' very simply, but obsti- 
nately and doggedly enough.' He was, how- 
ever, found guilty and condemned to death. 
No efforts seem to have been made to carry 
out the sentence. On 31 Aug. he was ex- 
amined anew, and, while admitting that he 
wrote the sermon, declared that he had no 
intention of publishing or preaching it. For 
seven months he lingered in the gaol at 
Taunton. On 27 March 1616 Chamberlain 
wrote to Carleton : ' Peacham, the con- 
demned minister, is dead in the jail at 
Taunton, where, they say, he left behind 
him a most wicked and desperate writing, 
worse than that he was convicted for.' 

Peacham's character demands no admira- 
tion, and his persecution would not have 
given him posthumous fame had not James I 
and Bacon by their zealous efforts to obtain 
his conviction raised legal controversies of 
high constitutional importance. 

[Spedding's Life and Letters of Bacon, v. 90- 
128; Gardiner's Hist, of England, ii, 272-83; 
Hallam's Const. Hist. i. 343 ; State Trials, ii. 
869; Dalrymple's Memorials of James I, i. 56 ; 
Cal. State Papers, 1603-6; JSotes and Queries, 
2nd ser, ii. 426, 451.] S. L. 

PEACHAM, HENRY (1576F-1643?), 
author, was born at North Mimms, Hert- 
fordshire, about 1576. His father, Henry 
Peacham, after serving the cure of North 
Mimms, became in 1597 rector of the north 
mediety of the parish of Leverton, near Bos- 
ton, Lincolnshire. That benefice he was still 
holding in 1605. The elder Peacham was a 
good classical scholar, and published in 1577, 
with a dedication to John Elmer or Aylmer 

[q. v.], bishop of London, ' The Garden of 
Eloquence, conteyning the figures of Gram- 
mar and Rhetorick, from whence maye bee 
gathered all manner of Flowers, Colours, 
Ornaments, exornations, forms, and fashions 
of Speech,' London, 1577 (by H. Jackson), 
4to. Another edition, ' corrected and aug- 
mented,' appeared with a dedication to Sir 
John Puckering in 1593. The elder Peacham 
j was also author of ' A Sermon upon the three 
! last verses of the first chapter of Job,' Lon- 
! don, 1590, 16mo, dedicated to Margaret 
Clifford, countess of Cumberland, and Anne, 
countess of Warwick (LOWNDES). 

Henry the younger went to school, first 
near St. Albans and afterwards in London, 
and as a boy he saw Dick Tarleton on the 
stage ( Truth of Our Times, p. 103). Subse- 
quently he proceeded to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he was admitted a scholar 
on 11 May 1593, along with George Ruggle 
[q. v.] and Thomas Comber, afterwards master 
of the college. He graduated B.A. in January 
1594-5, and M.A. in 1598. 

' Rawlie torn ' from the university, and 
thrown on his own resources at an early age 
(ib. p. 1 3), he became master of the free school 
at Wymondham in Norfolk. He disliked the 
scholastic profession, but took an interest in 
his pupils (cf. Thalia's Banquet, epigrams 70 
and 87). His accomplishments were far more 
varied than are usually found in a school- 
master. He could make competent Latin and 
English verses, knew something of botany, 
and was, besides, a musical composer, a stu- 
dent of heraldry, and a mathematician, being, 
he says, 'ever naturally addicted to those 
arts and sciences which consist of proportion 
and number.' Moreover he could paint, draw, 
and engrave portraits and landscapes. While 
at Cambridge he made a map of the town 
(Compleat Gentleman,?. 126). Horace Wai- 
pole commends a print that he engraved of 
Sir Thomas Cromwell after Holbein. His 
first essay in literary work was a practical 
treatise on art. It was entitled ' Graphice, 
or the most auncient and excellent Art of 
Drawing with the Pen and Limning in Water 
Colours,' London, 1606, 4to, and was dedicated 
to Sir Robert Cotton ; it passed through many 
editions under the new title of ' The Gentle- 
man's Exercise,' 1607, 1612, 1634, when it 
was dedicated to Sir Edmund Ashfield, de- 
puty lieutenant of Buckinghamshire. In 1610 
he translated King James's ' Basilicon Doron ' 
into Latin verse, ' and presented it, with 
emblemes limned in liuely colours, to Prince 
Henry ' (cf. Gentleman's Exercise, 1612, p. 7). 
The work a curious example of Peacham's 
versatility is still extant in Harl. MS. 6855, 
art. 15 (38 pp.), and bears the title ' Ba<7iXc6i> 




Ao>poi/ fls TO. ep.t3\r)fjMTa Bcio-tAiKu totum ver- 
sum,' in three books, dedicated to James I. 
The penmanship and the pen-and-ink draw- 
ings are very neat. Each emblem is subscribed 
by four Latin verses, and each quatrain em- 
bodies the substance of a passage from the 
< Basilicon Doron,' which is supplied in a 
footnote in an English translation. At the 
end of the manuscript are the music and 
words of a madrigal by Peacham in four 
parts, entitled ' King James his quier ; ' the 
first words are < Wake softly with singing 
Oriana sleeping.' 

Peacham's reputation Avas sufficiently high 
in 1611 to lead Thomas Coryate [q. v.] to 
'include four pieces of burlesque verse by 
him in his ' Odcombian Banquet.' In the 
same year he contributed verses to Arthur 
Standish's * Commons' Complaint.' Next 
year he gave further proof of his skill as an 
artist by publishing 'Minerva Britanna; or 
a Garden of Heroical Devises, furnished and 
adorned with emblemes and impresa's of 
sundry natures, newly devised, moralized, 
and published by Henry Peacham, M r of 
Artes,' London, 1612 (cf.'B'R^DGES^estituta, 
ii. 148). In 1613 he displayed his loyalty 
in his ' Period of Mourning in memorie of the 
late Prince [Henry], disposed into sixe visions, 
with nuptiall Hymnes in honour of the mar- 
riage between Frederick, Count Palatine . . . 
and Elizabeth ' (reprinted in Waldron's ' Lite- 
rary Museum,' 1789). It is dedicated to Sir 
John Swinnerton, lord mayor of London, and 
contains both Latin and English verse. 

The next two years (1613-14) Peacham 
spent in foreign travel. He acted for part of 
the time as tutor to the three elder sons of 
the great art collector, Thomas Howard, 
second earl of Arundel [q. v.], but apparently 
during a portion of the tour he was un- 
accompanied. He was always a diligent 
sightseer, and he made himself familiar with 
the chief cities of Holland, France, Italy, 
and Westphalia. In Italy he studied music 
under Orazio Vecchi of Modena (Compleat 
Gentleman, p. 102). In France he paid 
frequent visits to the house of M. de Ligny, 
an accomplished soldier and scholar, near 
Artois (ib. ded.) He visited Breda and 
Antwerp, and made a long stay in Ley den. 
One of his published epigrams is entitled 
' A Lattin Distich, which a Frier of Sherto- 
gen Bosch in Brabant wrote in my Greek 
Testament, while I was busie perusing some 
Bookes in their Library' {Thalia's Banquet, 
p. 108). Another epigram (ib. p. 83) he 
addressed to a jovial host at Utrecht, where 
he saw much of the engraver Crispin van 
de Pas (cf. ib. p. 15). Subsequently he 
visited the elector's court at Heidelberg. In 

1614 he was present with the army of Sir 
John Ogle [q.v.] at the operations in Juliers 
and Cleves, and in the next year published, 
with dedications to that general, two works 
which he wrote while in the Low Countries. 
One was ( A most true relation of the affaires 
of Cleves and Gulick . . . unto the breaking 
up of our armie in the beginning of December 
last past ; ' the second was a rambling poem, 
in both Latin and English, called ' Prince 
Henrie revived ; or a poeme upon the Birth 
and in Honor of the Hopefull young Prince 
Henrie Frederick, First Sonne and Heire 
apparant to the most Excellent Princes, 
Frederick Count Palatine of the Rhine, and 
the Mirrour of Ladies, Princesse Elizabeth 
his wife,' London, 1615, 4to. 

In 1615 Peacham seems to have settled 
at Hoxton, London (cf. Compleat Gentle- 
man), and to have finally adopted the lite- 
rary profession. He endeavoured to attract 
patrons, and the Earl of Dorset and Lord 
Dover viewed his efforts with favour. Mean- 
while he gained admission to literary society. 
To Drayton, Selden, Ben Jonson, as well as to 
the musicians Bird and Dowland, he addressed 
epigrams (cf. Thalia's Banquet], and his in- 
timate friends included Sir Clement Ed- 
mondes [q. v.] and Edward Wright the 
mathematician. He quickly established some 
popular reputation. In 1615, when Edmond 
Peacham ^q. v.], the rebellious rector of Hin- 
ton St. George, was charged with having 
written a libel on the king, he resorted, in 
his defence, to the impotent device of de- 
claring that the obnoxious work was from 
the pen of Peacham the traveller and author. 
The statement was made at random. ' The 
author' Peacham was described as a minister 
of religion, and the rector's knowledge of him 
obviously rested on the merest hearsay (SPED- 
| DING, Bacon). In 1620 Peacham published 
1 Thalia's Banquet, Furnished with an hun- 
dred and odde dishes of newly devised Epi- 
grammes. Whereunto (beside many worthy 
1 friends) are invited all that love inoffensive 
| mirth and the muses, by H. P.,' London, 1620. 
In epigram 70 he notes that he has a piece of 
music ready for the press, ' a set of four or 
five partes.' 

Two years later Peacham published the 
work by which he is best known, the f Com- 
pleat Gentleman, fashioning him absolute 
in the most necessary and commendable 
qualities concerning minde or bodie that 
maybe required in a noble gentleman.' The 
treatise was written for William Howard, 
Lord Arundel's youngest son, a boy of eight, 
to whom it is dedicated. The lad had not 
been Peacham's pupil ; but they had met at 
Norwich, while the boy was a pupil of the 




bishop there. The book was suggested to 
him by M. de Ligny of Artois, who called 
Peacham's attention to the defective equip- 
ment of English youths in the matter of 
accomplishments. It is an interesting en- 
.deavour to encourage young men to devote 
.themselves at once to the arts and athletic 
exercises. A valuable survey is incidentally 
given of contemporary English efforts in 
science, art, and literature. A second im- 
pression, ' much inlarged,' appeared in 1626, 
and again in 1627, with an attractive chapter 
on fishing among other additions. This edi- 
tion was reissued in 1634. A third edition, 
with additional notes on blazonry by Thomas 
Blount (1618-1679) [q.v.J, is dated 1661. Dr. 
Johnson drew all the heraldic definitions in 
his dictionary from the last edition of Pea- 
cham's book. 

In 1624 Peacham lamented the death of 
his patron, Richard Sackville, earl of Dorset, 
.in <An Aprill Shower.' In 1638 he dedi- 
cated to Henry Carey, earl of Dover, a col- 
lection of anecdotes, mainly from late classi- 
cal authors, suggested by a work of Panci- 
rolla. It was entitled' < The V r alley of 
Varietie, a Discourse for the Times, contain- 
ing very Learned and Rare Passages out of 
Antiquitie, Philosophy, and History ' (Lon- 
don, 1638, 4to). There is an engraved 
frontispiece of an oak encircled by flowers. 
In chapter xiv. Peacham says he was living 
in the parish of St. Martin's-iii-the-Fields, 
and describes some incombustible flax given 
him by an Arab who was residing in that 
neighbourhood. A gossiping autobiogra- 
phical tract followed in the same year, ' The 
Truth of our Times : revealed out of One 
Man's Experience by Way of Essay,' dedi- 
cated to Henry Barnwell of Terrington, 
near King's Lynn (cf. Notes and Queries,3rd. 
ser. xii. 221-2). 

Reduced to poverty in his old age, 
Peacham became subject to fits of melan- 
choly, but tempted fortune in his last years 
in a series of pamphlets on politics and social 
topics. He is also said by the herald John 
Gibbon to have written children's books at 
a penny each. His political tracts, which are 
of a strong royalist tone, included : The Duty 
of Subjects to their King, and Love of their 
Native Country in time of Extremity and 
Danger. In Two Books,' 4to, London, 1639, 
dedicated to Sir Paul Pindar ; ' A Merry Dis- 
course of Meum and Tuum, or Mine and 
Thine,' 4to, London, 1639 ; 'A Dialogue be- 
tween the Crosse in Cheap and Charing Crosse 
... by Ryhen Pameach,' 1641 ; ' Paradox 
in Praise of a Dunce in Smectymnus,' 1642 ; 
and ' Square Caps turned into Round Heads, 
or the Bishop's Vindication and the Brownists' 

Conviction : a Dialogue . . . showing the 
Folly of one and the Worthiness of the other ;' 
4to, with a curious woodcut, 1642. 

Of greater literary interest were : * The 
Art of Living in London, or a Caution how 
Gentlemen, Coun trey men, and Strangers, 
drawn by Occasion of Businesse, should dis- 
pose of themselves in the Thriftiest Way, not 
onely in the City, but in all other Populous 
Places,' 1642, 4to (reprinted in the l Harleian 
Miscellany,' vol. ix.); and 'The Worth of 
a Peny, or a Caution to keep Money, with 
the Causes of the Scarcity and Misery of the 
Want thereof in these Hard and Merciless 
Times.' The latter, which was first pri- 
vately issued for presentation to the author's 
friends, was printed originally, as internal 
evidence shows, in 1641, and not in 1647 
the year which appears, by an error, on the 
title-page. It was dedicated to Richard, eldest 
son of Richard Gipps, one of the j udges of the 
Guildhall, London. It discusses, without 
much plan, the economic condition of the 
country, but includes many interesting anec- 
dotes illustrating social life. A new edition 
in 1664 added some biographical observations 
by a friend of Peacham,who knew him in the 
Low Countries. To a third edition in 1667 
were added the bills of mortality from 1642 
to 1676 (cf. Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 
84). Another edition is dated 1695, and re- 
prints were issued in 1814, and by Mr. Arber 
in his 'English Garner ' (vi. 245 sq.) in 1883. 

To Peacham is also doubtfully ascribed 
1 History of the Five Wise Philosophers, or 
a Wonderful Relation of the Life of Jehoso- 
phat the Hermit, son of Avenario, King of 
Barma in India,' 1672, with an address to 
the reader by Nicholas Herrick, who found 
the manuscript by accident (cf. ib. 3rd ser. 
xi. 217). It is quite possible, too, that 
Peacham, rather than Henry Parrot [q. v.], 
is the H. P. who published a volume of epi- 
grams in 1608. They were published by 
John Helmes of St. Dunstan's Churchyard, 
who produced for Peacham ' Henrie revived ' 
in 1 615, and they contain at least one epigram 
which appears in Peacham's ' Minerva/ and is 
undoubtedly his. 

Peacham, who was unmarried, died soon 
after 1641, when his ' Worth of a Peny' was 
first published. 

[Collier's BibL Cat. ; Wai pole's Anecdotes of 
Painting, iii. 160 ; Hawkins's Hist, of Music, Hi. 
194-5; Brydges's Censura and Restitute Lit.; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. xi. 218, 296,407, 
3rd ser. xii. 221 ; Cat. of Malone's Books in 
Bodleian Library, where the best collection of 
Peacham's work is preserved ; Hazlitt's Biblio- 
graphical Handbook and Notes; information 
kindly furnished by Dr. Aldis Wright.] 





PEACHELL, JOHN (1630-1 690), master ' 
of Magdalene College, Cambridge, son of 
Robert Peachell or Pechell of Fillingham, ! 
Lincolnshire, was educated at Gainsborough 
school, and was admitted as a sizar of Mag- : 
dalene on 1 Aug. 1645. His subsequent de- 
grees were B.A. 1649, MA. 1653, S.T.B. 
1661, S.T.P. 1680. He was elected fellow 
on Smith's foundation in 1649, on Spend- 
luffe's in 1651, and a foundation fellow in 
1656 ; and acquired a considerable popularity 
as astaunch toper and an unswerving royalist. 
In 1661 Pepys spent a merry evening with 
him at the Rose tavern in Cambridge ; but 
he objected to be seen walking with Peachell 
on account of the rubicundity of the latter's 
nose. This proved no bar to his preferment ; 
in 1663 he was presented by Sir John Cutts 
to the rectory of Childerley, Cambridgeshire, 
which he resigned upon obtaining the rectory 
of Dry Dray ton in the same county in 1681. 
He was also presented to the vicarage of 
Stanwix in Cumberland, and from 1667 to 
1669 held a prebend at Carlisle ( WOOD, Fasti 
O.ron. ed. Bliss, ii. 398). In 1679, moreover, 
Peachell became master of his college, and 
in 1686 vice-chancellor of the university. In 
the same year was issued from the univer- 
sity press in his name, 'Mcestissimae ac laetis- 
simse Academise Cantabrigiensis affectus dece- 
dente Carolo II, succedente Jacobo II ' (4to). 

In the course of 1686 James II discovered 
that Dr. Lightfoot, the great rabbinical 
scholar, had not taken the oaths when he 
was admitted to his master's degree at Cam- 
bridge, and he promptly determined to take 
advantage of this precedent, and to furnish 
with royal letters patent a Roman catholic 
candidate for the degree, in the person of 
Alban Francis [q. v.], who was, says Bur- 
net, ' an ignorant Benedictine monk.' Ac- 
cording to Clarke, the king's idea was to 
familiarise those of different religions, and 
make them live in greater peace and unity 
together. However this might be. on 7 Feb. 
1687 a royal letter was sent to Cambridge 
enjoining the admission of Francis, and on 
21 Feb. this letter was laid before congrega- 
tion. It was there decided that Francis 
should be admitted only on condition that 
he took the oaths. He, however, refused to 
be sworn, remonstrated with the officers of 
the university, and, finding them resolute, took 
horse and hastened to relate his grievance at 
"Whitehall. Whereupon Peachell, at the 
urgent instance of the chief members of the 
senate, wrote to the Duke of Albemarle, who 
was then chancellor of the university, and 
also to the Earl of Sunderland, to beg their 

intercession with the king. Albemarle soon 
replied to Peachell that he had done his best 
for the university, but that in two special 
interviews he had only succeeded in pro- 
voking the displeasure of the king. Shortly 
afterwards (9 April) a summons was sent 
down citing the vice-chancellor and deputies 
of the senate (among whom was elected Mr. 
Isaac Newton) to appear before the eccle- 
siastical commissioners. When he appeared 
in the council-chamber on 21 April, Peachell, 
who, though an honest, was a very weak man, 
was thoroughly scared by Jeffreys, who sat at 
the head of the board. With some pains he 
got leave to prepare an answer in writing, 
and for the examination to be postponed for 
a week. He gave in his answer in writing 
on 27 April, and was summoned again on 
7 May, when he made a lamentable exhibi- 
tion of ignorance and timidity. Jeffreys began 
by asking what was the oath he had taken 
as vice-chancellor. After many evasions 
the unfortunate man stammered out ' that I 
should well and faithfully praestare or ad- 
ministrare munus. . . .' When other of the 
delegates who were more capable of defend- 
ing their cause attempted to speak, they were 
rudely silenced. Finally Peachell was de- 
prived both of his mastership and of the vice- 
chancellorship, and the deputation was con- 
temptuously dismissed by Jeffreys with the 
words, ' Go your way and sin no more, lest 
a worse thing happen to you.' During this 
business Peachell stayed in town at Well 
Court, Bartholomew's Hospital, whence he 
addressed to Pepys several letters full of 
alarm at the situation. Shortly afterwards, 
however, he returned to Cambridge, and he 
was restored to his headship by James on 
24 Oct. 1688. In the vice-chancellorship he 
was replaced by Dr. Balderstone, who proved 
a more resolute champion of the rights of the 
university. Peachell did not long survive 
the restitution of his emoluments as master 
of Magdalene. During a visit to Cambridge 
in the course of 1690 Sancroft rebuked him 
for setting an ill example in the university by 
drunkenness and ill-conduct. Peachell, says 
Burnet, did penance by four days' abstinence, 
after which he would have eaten, but could 
not. He was .succeeded as master by Dr. 
Gabriel Quadring. No monument was erected 
over his tomb in the college chapel. 

[Information from the registrary's office at 
Cambridge ; Cole's Athense Cantabr. (Addit. MS. 
5873, f. 116) ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic iii. 
254 ; Woolrych's Life of Jeffreys ; Macaulay's 
Hist, of England, chap. viii. ; Pepys's Diary and 
Correspondence, ed. Braybrooke, 1849, i. 258, iv. 
35, 454, v. 306, 324, 328 ; Corrie's Brief Hist. 
Notices of Interference of Crown with Affairs of 




the Universities; Cooper's Anna's of Cambridge 
University; Burnet's Own Time, 1838, vol. iii. ; 
Luttrell's Brief Hist. Eelation of State Affairs ; 
Cartwright's Diary (CamdenSoc.),p. 53; Howell's 
State Trials, xi. 1338; information kindly given 
by the hon. and rev. the Master of Magdalene 
College.] T. S. 

PEACHI, JOHN (Jl. 1690), medical 
writer. [See under PECHEY, JOHN.] 

PEACOCK, SIR BARNES (1810-1890), 
judge, third son of Lewis H. Peacock, a soli- 
citor practising in Lincoln's Inn Fields, was 
born in 1810. At the age of eighteen he 
joined the Inner Temple, but postponed his 
call to the bar till he had been in practice 
as a special pleader some five or six years. 
In 1836 he was called, and joined the home 
circuit, and presently obtained the name of 
a sound lawyer. He made his chief reputa- 
tion as one of the counsel for O'Connell in 
his appeal to the House of Lords, and it was 
a technical objection which he suggested that 
led the majority of the House of Lords to 
allow the appeal. He pointed out that 
the indictment contained numerous counts 
and several separate charges, and that some 
of the counts had been held to be bad in law. 
Yet upon this indictment, and upon good 
counts and bad counts indiscriminately, one 
general verdict and judgment had been given. 
This, it is true, had been done in accordance 
with a practice which, however slovenly, was 
common, and supposed to be undoubtedly 
valid, but the House of Lords declared it to 
be a wrong practice, and that a judgment so 
given could not stand (see State Trials, new 
ser. vol. v.) 

In spite of this success Peacock did not 
become a queen's counsel till 1850, when he 
was also elected a bencher of the Inner 
Temple. In 1852 he was appointed legal mem- 
ber of the supreme council of the viceroy 
at Calcutta, in succession to Drinkwater 
Bethune, and here, in the preparation of 
various codifying acts, he proved his high 
excellence as a jurist. He wrote an im- 
portant minute on the affairs of Oudh, in 
which he advocated complete annexation. 
In 1859 he succeeded Sir James Colville in 
the chief-justiceship of the supreme court in 
Calcutta, and was knighted. He held the 
post, the duties of which were modified in 
1862 on the constitution of the high court, 
until 1870. He was indefatigable in mould- 
ing the practice of his court as an appellate 
tribunal, and for eighteen years, with equally 
remarkable vigour of mind and body, worked 
in the plains of India with only one furlough. 
In 1870 he resigned and returned to Eng- 
land, where, in 1872, he was appointed under 

the act of 1871 a paid member of the judi- 
cial committee of the privy council. Here 
his great knowledge of Indian customs, his 
persevering industry, and his painstaking 
accuracy made him a specially useful mem- 
ber of the court. He was sitting to hear 
appeals only three days before his death, 
which took place, from failure of the heart, 
at his house, 40 Cornwall Gardens, Kensing- 
ton, on 3 Dec. 1890. He was in person 
slight and short, an indifferent speaker, but 
possessing rare powers of memory and appli- 
cation. He was twice married ; first, to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of W. Fanning, in 1835 ; and 
then, in 1870, to Georgina, daughter of Major- 
general Showers, C.B. 

His eldest son, FREDERICK BARNES PEA- 
COCK (1836-1894), was born in 1836, edu- 
cated at Haileybury, entered the Bengal 
civil service, and landed in India in Fe- 
bruary 1857. He was employed in the reve- 
nue and judicial department of the service, 
became registrar of the high court in 1864, 
was president of the committee on the affairs 
of the king of Oudh, officiating secretary to 
the board of revenue in 1871, a magistrate 
and collector in 1873, commissioner of the 
Dacca division in 1878 and of the Presidency 
division in 1881. In 1883 he was appointed 
chief secretary to the government of Bengal 
for the judicial, political, and appointments 
departments, an acting member of the board 
of revenue in 1884, and an actual member 
in 1887, and in 1890 he was made a C.S.I. 
and retired. He died on board the Britannia, 
off Sicily, in April 1894. 

[See Times, 4 Dec. 1890 and 25 April 1894; 
Law Times, 20 Dec. 1890.] J. A. H. 

1892), traveller and philologist, was born on 
26 Sept, 1842 at the village of Shakhma- 
novka, district of Kozlov, in the government 
of Tambov, Russia, being the son of Charles 
Peacock, estate manager, and his wife Con- 
cordia, whose maiden name was Schlegel. 
He was educated at a school in England, 
and afterwards at the university of Moscow. 
On 25 Oct. 1881 he was appointed vice- 
consul at Batoum, which had then risen 
to considerable importance in consequence of 
its annexation by the Russians. He became 
consul on 27 JanJ.890. He is said to have owed 
his appointments to his familiarity with the 
Russian language. Certainly few foreigners 
were better acquainted than he with the lan- 
guages and customs of the mountaineers of the 
Caucasus, among whom he had established 
such friendly relations that he was admitted 
into their most remote fastnesses. One of 
the fruits of these expeditions was the pub- 




lication of original vocabularies of five west 
Caucasian languages Georgian, Mingrelian, 
Lazian, Svanetian, and Apkhazian (Journal 
of Royal Asiatic Society, 1877, pp. 145-56). 
Up to that time no contribution on these 
languages had appeared in English. On 
14 Oct. 1891 Peacock was appointed consul- 
general at Odessa, but had only been in re- 
sidence a few weeks when he died, as is 
reported, of Caucasian fever, the marshes 
which surround Batoum rendering that town 
very unhealthy. His death occurred on 
23 May 1892 at Odessa, and he was buried 
in the British cemetery there. He left a 
widow, Tatiana nee Bakunin, a Russian 
lady, and six children, three sons and three 
daughters. They were residing in 1894 at 
Diadino, in the government of Iver, in Rus- 
sia. Peacock was a man of rare attainments, 
and left little by which the world can form 
a judgment of his powers. According to the 
' Levantine Herald/ as quoted by the ' Athe- 
naeum,' he wrote a book on the Caucasus 
which was not approved by the foreign office, 
but his widow promised to publish it. It 
has not yet appeared. Travellers in the Cau- 
casus found a hearty welcome at his house 
at Batoum. 

[Obituary notices in the Times, 17 June 1892, 
and Athenaeum, January-June, 1892, p. 794; 
information from the Foreign Office, and personal 
recollections.] W. K. M. 

PEACOCK, GEORGE (1791-1858), 
mathematician and dean of Ely, was fifth 
and youngest son of Thomas Peacock, for 
fifty years perpetual curate of Denton in the 
parish of Gainford, near Darlington. George 
was born on 9 April 1791 at Thornton Hall, 
Denton, where his father resided and kept a 
school. As a boy he was more remarkable 
for a bold spirit and active habits of body 
than for love of study. In January 1808, 
when nearly seventeen years old, he was sent 
to the school at Richmond kept by the Rev. 
James Tate, formerly fellow of Sidney-Sussex 
College, Cambridge, then at the height of its 
reputation. There his talents speedily de- 
veloped. His schoolfellow and friend, Charles 
(afterwards archdeacon) Musgrave, bears wit- 
ness that Peacock ' made himself a sound 
scholar in Greek and Latin, and in this 
branch of study, as well as in mathematics, 
was looked up to as an authority by his fel- 
low-students '(Gent. May. 1859, pt. i.p.426). 
He always frankly acknowledged his obli- 
gations to Tate, and dedicated his 'Algebra ' 
to him. In the summer of 1809, before pro- 
ceeding to Cambridge, he read with John 
Brass of Richmond, then an undergraduate, 
and afterwards fellow, of Trinity College. 

Peacock's name was entered on the books 
of Trinity College as a sizar on 21 Feb. 1809, 
and he came into residence in the following 
October. He was elected scholar of his col- 
lege on 12 April 1812. In the summer of 
that year he read mathematics at Lowestoft 
with Adam Sedgwick [~q. v.],with whom he 
maintained a lifelong friendship. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1813, being placed second 
wrangler in the mathematical tripos, and he 
afterwards gained the second Smith's prize. 
In both examinations Sir John Frederick 
William Herschel [q. v.] was first. In the 
following year (1814) Peacock was elected 
fellow of his college. He proceeded M.A. in 

Peacock was appointed a lecturer in mathe- 
matics in Trinity College in 1815, and in 1823 
tutor, jointly with Robert Wilson Evans 
[q. v.] From 1835 till 1839 he was sole tutor. 
His success both as a lecturer and a tutor was 
very great. He possessed great knowledge, 
a clear intellect, and a power of luminous ex- 
position, joined to a gift of sympathy with, 
and interest in, his pupils, which, at that 
time, was not cultivated in the university. 
His friend and former pupil, Canon Thomp- 
son, said of him, in the sermon which he 
preached in Ely Cathedral on the Sunday 
after his funeral, that ' his inspection of his 
pupils was not minute, far less vexatious, 
but it was always effectual. . . . His insight 
into character was remarkable, and, though 
he had decided preferences in favour of cer- 
tain qualities and pursuits over others, he 
was tolerant of tendencies with which he 
could not sympathise, and would look on the 
more harmless vagaries of young and active 
minds rather as an amused spectator than as 
a stern censor and critic' (THOMPSON, Funeral 
Sermon, p. 13). 

In politics a whig, Peacock was a zealous 
advocate for progress and reform in the uni- 
versity. While still an undergraduate he 
became convinced of the necessity of intro- 
ducing analytical methods and the differential 
notation into the mathematical course. This 
had been already suggested without effect by 
Robert Woodhouse [q. v.] Peacock, Herschel, 
and Babbage used to breakfast together on 
Sunday mornings, and as early as 1812 agreed 
to found an analytical society, so as ' to leave 
the world better than they found it ' (Life 
o/J. F. W. Herschel, p. 263). This society 
hired a meeting-room, open daily ; held 
meetings, read papers, discussed them, and 
published a volume of transactions. A 
translation of Lacroix's work on the 'Dif- 
ferential and Integral Calculus' was pub- 
lished at Cambridge in 1816, with appendices 
or ' notes/ as they are called, the first twelve of 




which were written by Peacock. In 1816-17 
he held the office of moderator, and intro- 
duced the symbols of differentiation into the 
papers set in the senate-house. This inno- 
vation was regarded with a good deal of 
disfavour (cf. TODHUNTEK, Life of Whewell, 
ii. 16). Peacock himself, nothing daunted, 
wrote to a friend on 17 March 1817 : 'I shall 
never cease to exert myself to the utmost in 
the cause of reform. It is by silent per- 
severance only that we can hope to reduce 
the many-headed monster of prejudice, and 
make the university answer her character as 
the loving mother of good learning and 
science ' (Proceedings of the Royal Society, 
1859,p. 538). His expectations were realised. 
He was moderator in 1818-19, and again in 
1820-1, so that he had ample opportunities 
for carrying further the reform he had in- 
augurated. His reputation as a philosophic \ 
mathematician was greatly increased by the 
publication of his ' Algebra' in 1830. 

Abstract science, however, was only one 
of the subjects to which he devoted himself, i 
In 1817 he was one of the syndics for build- ! 
ing the new observatory ; in 1819 he took 
part in the establishment of the Philoso- ] 
phical Society ; between 1831 and 1835 he 
warmly espoused the scheme for rebuilding 
the university library on an enlarged scale, 
and specially recommended the design by 
Charles Robert Cockerell [q. v.], in defence 
of which he wrote three pamphlets ; in 1832 
he interested himself in the new building 
for the university press ; and in 1835 was a 
member of the syndicate for building the 
Fitzwilliam Museum. During these years j 
he gradually became one of the most popular ! 
and influential of the resident members of 
the senate. The measures he advocated were 
not always palatable ; but the charm of his 
manner, his exquisite courtesy, his con- 
sideration for those who differed with him, 
generally enabled him to carry his point 
without either losing a friend or exasperating 
an opponent. 

Peacock's scientific attainments were 
quickly recognised. He was made F.R.S. 
in 1818, and in 1836 he was elected to the 
Lowndean professorship of astronomy, then 
in the gift of certain high officers of the 
crown. For this office "Whewell was also a 
candidate. Peacock was Lowndean professor 
until his death, although he soon treated 
the office as a sinecure. He at first lectured 
on practical and theoretical astronomy ; 
afterwards, by arrangement with his col- 
league of the Plumian chair, on geometry 
and analysis. But the attendance, at first 
large, gradually fell off, and in later years 
he practically ceased to lecture. In 1838 

and 1843 he was appointed a member of the 
commission for the restoration of the stan- 
dards of weight and measure destroyed by 
the burning of the houses of parliament. 
The commission was indebted to him for 
many valuable suggestions. 

In 1839 he was made dean of Ely. He at 
once removed thither, and threw himself, 
with characteristic energy, into the duties 
of his new office. The cathedral was sorely 
in need of repair, little or nothing having 
been done to it since James Essex [q. v.] had 
altered its internal arrangements in the last 
century. Peacock persuaded the chapter to 
undertake a complete restoration of the 
fabric. He was ably seconded by Professor 
Willis and other archaeologists, and by the 
professional sldll of Sir George Gilbert Scott 
[q. v.] ; but his own energy and zeal carried 
the work through, and by his personal exer- 
tions a large sum was raised by subscription. 
He also interested himself in the condition of 
the city of Ely. He got an improved system 
of drainage carried out, notwithstanding 
bitter opposition, and he did much for the 
education of the middle classes and the 
poor. He also took an enlightened interest 
in the affairs of the church at large, and was 
chosen in 1841 prolocutor of the Lower House 
of Convocation, an office which he held till 
1847. He served again from 1852 to 1857, 
when failing health compelled him to resign. 

In 1841 he published a work on 'The 
Statutes of the University.' The Eliza- 
bethan statutes, by which it was then go- 
verned, were there carefully analysed, and the 
distinction shown between their prescrip- 
tions and existing practice. Finally, a scheme 
was set forth for future adoption, in which 
many of the changes since introduced were 
foreshadowed. When, in 1850, the govern- 
ment decided to appoint a royal commission 
of inquiry, he became one of the commis- 
sioners ; and in 1855 he was also a member 
of the parliamentary commission for making 
new statutes for the university and colleges. 
Both these commissions were greatly dis- 
liked in the university. The report of the 
first, published in 1852, was so conciliatory 
that the commissioners recovered much of 
their personal popularity; but the draft 
statutes for the colleges of Trinity and St. 
John's were condemned by both conservatives 
and liberals. It was generally believed that 
Peacock, from his recognised influence with 
the commissioners, was responsible for all 
that was most obnoxious. He was, in fact, 
in favour of compromise and conciliation, but 
thought it his duty to shield, at cost to his 
own reputation, the real author of the offen- 
sive statutes. 




In 1855 he published & memoir of Dr. 
Thomas Young [q.v.], on which he had been 
engaged for more than twenty years. There 
appeared at the same time a collected edition 
of Dr. Young's works in three volumes, for 
the first two of which Peacock was re- 
sponsible. This work, notwithstanding the 
long delay in its appearance, was warmly 
commended as a model of scientific bio- 

Peacock's health had been failing for many 
years, but in 1848 he derived temporary bene- 
fit from a visit to Madeira. He died on 8 Nov. 
1858, and was buried in the cemetery at 

Peacock married, in 1847, Frances Eliza- 
beth, second daughter of William Selwyn, 
Q.C. He left no children. 

He was the author of the following works : 
1. 'Collection of Examples of the Applica- 
tions of the Differential and Integral Cal- 
culus,' Cambridge, 1820, 8vo. 2. 'Arith- 
metic: Encyclopaedia Metropolitana,' 1825-6. 
3. 'A Treatise on Algebra/ Cambridge, 1830, 
8vo. 4. ' Observations on the Plans for 
the New Library, &c. By a Member of the 
First Syndicate,' Cambridge, 1831, 8vo. 
5. ' Remarks on the Replies to the Observa- 
tions,' &c., Cambridge, 1831, 8vo. 6. 'Sylla- 
bus of a Course of Lectures upon Trigono- 
metry, and the application of Algebra to 
Geometry,' Cambridge, 1833, 8vo; 2nd edit. 
1836. 7. ' On the recent Progress of certain 
branches of Analysis ' (British Association 
Reports, 1834). 8. ' Observations upon the 
Report made by a Syndicate appointed to 
confer w r ith the architects who were desired 
to furnish . . . designs for a new library,' 
Cambridge, 1835, 8vo. 9. 'Remarks on the 
suggestions [of Standard Commission]. In 
a letter addressed to Mr. Airy 16 Jan. 1841.' 
10. 'Remarks on the Decimal Nomenclature 
of Coins, Weights, and Measures, and other 
points connected with the subject,' 24 Feb. 
1841. 11. ' A Treatise on Algebra,' 2 vols. 
Cambridge, 1842-5, 8vo. 12. 'Upon the 
Probable Influence of a Repeal of the Corn 
Laws upon the trade in Corn,' London, 1846, 
8vo. 13. 'Some Observations upon the Epi- 
scopal and Capitular Estates Bill proposed by 
Lord Blandford 20 Dec. 1854,' Cambridge, 
1855, 8vo. 14. ' Life of Thomas Young, M.D.,' 
London, 1855, 8vo. 15. ' Oratio habita in 
Camera Hierosolymitana Ecclesiae Divi Petri 
Westmonasteriensis xii Nov. 1852,' Cam- 
bridge, 1859, 4to. 

[Obituary notices of Royal Society, Proceed- 
ings, 1859, pp. 536-43; Gent. Mag. 1859, pp. 
426-8; Eraser's Magazine, 1858, pp. 741-6; 
Babbage's Passages from the Life of a Philo- 
sopher, London, 1864, p. 29 ; Edinb. Review, Oct. 

1837, p. 114; Ball's History of the Study of 
Mathematics at Cambridge, 8vo, 1889, pp. 119- 
121, 124; personal knowledge.] J. W. C-K. 

PEACOCK, GEORGE (1805-1883), sea 
captain and shipowner, born in 1805 at Star- 
cross, near Exeter, was son of Richard George 
Peacock, a master in the navy, who had served 
with Sir Alexander Cochrane [q. v.] in the 
West Indies, and with Thomas, lord Coch- 
rane, afterwards tenth earl of Dundonald 
[q. v.] After the peace his father owned and 
commanded ships trading to the Mediterra- 
nean and Brazil, and young Peacock served 
his apprenticeship with him, rising gradually 
to command a ship on a voyage to the Pacific. 
In 1828 he entered the navy as second master 
of the steamer Echo, employed in surveying 
the lower Thames. In the next year he went 
out to the West Indies in the Winchester, and 
in March 1831 was appointed acting-master of 
the Magnificent, from which he exchanged 
into the Hyacinth as a sea-going ship. W T hile 
in the Hyacinth he surveyed the harbour of 
San Juan de Nicaragua, his chart of which, 
with later corrections, is still in use. He 
also, in an official letter, pointed out the ad- 
vantages of the route across the isthmus from 
San Juan, and recommended Colon, then 
known as Victor Cove, as a terminus for a 
railway. He seems to have persuaded him- 
self that in this he made an original dis- 
covery ; but the routes he recommended were 
known to the Spaniards from the earliest 
times, and in after years to Drake, Morgan, 
and the later buccaneers. On 21 Sept. 1835 
Peacock was confirmed as master of the 
Medea steamer in the Mediterranean, and, 
while serving on the coast of Greece, made 
a survey of the isthmus of Corinth, marking 
the line of a possible canal. A copy of this 
he presented to the Greek government, in 
acknowledgment of which the king of Greece 
in 1882 conferred on him the order of the 
Redeemer of Greece ; at the time, however, 
in 1836, King Otho, paying a visit to the 
Medea, presented Peacock with a gold snuff- 

In 1838, being then master of the Andro- 
mache, Peacock surveyed and buoyed the 
harbours of Charlotte-town and Three-rivers 
in Prince Edward Island. In 1 840 he applied 
to be appointed to the Blenheim, then going to 
China ; his application was refused, and, being 
offered the command of the steamers of the 
newly constituted Pacific Steam Navigation 
Company, he resigned his warrant in the 
navy. He superintended the building and 
equipment of the steamers, and himself com- 
manded the first that went out, which he 
took through the Strait of Magellan. For 
the next five years he acted as the company's 




marine superintendent, and claimed to have 
during this time laid down buoys, erected 
beacons, built a lighthouse, surveyed har- 
bours, opened and worked coal-mines, dis- 
covered new guano-beds, suggested railways, 
and brought the first regular mails from 
Valparaiso to Panama. In 1846 he returned 
to England, and seems to have been busy for 
the next two years in carrying out experi- 
ments with an anti-fouling composition for 
the bottoms of iron ships, for the manufac- 
ture of which he started a company in 1848, 
under the style of Peacock & Buchan. In 
1848 he accepted an appointment as dock- 
master at Southampton, the title of which 
office was afterwards changed to superin- 
tendent of the docks. He held this till 1858, 
when he retired to Starcross, and carried on 
business there as a shipowner. 

In 1859 he vainly memorialised the ad- 
miralty with a view to having his name 
reinstated on the list of masters. He printed 
the memorial, letters, and certificates, under 
the title of ' Official Correspondence.' In 
1860 he commanded an unsuccessful expedi- 
tion, under the patronage of Napoleon III, 
for the discovery of ' nitrates ' in the Sahara, 
the idea being, apparently, that they were 
the natural concomitants of sandy desert. 
In 1873 he took out a patent for chain cables 
of a specified pattern, in connection with 
which he published 'A Treatise on Ships' 
Cables, with the History of Chains, their 
Use and Abuse ' (cr. 8vo). He wrote many 
other pamphlets, among which maybe named 
1 The Resources of Peru . . .' (cr. 8vo, 1874), 
which ran through four editions within six 
months ; ' On the Supply of Nitrate of Soda 
and Guano from Peru, with the History of 
their first Introduction into this Country' 
(cr. 8vo, 1878) ; ' Notes on the Isthmus of 
Panama and Darien ; ' ' The Guinea, or Gold 
Coast of Africa, the veritable Ophir of Scrip- 
ture.' He died on 6 June 1883, in the house of 
his son-in-law, Henry Cookson of Liverpool, 
and was buried at Starcross. 

[His own pamphlets, especially the Official 
Correspondence; information from the family.] 

J. K. L. 

PEACOCK, JAMES (d. 1653), vice- 
admiral, appears to have been a merchant 
and sea captain, whose native place was Ips- 
wich. He is first mentioned as captain of the 
Warwick frigate for the parliament, and com- 
manding a squadron of ships-of-war in the 
North Sea in the summer of 1647. In Decem- 
ber he was moved into the Tiger, and con- 
tinued on the same service till December 1649. 
During this time he made several prizes, appa- 
rently royalist privateers hailing from Jersey 

orfromlreland; convoyed the trade fromElsi- 
nore, and was repeatedly warned to station 
vessels near the Orkney Islands, to surprise 
Irish pirates, or on the coast of Norfolk, from 
Cromer to Lynn, to look out for ' pickaroons,' 
' pilfering sea-rovers.' In June 1G48 he as- 
sisted in the siege of Colchester by blockading 
the river. In September 1649 he was looking 
out for a ship from Amsterdam laden with 
arms for the Duke of Montrose. In 1650 the 
Tiger was one of a squadron sent to the Medi- 
terranean under Vice-admiral Edward Hall in 
charge of convoy and for the security of trade 
against pirates and the royalist privateers, 
and also with letters of reprisal against the 
French. In January 1650-1 Peacock was 
awarded a gold chain and medal of the value 
of 50/. for services at sea ; at the same time 
50/. was ordered to be paid in gratuities to 
the officers and men of the Tiger. In October 
1651 the Tiger arrived in the Thames, and 
was ordered to be paid off. The order was 
apparently annulled, for in January 1651-2, 
still commanded by Peacock, she was sent to 
Leith with 80,000/. for the army. Afterwards 
she seems to have captured sundry small 
pirate vessels, the men of which were lodged 
in Ipswich gaol. 

On 23 May 1652, on the news of the action 
off Folkestone on the 19th [see BLAZE, 
ROBERT], the Tiger, then in the Thames, was 
ordered to the Downs. Shortly afterwards 
she was cruising in the North Sea, and, in 
company with another frigate, engaged two 
Dutch men-of-war. On 10 June the council 
of state wrote to the generals to signify to 
Peacock ' their acceptance ' of his ' worthy 
deportment/ On 18 Oct. Peacock reported 
his arrival at Yarmouth with twenty prizes. 
A month later he was appointed to com- 
mand a squadron going to the Mediterranean 
to reinforce Richard Badiley [q. v.], but the 
defeat of Blake on 30 Nov. prevented his 
sailing. On 4 Dec. he was ordered to go to 
the Downs with any ships-of-war ready in 
the river ; on the 7th he was told that he 
should have a better ship ; shortly after- 
wards he was moved into the Rainbow, and 
in the following February was appointed 
vice-admiral of the white squadron, in which 
capacity he took part in the great battle off 
Portland on 18 Feb., and in the pursuit of 
the Dutch fleet as far as Gris-nez. In March 
Peacock was moved again to the Triumph, 
and in the action of 2-3 June 1653 was 
vice-admiral of the red squadron, as also in 
the concluding action of the war, 29-31 July, 
when he was mortally wounded. 

Peacock died a few days later. He left 
a widow and five children, to whom parlia- 
ment voted a gratuity of 750/., vested in 




trustees belonging to Ipswich, where they 
desired that the money might be paid. 

[Calendars of State Papers. Dom. ; Granville 
Penn's Memoirs of Sir William Penn.] 

J. K. L. 

PEACOCK, JAMES (1733 P-1814), ar- 
chitect, born about 1738, became assistant 
to George Dance the younger [q. v.] when 
Dance was appointed architect and sur- 
veyor to the city of London at Guildhall. 
He retained his post for ' nearly 45 years,' 
and was also employed by Dance in his 
private practice. Finsbury Square (1777- 
1791) was a result of their joint labours, 
and at No. 17 Peacock himself lived and 
died. His former residence was at Coleman 
Street Buildings. In 1801-2 Peacock de- 
signed the first Stock Exchange in Capel 
Court, and he 'restored -and preserved' St. 
Stephen's, Walbrook. There is also a draw- 
ing by him in the King's collection, British 
Museum, of the elevation of the Mines Royal, 
Dowgate Hill. Peacock published a few 
books connected with his professional studies. 
These were ' Oikidia,' a little tract contain- 
ing plans for houses, London, 1785, 8vo, pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of Jose Mac 
Packe ; ' A new Method of Filtration by- 
Ascent,' London, 1793, 4to ; and ' Subordi- 
nates in Architecture,' London, 1814, 4to. 
He also contributed ' An Account of Three 
Simple Instruments for Drawing Architec- 
ture and Machinery in Perspective,' printed 
in the * Philosophical Transactions 'for 1785. 

Peacock was also interested in economic 
and social problems, and his treatises on these 
subjects, small as they are, are more remark- 
able than his architectural works. His ' Out- 
lines of a Scheme for the General Relief, In- 
struction, Employment, and Maintenance of 
the Poor' was published in 1777 (cf. London 
Review of English and Foreign Literature, 
viii. 156), and is described by Peacock as 
' an imperfect and crude performance ' in 
another tract entitled l Proposals for a Mag- 
nificent and Interesting Establishment,' Lon- 
don, 1790, 8vo. In 1789 he published 
' Superior Politics,' and in 1798 < The Out- 
lines of a Plan for establishing a United 
Company of British Manufacturers.' All of 
these tracts set forth, with various modifica- 
tions, Peacock's main project of ' giving pro- 
tection and suitable incitement, encourage- 
ment, and employ to every class of the desti- 
tute, ignorant, and idle poor who shall be 
healthy, able to work, and willing to conform 
... to such . . . regulations as the company 
shall enact, and which are intended to be of 
mutual benefit and ad vantage to the company 
and the workpeople, and eventually so to 

society at large.' Peacock asserts that ' very 
considerable use has been made of the original 
thoughts' in his two earlier pamphlets by 
several writers, and refers to the first two 
reports of the Philanthropic Society, which 
was a flourishing and important institution. 
Besides these published works, Peacock 
wrote a folio volume, still in manuscript, 
and preserved in the Soane Museum, on 
' Terms of Contracts for Bricklayers', Slaters', 
and Joiners' Works, on the Peace Establish- 
ment, for the Service of the Board of Ord- 
nance.' He died on 22 Feb. 1814, ' univer- 
sally beloved and respected,' ' in his seventy- 
ninth year,' according to the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine;' but according to the tombstone 
in the back cemetery of St. Luke's, Old Street, 
he was in his seventy- sixth year. 

[Diet, of Architecture ; G-ent. Mag. 1814, pt. i. 
p. 411 ; Peacock's Works ; London Review ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] L. B. 


1877), verse- writer, son of William Peacock, 
was born on 31 March 1817 at Kincardine, 
Perthshire, the seventh of eight children. 
While his family was young the father died, 
and the struggle for existence became severe. 
Peacock was sent to work at a very early age, 
first at a tobacco factory, and afterwards at 
some bleaching works. Ultimately he was 
apprenticed to boiler-making, and this be- 
came his trade. Commercial fluctuations, 
and a strong natural disposition to travel, took 
him in the course of his lifetime to many parts 
of the world. Thus he gathered knowledge 
which went far to compensate for the want of 
school-training. He became a man of wide 
information, and a clear and original thinker. 
In both politics and religion he was always 
radical. He shared actively in the chartist 
movement, and afterwards, for many years, 
until his death, was an energetic secularist. 
For a considerable period he was employed 
at Laird's iron shipbuilding works, Birken- 
head, where the Alabama was built ; but this 
did not prevent him from openly advocating 
the cause of the north in the American civil 
war. Undoubtedly his outspokenness helped 
to keep him poor. Physically he was deli- 
cate, and, his occupation being arduous, in 
middle life his health failed ; thenceforward 
he only earned a precarious income, chiefly 
as a newsvendor. He died in Glasgow of 
heart disease on 4 Mav 1877. 

If Peacock's worldly circumstances had 
been better, or his disposition less modest, 
he might have become more famous, for 
wherever his work was known it was highly 
valued. At Birkenhead, at the Shakespeare 
tercentenary (1864), he was considered the 




most fitting person in the town to plant 
the memorial oak-tree. He directed much j 
vigorous verse against what he regarded as j 
theological superstition and political tyranny ; ' 
but his finest poetical work was of a con- | 
templative kind. Three volumes of his poems 
have been published, viz. : 'Poems and Songs ' i 
(1864), ' Hours of Reverie ' (1867), and a 
selection of published and unpublished 
verse (to which is prefixed a portrait of j 
Peacock), edited by the present writer for the ! 
benefit of the widow in 1880. 

[Prefaces to Works and private information.] 

W. L. 

PEACOCK, LUCY (fl.l 81 5), bookseller 
and author, kept a shop in Oxford Street, 
and wrote tales for children, for the most 
part anonymously. Among the earliest of 
these were 'The Adventures of the Six 
Princesses of Babylon in their Travels to 
the Temple of Virtue : an allegory' (1785 ; 
3rd edit, 1790), and 'The Rambles of Fancy, 
or Moral and Interesting Tales ' (2 vols., 
1786). In the following years she contributed 
to the ' Juvenile Magazine ' similar tales, 
which were reissued in ' Friendly Labours, or 
Tales and Dramas for the Amusement and 
Instruction of Youth' (Brentford, 1815). 
Other of her publications were: ' The Knight 
of the Rose' (1793; 2nd edit. 1807); 'The 
Visit for a Week' (1794; 7th edit. 1812), 
which was translated into French in 1817 
by J. E. Le Febvre ; ' Emily, or the Test of 
Sincerity' (1816); and < The Little Emigrant: 
a Tale' (4th edit. 1820). 

Miss Peacock also translated from the 
French ' Ambrose and Eleanor, or the Ad- 
ventures of Two Children deserted on an 
Uninhabited Island' (1796, 1812, by R. and 
L. Peacock), an adaptation of 'Fanfan et Lo- 
lotte ; ' Veyssiere de la Croze's ' Grammaire 
Historique' (1802), and ' Abrege Chrono- 
logique de 1'Histoire Universelle' (1807). 

[Literary Memoirs of Living Authors of Great 
Britain, 1798; Diet, of Living Authors, 1816: 
Brit. Mus. Cat.; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] 

G. LE G. N. 

1459 ?), bishop of Chichester. [See PECOCK.] 

PEACOCK, THOMAS (1516?-! 582?), 
president of Queens' College, Cambridge, born 
at Cambridge, about 1516, was son of Thomas 
Peacock, burgess of Cambridge, whose will, 
dated 1528, was proved in the court of 
the archdeacon of Ely in 1541. He was 
admitted fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1534, and graduated B.A. 1534-5, 
M.A. 1537, and B.D. 1554. He adhered to 
the old religion ; and in the disturbance in 

St. John's College leading to the visitation 
by Thomas Goodrich [q. v.], the protestant 
bishop of Ely, on 5 April 1542, Peacock was 
one of the appellants (BAKER, Hist, of St. 
John's, p. 116). He subsequently became 
chantry priest in St. Lawrence's Church, Ips- 
wich, and rector of Nacton, and from 23 April 
1554 to 1556 was prebendary of Norwich. 
On 1 April 1555 he signed the Roman catho- 
lic articles promoted by Dr. Atkynson and 
others (LAMB, Cambr. 'Documents, p. 175), 
and on 25 Oct. Thirlby, bishop of Ely, whose 
chaplain he was, presented him to the rec- 
tory of Downham, Cambridge. In 1556 he 
exchanged his Norwich prebend for one in 
Ely Cathedral. On the occasion of Cardinal 
Pole's visitation of the university (11 Jan. 
1556-7) Peacock preached in Latin before 
the visitors in St. Mary's Church, ' inveigh- 
ing against heresyes" and heretyckes as Byl- 
ney, Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley, &c.' (FoxE, 
Acts and Monuments, viii. 266). On 31 Jan. 
1558 he was presented by the bishop of Ely 
to the rectory of Burley in Hertfordshire, 
and on 23 Nov. of the same year was elected 
president of Queens' College, Cambridge. 

Refusing to comply with the change of 
religion at the accession of Elizabeth, he lost 
all his preferments. He resigned the presi- 
dency of Queens' College on 1 July 1559, in 
order to avoid expulsion. He made various 
benefactions to the churchwardens of the 
parish of Holy Trinity (cf. Reports of the 
Charity Commissioners, xxxi. 72) and to the 
corporation of Cambridge. He died about 
1582 (see COOPER, Annals of Cambr. ii. 

[Cooper's Athens? Cantabr. ; Blomefield's Nor- 
folk, ii. 666 ; Cooper's Annals of Cambr. ii. 
114, 366; James Bentham's Hist, and Antiq. of 
the Conventual and Cathedral Church of Ely, 
p. 260; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 80; Rob. 
Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, iii. 385; Addit. 
MS. ,5808, p. 138; Cotton M.S., Titus, c. x. 6 ; 
Baker's Hist. St. John's College, pp. 116, 335 ; 
Browne Willis's Cathedrals, ii. 387 ; State Papers, 
Dom., Eliz. 16 March 1559 ; Charity Comm. Re- 
ports, xxxi. 30, 72 ; Baker MS. xxx. 218, 253, 
266.] W. A. S. 


(1812-1882), physician, son of Thomas Pea- 
cock and his wife Sarah Bevill, members of 
the Society of Friends, was born at York on 
21 Dec. 1812. At the age of nine he was 
sent to the boarding-school of Mr. Samuel 
Marshall at Kendal, where he remained till 
apprenticed to John Fothergill, a medical 
practitioner at Darlington. In 1833 he came 
to London, entered as a student of medicine 
at University College, also attending the 
surgical practice of St. George's Hospital, 




and in 1835 became a member of the College 
of Surgeons and a licentiate of the Society 
of Apothecaries. He then travelled for his 
health, twice visiting Ceylon, and studying 
for a time at Paris. He spent 1838 as 
house-surgeon to the hospital at Chester, 
and in 1841 went to Edinburgh, where in 
184:2 he took the degree of M.D. In 1844 
he was admitted a licentiate of the Royal 
College of Physicians of London, and in 
1849 was elected assistant physician to St. 
Thomas's Hospital. In 1850 he was elected 
a fellow of the College of Physicians, and in 
1865 delivered the Croonian lectures there 
on ' Some of the Causes and Effects of Val- 
vular Disease of the Heart/ A dispensary 
which he began in Liverpool Street, London, 
ultimately grew into the present Victoria 
Park Hospital for diseases of the chest, to 
which he was physician from its foundation, 
and where he did much excellent clinical 
work. He lectured at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
first on materia medica and then on medicine, 
and worked hard in its school. He was one 
of the founders of the Pathological Society 
of London in 1846, and was a very frequent 
contributor to its ' Transactions.' He was 
its secretary in 1850, vice-president 1852-6, 
and president in 1865 and 1866. In 1848 
he published a valuable monograph ' On the 
Influenza or Epidemic Catarrh of 1847-8,' 
and in 1866 a treatise ' On Malformations of 
the Human Heart,' which is still the best 
English book on the subject. These, with 
his Croonian lectures and a small book * On 
the Prognosis in Cases of Valvular Disease 
of the Heart,' published in 1877, are his most 
important separate publications. They con- 
tain numerous accurate observations, related 
with precision and many useful conclusions, 
though a want of generalisation detracts 
somewhat from their value as additions to 
science. It was perhaps this which pre- 
vented his election on the single occasion 
when he was a candidate for the fellowship 
of the Royal Society. He would not allow 
himself to be again nominated, but the 
society could hardly have found in London 
a man more deserving of honour as a dis- 
interested and accurate observer in the la- 
borious field of morbid anatomy. All his 
numerous papers in the ' Transactions ' of 
the Medico-Chirurgical Society and of the 
Patholog-ical Society, in the ' Monthly Jour- 
nal of Medical Science/ the ' British and 
Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review,' the 
* Transactions ' of the Clinical Society, and 
the St. Thomas's Hospital 'Reports,' are 
worth reading, and contain material often 
used with just confidence by later investiga- 
tors. The College of Surgeons gave him a gold 

medal in recognition of his valuable addi- 
tions to their museum. In 1850 he married 
Cornelia Walduck, also a member of the So- 
ciety of Friends, who died childless in 1869. 
He was fond of travelling, and in his holi- 
days visited both North and South America, 
as well as the coasts of the Mediterranean. 
He lived at 20 Finsbury Circus in London, 
a region where many physicians resided in 
the second quarter of this century. He had 
an attack of left hemiplegia in 1877, but re- 
covered from the paralysis, and saw patients 
and attended at the Pathological Society, 
though obviously shattered. In 1881 he had a 
slight attack of right hemiplegia, from which 
he also recovered. On 30 May 1882, while 
walking in St. Thomas's Hospital, he became 
suddenly unconscious, fell in one of the cor- 
ridors, was carried into a ward which was 
formerly under his own care, and died there 
the next morning, without having recovered 

[Lancet, 1 7 June, 1882 ; Memoir by Sir J. Mar- 
shall in Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, 1883 ; 
St. Thomas's Hospital Reports, new ser. vol. xi. ; 
Works ; private information.] N. M. 

1866), novelist, poet, and official of the East 
India Company, was born at Weymouth, 
Dorset, on 18 Oct. 1785. His father, Samuel 
Peacock, who left him an orphan at the age 
of three, was a glass merchant in London ; his 
mother, Sarah Love, was daughter of Thomas 
Love, master in the navy, who had lost a leg 
in Rodney's great victory over De Grasse in 
1782. Mrs. Peacock, a woman of vigorous 
character, who sympathised with her son's 
literary pursuits, went to live with her father 
at Chertsey, and Peacock received his educa- 
tion at a school kept by a Mr. Wicks at En- 
fflefield Green. At sixteen he removed with 
his mother to London, and was engaged in 
some mercantile occupation, which he did 
not long prosecute. His time was employed 
in study, without apparently any ulterior 
object, and he made himself an excellent 
classical scholar and a proficient in French 
and Italian. His means allowed him to 
publish in 1804 and 1806 two small volumes 
of poetry, 'The Monks of St. Mark' and 
' Palmyra.' In 1807 he contracted an en- 
gagement with a young lady unnamed, broken 
off, it is stated, ' through the underhand in- 
terference of a third person,' an event speedily 
followed by the young lady's marriage to 
another, and her death. Peacock's grief was 
not demonstrative, but its sincerity is at- 
tested by some beautiful lines written as 
late as 1842. In the winter of 1808-9 he 
officiated as secretary to Sir Home Riggs 



Popham [q. v.] on board the fleet before 
Flushing, an uncongenial situation which 
his friends had probably procured for him, in 
the hopes of its leading to a permanent ap- 
pointment. Still an idle man, though always 
an industrious student, he spent a great part 
of 1810 and 1811 in North Wales, publishing 
meanwhile, in 1810, a new and more ambi- 
tious poetical effort, ' The Genius of the 
Thames.' While in Wales he made the ac- 
quaintance of his future wife, Jane Gryffydh, 
whose personality and family relations he 
seems to have shadowed forth in his frag- 
mentary romance/ Sir Calidore.' The heroines 
of his other fictions are commonly adum- 
brations of his early love. In 1812 he pub- 
lished another poem, ' The Philosophy of 
Melancholy,' and in the same year was intro- 
duced to Shelley by his publisher, Thomas 
Hookham, then proprietor of an extensive 
circulating library, who lent books to Shelley 
and sold them for Peacock. There is no trace 
for some time of any peculiar closeness of 
intimacy, but in the winter of 1813 Peacock 
accompanied Shelley and Harriet on their 
visit to Edinburgh, which he is said to have 
prompted. In 1814, in which year Peacock 
published a satirical ballad, 'Sir Proteus,' 
which appeared under the pseudonym ' P. M. 
O'Donovan, Esq.,' Shelley resorted to him 
during the agitation of mind which preceded 
his separation from Harriet, and after his 
return from the continent Peacock was an 
almost daily visitor. By the time that 
Shelley had taken up his residence at Bi- 
shopsgate, near Windsor (September 1815), 
Peacock had settled at Great Marlow, and 
spent great part of the winter in visiting 
Shelley. When Shelley settled at Great 
Marlow, after his return from the continent 
in the autumn of 1816, Peacock's intimacy 
with him continued very close; but, as 
Peacock still declined to follow any profes- 
sion (* he seems an idly inclined man,' writes 
Charles Clairmont ; ' indeed, he is professedly 
so in the summer'), it is not surprising that 
Shelley's munificence had to be resorted to. 
Peacock for a time received from Shelley a 
pension, which he may have more than repaid 
if, as Miss Mitford affirms, he was put into 
requisition to keep oft 7 wholly unauthorised in- 
truders upon Shelley's hospitable household. 
Peacock was consulted respecting the altera- 
tions in Shelley's 'Laon and Cythna,' and 
Peacock's enthusiasm for Greek poetry un- 
doubtedly exercised a most beneficial in- 
fluence upon the poet. Something of Shelley's 
influence upon Peacock may be traced in the 
latter's poem of ' Rhododaphne, or the Thes- 
salian Spell,' published in 1818 ; it is much 
superior to his other elaborate compositions, 

and Shelley wrote a eulogistic review of it 
just before his final departure for Italy. The 
friends' agreement for mutual correspondence 
produced Shelley's magnificent descriptive 
letters from Italy, which otherwise might 
never have been written. 

Peacock had mean while discovered the true 
field for his literary gift in the satiric novel, 
interspersed with delightful lyrics, amorous, 
narrative, or convivial. ' Headlong Hall ' 
was published in 1816, ' Melincourt' in 1817, 
Nightmare Abbey ' in 1818. ' Calidore' was 
begun about this time, but never completed. 
These brilliant prose extravaganzas, overflow- 
ing with humour both of dialogue and situa- 
tion, obtained a certain vogue. * Headlong 
Hall' went through two editions; 'Melin- 
court' was translated into French. They 
cannot, however, have been productive of 
much profit. 

Peacock told Shelley that ' he did not find 
this brilliant summer,' of 1818, l very favour- 
able to intellectual exertion ; ' but before it was 
quite over ' rivers, castles, forests, abbeys, 
monks, maids, kings, and banditti were all 
dancing before me like a masked ball.' He 
was, in fact, writing his romance of ' Maid 
Marian,' which he had completed with the 
exception of the last three chapters when, at 
the beginning of 1819, he was unexpectedly 
summoned to London to undergo a probation 
for an appointment in the India House. The 
East India Company had seen the necessity of 
reinforcing their staff with men of talent, and 
had summoned to their service James Mill 
and three others, among whom Peacock was 
included at the recommendation of Peter 
Auber, the historian of the company. His 
test papers earned the high commendation, 
' Nothing superfluous and nothing wanting.' 
The amount of his entrance salary is not 
stated, but it justified him in marrying in the 
following year ' his Carnarvonshire nymph/ 
Jane Gry fly dh, daughter of the vicar of Elwys 
Vach,whom he had thought in 1811 ' the most 
innocent, the most amiable, the most beautiful 
girl in existence/ but whom he had never 
seen since. He proposed by letter, and was 
accepted. ' The affair/ remarked Shelley, ' is 
extremely like the denouement of one of your 
own novels.' His mother continued to live 
with him in Stamford Street, Blackfriars ; 
a few years later he acquired a country re- 
sidence at Lower Halliford, near Shepperton, 
Middlesex, constructed out of two old cot- 
tages, where he could gratify the love of the 
Thames, which was with him as strong a 
partiality as his zest for classical literature. 
In 1820 he contributed to Ollier's ' Literary 
Pocket Book' ' The Four Ages of Poetry/ 
which provoked Shelley's ' Defence of Poetry.' 




The official duties of the India House delayed 
the completion and publication of 'Maid 
Marian' until 1822, and the delay occasioned 
its being taken for an imitation of ' Ivanhoe,' 
although its composition had, in fact, pre- 
ceded Scott's novel. It was almost imme- 
diately dramatised by Planche. 

Peacock's life from this period is almost 
devoid of any but official and literary inci- 
dents. He displayed great ability in business 
and in the drafting of official papers. In 
1829 he began to devote attention to steam 
navigation, and drew up a valuable memo- 
randum for General Chesney's Euphrates ex- 
pedition, which was praised both by Chesney 
and Lord Ellenborough. He opposed the 
employment of steamers on the Red Sea, but 
this was probably in deference to the sup- 
posed interests of the company. In 1839 
and 1840 war steamers were constructed 
under his superintendence which doubled the 
Cape, and took an honourable part in the 
Chinese war. He frequently appeared as the 
company's champion before parliamentary 
committees, especially in 1834, when he re- 
sisted James Silk Buckingham's claim to com- 
pensation for his expulsion from the East 
Indies, and in 1836, when he defeated the 
attack of the Liverpool merchants and Che- 
shire manufacturers upon the Indian salt 
monopoly. In the latter year Peacock suc- 
ceeded James Mill as chief examiner, holding 
this post until 1856, when he retired in 
favour of John Stuart Mill [q. v.J 

Despite his absorption in official labours, 
he produced in 1829 the delightful tale of 
' The Misfortunes of Elphin,' founded upon 
Welsh traditions, and in 1831 < Crotchet 
Castle,' perhaps the most brilliant of his 
writings. The death of his mother in 1833 
greatly shook him ; he said himself that he 
never wrote anything with interest after- 
wards. In 1837 appeared his lightsome 
' Paper Money Lyrics and other Poems ' 
(only one hundred copies printed), but this 
was ' written in the winter of 1825-6, during 
the prevalence of an influenza to which the 
beautiful fabric of paper-credit is periodically 
subject.' Towards the period of his retirement 
from the India office he began to contribute to 
' Eraser's Magazine/ and in that periodical ap- 
peared his entertaining and scholarly ' Horse 
Dramaticae,'and his reminiscences of Shelley 
Shelley's admirers were annoyed at their ap- 
parent coldness, and not without reason ; but 
want of personal knowledge disabled them 
from taking Peacock's idiosyncrasies into due 
account, and there could be no question of 
the extreme value of the appendix of Shelley's 
letters which he added in 1860. In the 
same year he gave a remarkable instance of 

rigour by the publication in ' Eraser 'of ' Gryll 
Grange,' his last novel. The exuberant 
humour of his former works is indeed want- 
ing, but the book is delightful from its stores 
of anecdote and erudition, and uninten- 
tionally most amusing through the author's 
inveterate prej udices and pugnacious hostility 
to every modern innovation. The last pro- 
ducts of his pen were two translations, ' Gl' 
Ingannati. The Deceived : ' a comedy, per- 
formed at Siena in 1851 ; and ' /Elia Lselia 
Crispis,' of which a limited edition was 
circulated in 1862. He died at Halliford on 
23 Jan. 1866. His wife had died in 1852. 
Only one of his four children, a son, survived 
him, and he for less than a year; but he 
left several grandchildren. 

Peacock's character is well delineated in 
few words by Sir Edward Strachey : ' A kind- 
hearted, genial, friendly man, who loved to 
share his enjoyment of life with all around 
him, and self-indulgent without being selfish.' 
He is a rare instance of a man improved by 
prosperity ; an element of pedantry and illi- 
berality in his earlier writings gradually dis- 
appears in genial sunshine, although, with 
the advance of age, obstinate prejudice takes 
its place, good humoured, but unamenable to 
argument. The vigour of his mind is abun- 
dantly proved by his successful transaction 
of the uncongenial commercial and financial 
business of the East India Company ; and his 
novels, their quaint prejudices apart, are 
almost as remarkable for their good sense 
as for their wit. But for this penetrating 
sagacity, constantly brought to bear upon 
the affairs of life, they would seem mere hu- 
morous extravaganzas, being farcical rather 
than comic, and almost entirely devoid of 
plot and character. They overflow with 
merriment from end to end, though the 
humour is frequently too recondite to be 
generally appreciated, and their style is per- 
fect. They owe much of their charm to 
the simple and melodious lyrics with which 
they are interspersed, a striking contrast to 
the frigid artificiality of Peacock's more am- 
bitious attempts in poetry. As a critic, he 
was sensible and sound, but neither possessed 
nor appreciated the power of his contem- 
poraries, Shelley and Keats, to reanimate 
classical myths by infusion of the modern 
spirit. His works have been edited by Sir 
Henry Cole in 1873, and by the present writer 
in 1891 ; neither edition is entirely complete. 
Four of the novels < Headlong Hall,' ' Night- 
mare Abbey,' * Maid Marian,' and < Crotchet 
Castle ' form vol. Ivii. of Bentley's ' Standard 
Novels,' published in 1837. A photographic 
portrait, representing him in old age, is in- 
serted in both editions of his works, and 




the edition of 1891 lias a youthful portrait 

[Memoirs by the present writer and by Sir 
Henry Cole prefixed to their respective editions of 
Peacock's writings. The latter has also an essay 
by Lord Houghton,and personal reminiscences by 
Mrs. Clarke, Peacock's granddaughter. Eecollec- 
tions by Sir Edward Strachey, bart., in vol. x. of 
Garnett's edition ; Shelley's letters to Peacock, and 
his biographers in general ; James Spedding in 
Edinburgh Eeview, vol. Ixviii. ; James Hannay 
in North British Keview, vol. xlv. ; R. W. Bu- 
chanan in New Quarterly Mag. vol. iv. ; George 
Saintsburyin Macmillan's Mag. vol. liii.] K. G. 

PEADA (d. 656), under-king of the 
South Mercians, the eldest son of Penda 
[q. v.], king of the Mercians, was made 
ealdorman or under-king of the Middle 
Angles by his father in 653. He desired to 
marry Alchflsed, or Ealhflsed, the daughter 
ofOswy, or Oswiu [q.v.], king of the North- 
umbrians, and went to her father's court to 
ask for her as his wife, but Oswy refused 
unless Peada became a Christian. Accord- 
ingly he heard preaching, and was further 
persuaded by his friend and brother-in-law 
Alchfrith or Alchfrid, who had married his 
sister Cyneburh or Ciniburga, so that he 
declared that he would profess Christianity, 
even though his wished-for bride should be 
denied him. He was therefore baptised by 
Bishop Finan [q. v.], along with his thegns 
and other followers, at a place called At-wall, 
supposed to be Walbottle, near Newcastle, 
and, having received his bride, took back with 
him to his kingdom four priests, Cedd [q. v.], 
Adda, Betti, and Diuma, afterwards bishop 
of the Middle Angles and Mercians. With 
the help of Peada these missionaries had 
great success, and daily baptised many nobles 
and sick people ; nor were they forbidden by 
Penda to preach in his immediate dominions 
(BEDE, Historia Ecclesiastica, iii. c. 21). 
On the overthrow and death of Penda in 
655, Oswy made Peada under-king of the 
South Mercians, separated by the Trent from 
the North Mercians, who seem to have then 
become directly subject to the Northumbrian 
king. At the following Easter-tide, how- 
ever, Peada was wickedly slain, it was said, 
through the treachery of his wife (ib. c. 24). 
He is said to have been one of the co-founders 
of the monastery of Medeshamstede, or 
Peterborough, with his brothers Wulfhere 
[q.v.], ^Ethelred, and Merewald, and his 
two sisters [see under PENDA]. 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl., Flor.Wig. (both Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Anglo-Saxon Chron. an. 652, and Peter- 
borough insertion under 656 ; Green's Making 
of England; art. 'Peada' in Diet. Chr. Biogr. 
by Bishop Stubbs.] W. H. 

PEAK or PEAKE, JAMES (1730?- 
1782 ?), engraver, born about 1730, practised 
in London as an engraver in the mixed 
etching and line manner of Thomas Vivares 
[q. v.] and others. He attained some emi- 
nence as an engraver of landscape, and his 
works are noteworthy in the history of 
English engraving. These are mostly from 
paintings by Claude Lorraine, G. Smith of 
Chichester, R. Wilson, J. Pillement, and 
other landscape-engravers. He also exe- 
cuted some spirited etchings of dogs and 
other animals. He is said to have died about 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Nagler's Kiinst- 
ler-Lexicon.] L. C. 

1847), dramatist, son of Richard Peake, who 
was for forty years in the treasury office of 
Drury Lane Theatre, was born in Gerrard 
Street, Soho, on 19 Feb. 1792. He was 
articled to James Heath [q.v.], the engraver, 
and remained with him from 1809 to 1817, 
when he turned his attention to writing for 
the stage. His first production seems to 
have been ' Amateurs and Actors/ a musical 
farce/ given at the English Opera House 
on 29 Aug. 1818, and revived at Covent 
Garden on 28 Oct. 1826. It was followed 
by ' The Duel, or My Two Nephews/ a two- 
act farce (Covent Garden, 18 Feb. 1823); 
' Presumption, or the Fate of Frankenstein/ 
based partly on Mrs. Shelley's novel, and 
partly upon a French piece (Covent Garden, 
9 July 1824) ; and ' Comfortable Lodgings, or 
Paris in 1750/ a farce, played first at Drury 
Lane on 10 March 1827 and on twelve sub- 
sequent occasions, witn Liston in the chief 
part of Sir Hippington Miff. One of the best 
of Peake's numerous pieces, ' The Haunted 
Inn/ a two-act farce, appeared at Drury Lane 
on 31 Jan. 1828, and was played eighteen 
times. His farce ' Before Breakfast' was 
acted at Bath on 28 Feb. 1828, and ' Master's 
Rival/ which had proved an utter failure at 
Drury Lane in the previous February, was 
given with applause at Covent Garden on 
6 May 1829. Peake is said to have written 
most of the later ' At Homes' given by Charles 
Mathews at the Adelphi from 1829 onwards. 
For about the last ten years of his life he 
he was treasurer at the Lyceum Theatre. 
His last play, ' The Title Deeds/ an original 
comedy, in three acts and in prose, appeared 
in 1847, and Peake died on 4 Oct. in this 
same year, leaving a large family in some- 
what necessitous circumstances. 

Besides those above mentioned, Peake's 
chief plays were: 1. 'The Bottle Imp,' a 
melodramatic romance, produced at Covent 





Garden on 17 Oct. 1828, and played several 
times. 2. 'The Hundred Pound Note,' a 
two-act farce [1829]. 3. ' Court and City,' 
a comedy, based upon Sir Richard Steele's 
* Tender Husband ' and Mrs. F. Sheridan's 
' Discovery ' [1830]. 4. ' Uncle Rip,' a two- 
act farce [1830]. 5. 'The Chancery Suit,' 
a comedy in three acts and in prose, 1831. 
6. ' House Room, or the Dishonoured Bill,' 
a farcetta, 1836. 7. ' Blanche of Jersey,' a 
musical romance [1838], 8. 'Gemini,' a 
farce, 1838. 9. 'The Spring Lock,' an 
operatic romance in two acts, 1838. 10. 'The 
Meltonians, a perfectly illegitimate drama 
and extravaganza ' [1838]. 11. The Sheriff 
of the County/ a comedy, 1840. 12. ' The 
Title Deeds,' an original comedy in three 
acts and in prose, 1847. Peake also wrote 
the letterpress for 'French Characteristic 
Costumes,' 1816, 4to ; Snobson's ' Seasons,' 
being annals of cockney sports, illustrated 
by Seymour, 1838, 8vo ; the useful ' Memoirs 
of the Colman Family,' including their corre- 
spondence with the most distinguished per- 
sons of their time, 2 vols. 1 841 , 8vo : and ' Car- 
touche, the celebrated French Robber,' 3 vols. 
]2mo, 1844. 

[Genest's History of the English Stage, vol. 
ix. passim; Times, 7 Oct. 1847; Era, 10 Oct. 
1847; Ann. Register, 1847, p. 261; Georgian 
Era, iii. 586; Hall's Reminiscences; Atla.nlic 
Monthly, April 1865; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

PEAKE, SIR ROBERT (1592P-1667), 
print-seller and royalist, born about 1-592, 
was son of Robert Peake, serjeant-painter 
to James I. His father held the office of 
serjeant-painter conjointly with John De 
Critz the elder [q. v.], with remainder to 
John De Critz the younger, and John Maunchi 
(see Cat. State 'Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603- 
1610). His skill in oil-painting was extolled 
by Henry Peacham [q. v.] in his ' Treatise on 
Limning and Painting.' The father, who is 
described as a ' picture-maker,' was probably 
the author of many of the numerous por- 
traits of James I which exist. In 1612 he 
was in the employment of Charles I, then 
Duke of York (see WALPOLE, Anecdotes of 
Painting, ed. Wornum, p. 220). In 1613 
he was employed by the university of Cam- 
bridge to paint a picture of Prince Charles, 
to celebrate the prince's visit to Cambridge 
and his taking the degree of master of arts 
on 4 March 1612-13; this portrait still 
hangs in the university library (see Collected 
Papers of Henry Bradshaw, ' On the Collec- 
tion of Portraits belonging to the University 
before the Civil War '). Among the elder 
Peake's pupils was William Faithorne the 
elder [q. v.] He probably died soon after 

the accession of Charles I, leaving two sons, 
William and Robert Peake, who became print- 
sellers on Snow Hill at a shop near Holborn 
Conduit, where they also dealt in pictures. 

Robert Peake the younger published a 
number of engravings by Faithorne, who, 
after studying for three years under John 
Payne, returned to work under his former 
master's son. When the civil war broke out 
Peake took up arms on the royal side. He, 
Faithorne, and Wenceslaus Hollar [q. v.] 
the engraver were all among the besieged in 
Basing House, of which Peake acted as lieu- 
tenant-governor under the command of John 
Paulet, fifth marquis of Winchester [q. v.] 
Peake, then lieutenant-colonel, was knighted 
for his services by Charles I at Oxford on 
28 March 1645. On the surrender of Basing 
House in October 1645 Peake was brought 
to London, and committed first to Winchester 
House, and then to Aldersgate. He was 
subsequently released, but exiled for refusing 
to take the oath of allegiance to Cromwell. 
After the Restoration Peake was appointed 
vice-president and leader of the Honourable 
Artillery Company under James, duke of 
York. He died in 1667, aged about 75, and 
was buried in St. Sepulchre's Church, Lon- 
don. A broadside ' Panegyri ck ' was published 
shortly after his death (Brit. Museum). 

[Walpole's A necdotes of Painting, ed.Wornum ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Fagan's Cat. of 
Faithorne's Works ; Vertue's Diaries (Brit. Mus. 
Harl. MSS. 5910, iv. 157).] L. C. 

PEAKE, THOMAS (1771-1838), ser- 
jeant-at-law and legal author, born in 1771, 
probably son of Thomas Peake, solicitor, of 
Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, 
gained celebrity in the legal profession by 
his unusually accurate reports of Lord 
Kenyon's decisions, viz. ' Cases determined 
at Nisi Prius in the Court of King's 
Bench from the sittings after Easter Term, 
30 Geo. Ill, to the sittings after Michaelmas 
Term, 35 Geo. Ill, both inclusive,' London, 
1795 and 1810, 8vo ; American reprint, ed. 
T. Day, Hartford, 1810, 8vo ; and 'Addi- 
tional Cases at Nisi Prius ; being a Con- 
tinuation of Cases at Nisi Prius before Lord 
Kenyon and other eminent Judges, taken at 
different times between the years 1795 and 
1812, with Notes by Thomas Peake, jun.,' 
London, 1829, 8vo. Peake was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 6 Feb. 1796, and 
to the degree of serjeant-at-law in Hilary term 
1820. He practised as a special pleader and 
on the Oxford circuit. He died on 17 Nov. 

Peake married, on 21 Jan. 1800, Miss 
Budgen of Tottenham, by whom he had 




issue a son Thomas, who was admitted 
student at Gray's Inn on 15 April 1823, 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 19 June 
1828, and died on 30 Jan. 1837. 

Besides his reports, Peake was author of 
* A Compendium of the Law of Evidence,' 
London, 1801, 8vo, a work which, though 
largely indebted to that of Sir Geoffrey Gil- 
bert [q. v.], embodied considerable original 
thought and research, and was long in high 
repute on both sides of the Atlantic. The 
fifth edition, greatly enlarged, was published 
at London, 1822, 8vo; American reprint, ed. 
J. P. Norris, Philadelphia, 1824, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1800 pt. ii. p. 587, 1837 pt. i. p. 
329, 1838 pt. i. p. 106 ; Foster's Gray's Inn Ad- 
mission Register ; Law Lis>t ; Marvin's Legal 
Bibliography; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. E. 

PEARCE. [See also PEAKSE and PIEKCE.] 

1733), architect of the Irish parliament-house, 
was a captain in Neville's regiment of dra- 
goons, and represented the borough of Ra- 
toath, co. Meath, in the Irish parliament 
which met in 1727. In January 1728 Chi- 
chester House on College Green, where the 
parliament had formerly assembled, was pro- 
nounced unsafe, and it was demolished in the 
following December to make way for a new 
building, the first stone of which was laid on 
3 Feb. 1728-9. The designs appear to have 
been made by Pearce for Thomas Burgh, who 
held the office of director-general and over- 
seer of fortifications and buildings in Ireland. 
Pearce succeeded Burgh in 1730, and was 
knighted in the same year ; and he superin- 
tended the works until they were sufficiently 
advanced to excite general admiration. Pearce 
is described as both the ' contriver and pro- 
jector ' and 'the architect of this work ' ( Constit. 
of the Free Masons, Dublin, 1730, p. 37), and 
it is plain that the credit of this 'noble 
piece of architecture ' was mainly due to 
him. The committee appointed to inquire 
into the progress of the work having sub- 
mitted their report on 22 Nov. 1729, the 
commons unanimously voted the payment 
of 1,000/. to Pearce for ' his care and pains.' 
In December 1731 this was supplemented by 
an additional payment of 1,000/. Another 
work, carried on simultaneously by Pearce, 
was the theatre in Aungier Street, Dublin, 
designed in 1732, at which time the architect 
was also contemplating the construction of a 
theatre at Cork. He died at his country 
house in Stillorgan, co. Dublin, on 16 Nov. 
1733, and was buried in Donnybrook church 
on 10 Dec. following. His brother, Lieu- 
tenant-general Thomas Pearce, governor of 
Limerick, who had served with distinction 

under Galway in Spain, was subsequently 
buried by his side. Shortly after Pearce's 
death the parliamentary committee appointed 
to inquire into the state of the building 
found that * Sir Edward Lovet Pearce, late 
engineer and surveyor-general, and his exe- 
cutrix, Anne, lady Pearce, had faithfully and 
honestly accounted for the sums received by 
them.' The building now the Bank of Ire- 
land was ultimately completed by Arthur 
Dobbs [q. v.] in 1739, and was subsequently 
embellished by James Gandon [q. v.] and 
Robert Parke [q. v.] Delany's contemporary 
poem, entitled ' The Pheasant and the Lark,' 
contains a complimentary allusion to Pearce's 
architectural skill, and, although the struc- 
ture on College Green was incidentally ridi- 
culed by Swift in his ' Legion Club,' it was 
highly praised by the English artist Thomas 
Malton the elder [q. v.] in his work on Dublin. 
The rumour that Pearce obtained his plan 
from Richard Castle [q. v.], the architect of 
Leinster House, has been traced to a pseu- 
donymous pamphlet privately printed in 
1736, the author of which avowed that Pearce 
had incurred his enmity by opposing him in 
a lawsuit. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Gilbert's Hist, of 
Dublin, iii. 74-7; Webb's Compend. of Irish 
Biogr. ; Gent. Mag. 1733, p. 663 ; Harris's Hist, 
of Dublin, 1766, p. 410; Mulvany's Life of 
Gandon, p. 117; Builder, 1872, pp. 410, 451, 511 ; 
Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Lenihan's Hist, of 
Limerick ; Members of Parl. ii. 664.] T. S. 

PEARCE, NATHANIEL (1779-1820), 
traveller, born on 14 Feb. 1779, at East 
Acton, Middlesex, was educated at private 
schools, but, proving wild and incorrigible, 
was apprenticed to a carpenter and joiner in 
Duke Street, Grosvenor Square. He soon 
ran away to sea, and on his return was ap- 
prenticed to a leather-seller, whom he left 
suddenly to enlist on the Alert man-of-war. 
In May 1794 he was taken prisoner by the 
French ; but after many attempts succeeded 
in escaping, and served again in the navy. 
Many adventures followed. Deserting from 
the Antelope in July 1804, he seems to have 
made his way to Mocha and adopted ma- 
homedanism, but managed to reach, on 
31 Dec. 1804, the vessel that was conveying 
Lord Valentia's mission to Abyssinia. Ar- 
rived at Massowa, he accompanied, in the 
summer of next year, Henry Salt [q. v.] as 
English servant on his mission to the court 
of the Ras Welled SelassS of TigrS. On 
Salt's departure in November, Pearce stayed 
behind in the service of the Ras. On more 
than one occasion he was compelled by 
jealous intriguers to quit the court, but by 
the autumn of 1807 he had made his position 




there secure. In 1808 he married the daugh- 
ter of Sidee Paulus, a Greek. In 1810 he 
met Salt's second expedition, and escorted 
it from the coast and back. Pearce re- 
mained in Abyssinia till 1818, when he set 
out for Cairo on a visit to Salt. He reached 
Cairo in 1819, and, after a journey up the 
Nile, returned there and died from the re- 
sults of exposure in June 1820, just as his 
passage had been taken to England, the ' R ' 
against his name in the navy list having been 
removed at the instance of his friends. 

His journals, which are one long record of 
adventures, and contain a most minute and 
careful account of the habits and customs of 
the Abyssinians, were edited by J. J. Halls, 
and published under the title of the 'Life 
and Adventures of N. Pearce,' 2 vols. 12mo, 
London, 1831. 

[Pearce's Life ; Salt's Voyage to Abyssinia, 
1814 ; Viscount Valentia's Voyages and Travels, 
vol. ii. 1809.] B. B. W. 

PEARCE, SAMUEL (1766-1799), hymn- 
writer, the son of a silversmith, was born at 
Plymouth, Devonshire, on 20 July 1766. He 
studied at the Baptist College, Bristol, and in 
1790 was appointed minister of'Cannon Street 
Baptist Church, Birmingham. There he 
laboured successfully till his death on 10 Oct. 

1799. He was one of the twelve ministers 
who, on 2 Oct. 1792, signed the resolutions 
founding the Baptist Missionary Society. In 
his ' Memoirs,' edited by A. Fuller, London, 

1800, there are eleven poetical pieces, some of 
which have been included in nonconformist 

[Memoirs by Fuller as above ; Julian's Dic- 
tionary of Hymnology.] J. C. II. 

PEARCE, THOMAS (/. 1755), legal 
author, was perhaps identical with the 
Thomas Pearse who was returned to parlia- 
ment for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis on 
24 April 1722, vacated the seat on being ap- 
pointed chief clerk of the Navy Office on 
13 Sept. 1726, and was subsequently, on 
7 Sept. 1727, made commissioner of the navy. 

Pearce was author of: 1. 'The Laws and 
Customs of the Stannaries in the Counties 
of Cornwall and Devon,' London, 1725, fol. 
2. ' The Justice of the Peace's Pocket Com- 
panion, or the Office and Duty of a Justice 
Epitomised,' London, 1754, 8vo. 3. ' The 
Poor Man's Lawyer, or Laws relating to the 
Inferior Courts Laid Open,' London, 1755, 
8vo. 4. ' The Complete Justice of the Peace 
and Parish Officer,' London, 1756, 8vo. 

[Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, 1726 p. 35, 1727 p. 
36 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Mem- 
bers of Parl. (Official List); Hutchins's Dorset, 
ii. 437 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. R. 

PEARCE, SIK WILLIAM (1833-1888), 
naval architect, was born at Brompton, near 
Chatham, on 8 Jan. 1833. He served his 
apprenticeship in the dockyard at Chatham, 
under Oliver Lang, and, continuing in the 
government service, was, in 1861, charged 
with the superintendence of the building of 
the Achilles, the first ironclad built in any 
of the royal yards. In 1863 he was appointed 
surveyor of Lloyd's registry for the Clyde 
district, and in 1864 became general manager 
of the works of Robert Napier & Son [see 
NAPIEK, ROBERT, 1791-1 876],who then built 
most of the vessels for the Cunard line. The 
vessels, however, which established Pearce's 
reputation were built in 1865 for the Com- 
pagnie Gen^rale Transatlantique, and their 
speed excited much attention. In 1869, on 
the death of John Elder [q. v.], Pearce, in 
conjunction with Messrs. Ure & Jameson, 
carried on the business under the style of John 
Elder & Co. In 1878 his partners retired, and 
Pearce remained alone till, on his entering 
parliament in 1885, the business was turned 
into a limited company under the name of the 
Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Com- 
pany, of which Pearce was chairman. During 
these years, by his skill, energy, and talent for 
organisation, the building of iron steamers 
was developed in an extraordinary degree. 
The Arizona, Alaska, the ill-fated Oregon, 
the Orient, Austral, Stirling Castle, and more 
especially the Etruria and Umbria, were 
among his best known ships ; he built all the 
steamers for the North German Lloyd's and 
for the New Zealand Shipping Company, as 
well as several for the Dover and Calais line, 
reducing the time of crossing to less than an 
hour. It was his ambition to built a vessel 
which should cross the Atlantic within five 
days, and in the summer of 1888 he exhibited 
in Glasgow the model of one calculated to do 
so. The admirable organisation of his works 
enabled him, on occasion, to produce most 
remarkable results, as when, in 1884, he built 
eleven stern-wheel vessels for service on the 
Nile in twenty-eight days, delivering them 
at Alexandria within the contract time, for 
which he received the thanks of the secretary 
of state for war. In 1885, and again in 1886, 
he was returned ;to parliament, in the con- 
servative interest, by the Govan division of 
Lanarkshire ; he was also chairman of the 
Guion Steamship Company and of the Scot- 
tish Oriental Steamship Company. He was 
a deputy lieutenant and justice of the peace 
for Lanarkshire, and in 1887 was created a 
baronet. The excessive strain of his gigantic 
and complicated business affected his nervous 
system, and gave rise to or aggravated a 
disease of the heart of which he died 




London on 18 Dec. 1888. He was buried at 
Gillingham, Kent, on the 22nd. He left a 
widow and one son, William George, who 
succeeded to the baronetcy. 

[Times, 18, 19, 24 Dec.; Engineer, 21 Dec.; 
Engineering, 21 Dec. 1888.] J. K. L. 

PEARCE, ZACIIARY (1690-1774), 
bishop of Rochester, born on 8 Sept. 1690 in 
the parish of St. Giles's, High Hoiborn, was 
son of John Pearce, a distiller, who made a for- 
tune and bought an estate at Little Baling. 
After living there for forty years, he died, 
aged 85, on 14 Aug. 1752. After some edu- 
cation in a school at Great Ealing, Zachary 
was sent to Westminster, 12 Feb. 1704, and 
in 1707 was granted a queen's scholarship. 
He was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1710. While at college he wrote a paper in 
the * Guardian,' and two in the last series of 
the < Spectator ' (Nos. 572 and 633), and after- 
wards one in Ambrose Philips's Freethinker' 
(No. 114). In 1716 he printed an edition of 
Cicero's ' De Oratore ' at the university press. 
A friend of his was known to Chief-justice 
Thomas Parker, afterwards (1721) Lord 
Macclesfield [q. v.], and obtained Parker's 
consent to receive a dedication. Parker was 
so much gratified that he requested Bentley 
to obtain Pearce's election to a fellowship. 
Bentley consented, but apparently with some 
reluctance (MoNK, Bentley, i. 411), for which 
perhaps he had reasons. At any rate, Pearce 
soon afterwards encouraged Colbatch in his 
famous struggle against the master. Pearce 
upon thanking Parker received a present of 
fifty guineas from his patron. He was or- 
dained deacon in 1717, and priest in 1718, by 
Bishop Fleetwood. Parker upon becoming 
chancellor in 1718 appointed Pearce to a 
chaplaincy. He lived in the chancellor's 
family for three years. In December 1719 he 
became rector of Stapleford Abbots, Essex, 
and on 19 March 1719-20 was inducted into 
the rectory of St. Bartholomew's, in the gift 
of the chancellor. The chancellor said that 
when applying to Bentley for the Trinity fel- 
lowship he had promised to make a vacancy 
as soon as possible. The Duke of Newcastle, 
dining one day at the chancellor's, recognised 
Pearce as an old schoolfellow, and made him 
one of the king's chaplains. In February 
1721-2 he married Mary, daughter of Benja- 
min Adams, a rich distiller in Hoiborn. On 
10 Jan. 1723-4 he was inducted into the 
vicarage of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, worth 
500/. year, which was at the chancellor's dis- 
posal in consequence of the translation to 
Ely of Dr. Thomas Green [q.v.], who had held 
it in commendam with the bishopric of Nor- 
wich. The chancellor then obtained for 

Pearce a degree of D.D. from the archbishop 
)f Canterbury. Pearce showed his gratitude 
'or this series of favours by dedicating an 
edition of Longinus, ' On the Sublime,' to 
lis patron. The chancellor's impeachment 
n 1725 put an end to his power of helping 
Pearce ; but they remained on friendly terms 
tillMacclesneld's death in 1732. The plan for 
rebuilding the church of St. Martin's in 1724 
made an act of parliament necessary in order 
to raise additional funds. Pearce waited 
upon Pulteney, who had large property in 
the parish, to ask his concurrence ; and 
Pulteney, also aWestminster boy, became a 
warm friend and patron. Lord Sundon, 
another parishioner, made Pearce's acquaint- 
ance, and Lady Sundon introduced him to 
Queen Caroline, with whom she had great 
nfluence (see WALPOLE, Reminiscences in 
Letters i. cxxx. ; and HERVEY, Memoirs, i. 
90). The queen took a liking to the popular 
doctor, ordered him to preach before her, and 
made two offers of preferment, which were 
accidentally frustrated. She also spoke in his 
favour to Sir Robert Walpole, but died be- 
fore she could do anything for him. Pearce 
asked Walpole in 1739 for the deanery of 
Wells ; and Pulteney, then in the heat of 
opposition, begged that his friendship with 
Pearce might not hinder the preferment. 
Walpole politely promised, but kept the 
deanery vacant until the death of Nailor,dean 
of Winchester. On 4 Aug. 1739 Pearce was in- 
stituted to the deanery of Winchester, worth 
600/. year, in consequence, as he believed, 
of a promise made by Walpole to the queen. 
Pulteney, after joining the cabinet, proposed 
Pearce for a bishopric ; but the Duke of New- 
castle would only promise for the next occa- 
sion, and Pulteney ceased to have influence. 
Archbishop Potter applied on his behalf in 
1746, without success, when Pearce declared 
that upon his father's death he should resign 
his living and be content with his deanerv. 
In 1747 Matthew Hutton (1693-1758) [q.v.'], 
bishop of Bangor, was translated to York, 
and the Duke of Newcastle offered the vacant 
see to Pearce, allowing him to hold St. Mar- 
tin's in commendam. Pearce at first declined, 
and even persuaded his father and Pulteney, 
now Lord Bath, to allow him to refuse 'with- 
out their displeasure.' Newcastle, however, 
pointed out that, if clergymen of merit re- 
fused bishoprics, ministers could not be 
blamed for appointing men of less merit. 
Pearce did not see his way to answer this 
argument, and was consecrated bishop of 
Bangor on 21 Feb. 1748. Bath had, he 
thinks, reminded Newcastle of his old promise. 
He visited his diocese annually (with one 
exception) till 1753, when his health became 




too weak, and he gave all preferments in his 
gifts to Welshmen. In 1755 the duke per- 
suaded him with less trouble to exchange 
Bangor for the bishopric of Rochester (in- 
stalled 9 July 1756) and the deanery of West- 
minster (15 "April 1756). 

In 1761 he was more obstinate. Lord Bath 
offered to procure his appointment to the 
bishopric of London, but he stated his re- 
solution to decline. He was growing old, 
and told Lord Bath that he meant to resign 
both bishopric and deanery. After some 
difficulty the king consented. The ministry, 
however, objected, because, as Pearce says, 
Bath had asked the king to appoint Thomas 
Newton [q. v.] to the vacant preferment. 
They thought that the king would thus be 
encouraged to interfere personally in the 
appointment of bishops, and objected suc- 
cessfully to the acceptance of Pearce's resig- 
nation. Pearce, however, resigned the deanery 
of Westminster in 1786. Although Pearce 
had obtained patronage in the manner com- 
mon to the clergy of the day, this desire to 
resign at the age of seventy seems to have 
struck his contemporaries as a proof of singu- 
lar disinterestedness. 

He celebrated the fiftieth year of his 
marriage (1772) as 'a year of jubilee' 
(verses written on the occasion are given 
in the 'Annual Register' for 1776, p. 233). 
His wife died on 23 Oct. 1773, their children 
having all died very young. A fortnight 
after her funeral he lamented his loss 'in 
proper expressions of sorrow and respect,' 
and spoke of her in the evening, but never 
mentioned her again. He was declining, and 
died at Little Baling on 29 June 1774. He 
divided his time between Baling and the 
palace belonging to the bishops of Rochester 
at Bromley, Kent. He was buried by the 
side of his wife at Bromley. He left his 
library to the dean and chapter of West- 
minster; his manuscripts to his chaplain, 
John Derby ; and 5,000/. to the college 
founded for clergymen's widows at Bromley 
by Bishop Warner. He built a registry at 
Rochester, and left legacies amounting to 
15,0007. to various other charities. There is 
a portrait in Bromley College, and a marble 
bust, said to be a striking likeness, on his 
monument in Westminster Abbey. A por- 
trait painted by Thomas Hudson, belonging 
to the archbishop of Canterbury, was en- 
graved in 1754 and prefixed to his works. 

Pearce was known as a good scholar. His 
editions of Cicero, ' De Oratore ' (1716) and 
' De Officiis ' (1745), went through several 
editions, and the first brought him a compli- 
mentary letter from his rival editor, Olivet. 
His edition of Longinus (1724) reached a 

ninth edition in 1806, though eclipsed by 
Toup's in 1778. 

His other works are: 1. 'An Account 
of Trinity College/ 1720 (mentioned in the 
list appended to the ' Life,' tut not in the 
British Museum or elsewhere ; it is pro- 
bably one of the pamphlets about Bentley, 
possibly to be identified with 'A Full and 
Impartial Account of the Proceedings . . . 
against Dr. Bentley,' 1719). 2. 'Epistolse duae 
ad ... F. V. professorem Amstelodamensem 
scriptae . . .'by ' Phileleutherus Londinensis,' 
1721 (an examination of Bentley's proposals 
for an edition of the Greek Testament). 
3. ' A Letter to the Clergy of the Church of 
England on Occasion of the Bishop of Roches- 
ter's Commitment to the Tower,' 1722 (and 
a French translation). 4. ' The Miracles of 
Jesus defended,' 1729 (against Thomas Wool- 
ston's ' Discourses ' ). 5. ' Reply to a " Letter 
to Dr. Waterland," setting forth many False- 
hoods . . . by which the Letter-writer [Conyers 
Middleton, q. v.] endeavours to weaken the 
Authority of Moses,' 1731 (Middleton pub- 
lished a ' Defence,' and Pearce a ' Reply' to 
the defence). 6. ' Review of the Text of 
Milton's "Paradise Lost," in which the chief 

! of Dr. Bentley's Emendations are considered,' 
1732. 7. A 'Concio ad Clerum,' preached 
before the convocation in 1741, was published 
with a translat ion : and, in reply to some criti- 
cisms, he published in 1742 'Character of the 
Clergy Defended.' 8. ' A Commentary, with 

i Notes on the Four Evangelists and the Acts 
of the Apostles, together with a new Trans- 
lation of St. Paul's First Epistle to the Co- 
rinthians, with a Paraphrase and Notes,' 
2 vols. 4to, was published in 1777, with 
his life, by his chaplain, John Derby, who 
in 1778 published also four volumes of his 

Ten sermons were also published separately 
during his life. 

[The Life (see above) prefixed to the Com- 
mentary published also in ' Lives ' edited by A. 
Chalmers in 1816. It consists of autobiographi- 
cal notes connected l>y Dr. Johnson, who also 
wrote the dedication to the king (Boswell's 
Johnson, ed. Hill, ii. 446, iii 112). Eepublished 
[by A. Chalmers] in 'Lives,' 1816. A letter upon 
the publication of Sir Isaac Newton's Chrono- 
logy is appended. Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 
107-11 ; Monk's Bentley, i. 411, ii. 79, 80, 144, 
323 ; Lyttelton's Memoirs and Correspondence, 
i. 161-2 ; Welch's Alumni West. pp. 248, 252-3 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, i. 108, ii. 575, iii. 22, 349 ; 
Cole's Athense Cantabr. ; Gent. Mag. 1775 p. 421, 
1776 pp. 62, 103, 116, 183, 208.] L. S. 

PEARD, GEORGE (1 594 ?-l 644), parlia- 
mentarian, born about 1594, was the son of 
John Peard of Barnstaple, Devonshire. Peard 




was admitted to the Middle Temple on 
23 June 1613. and represented his native 
town in the two parliaments called in 1G40. 
In the Short parliament he attacked ship- 
money with great boldness, calling it ' an 
abomination/ an expression which he was 
obliged to explain and withdraw (CLARENDON, 
Rebellion, ii. 68 ; Commons 1 Journals, ii. 9). 
In the Long parliament he took an active 
part in the proceedings against Strafford, and 
made long speeches against the etcetera oath 
imposed by the canons of 1640, and against 
Lord-keeper Finch (Speeches and Passages 
of this great and happy Parliament, 4to, 1641, 
p. 313; Notebook of Sir John Northcote, j>. 
98; SANFORD, Studies and Illustrations of the 
Great Rebellion, pp. 339, 344). He signalised 
himself also by moving that the Grand Re- 
monstrance should be printed, and by the 
disrespectful comments on the royal family 
(GARDINER, Hist, of England, x. 76 ; CLA- 
RENDON, Rebellion, v. 178). In June 1642 he 
contributed 100/. towards raising an army 
for the defence of the parliament, and pro- 
mised 201. a year towards the expenses of 
the Irish war (Commons' Journals, ii. 544). 

On the outbreak of the civil war Peard 
returned to Barnstaple, and became the guid- 
ing spirit of the preparations for its defence 
against the royalists. He was deputy recorder, 
and afterwards recorder, of the borough, and 
advanced various sums of money towards 
the cost of its fortifications. But the west 
in general fell into the power of the king's 
forces in the summer of 1643, and Barnstaple, 
in spite of ' the petulancy of Master Peard,' 
surrendered to Prince Maurice in August 
1643 (Mercurius Aulicus, 27 Aug. 1643; 
COTTON, Barnstaple during the Civil War, p. 
213). Peard fell ill soon after the surrender, 
is said to have been imprisoned for some time 
in Exeter gaol, and died during the following 
year. His monument, surmounted by a por- 
trait-bust, is in St .Peter's Church, Barnstaple, 
and his epitaph is given at length by Cotton 
(p. 282). 

[Cotton's Barnstaple and the Northern part 
of Devonshire during the great Civil War, 
1889.] C. H. F. 


1880), 'Garibaldi's Englishman,' born at 
Fowey .Cornwall, in July 181 1 , was the second 
son of Vice-admiral Shuldham Peard [q. v.], 
by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of 
William Fortescue of Penwarne. He was 
educated at the King's School, Ottery St. 
Mary, Devonshire, and at Exeter College, 
Oxford, where he matriculated 4 March 1829, 
and graduated B.A. 2 May 1833, M.A. 
17 Nov. 1836. A youth of "' great stature 

and extraordinary muscular strength,' who 
when but nineteen years of age weighed 
fourteen stone, he was described by an old 
waterman at Oxford as possessing 'the 
shoulders of a bull.' As stroke of the college 
boat, he was famous on the river, and during 
the town-and-gown rows of his undergraduate 
days his height and skill in boxing made him 
an object of terror to the roughs (TUPPER, My 
Life as an Author, p. 6 1 ). In 1837 he became 
a barrister-at-law of the Inner Temple, being 
called on the same day with Sir F. H. Doyle, 
who describes his draining on a gaudy day 
in hall a loving-cup ' which held about two 
quarts of spiced and sweetened wine.' For 
some time he went the western circuit, but 
life at the bar must have been irksome to 
him, and down to 1859 he was a captain in 
the Duke of Cornwall's rangers. During his 
frequent visits to Italy he had been cut to 
the quick by the brutalities of the Neapolitan 
officials. He therefore joined the forces of 
Garibaldi,with whose aims he was in thorough 
sympathy, and, as a * splendid rifle-shot/ or- 
ganised and commanded a company of re- 
volving-rifle soldiers, who gave him much 
trouble. When Garibaldi made his expedi- 
tion to Sicily he was joined by Peard, who 
distinguished himself at the battle of Melazzo 
(20 July 1860), and at its conclusion was 
raised to the rank of colonel. He also accom- 
panied the troops of Garibaldi on their ad- 
vance to Naples, and commanded the English 
legion. For these services he received from 
Victor Emmanuel the cross of the order of 
Valour, and was known throughout England 
as ' Garibaldi's Englishman ' (cf . West Briton, 
9 Aug. p. 6). 

On the retirement of Garibaldi to Caprera 
Peard returned to England, and when Gari- 
baldi visited England he paid a visit to his 
old comrade at his seat of Penquite, on the 
Fowey river, 25-27 April 1864 (cf. Journals 
of Caroline Fox, 2nd edit. ii. 290-1, and 
FREDERICK ARNOLD, Reminiscences, ii. 9). 
Peard was a J.P. and D.L. for Cornwall, and 
he served the office of sheriffin 1869. He was 
also a prominent freemason, becoming P.G.M. 
of Cornwall 26 Aug. 1879. He died at Treny- 
thon, Par, 21 Nov. 1880, from the effects 
of a paralytic stroke, and was buried in 
Fowey cemetery on 24 Nov. He married at 
East Teignmouth, Devonshire, 7 June 1838, 
Catherine Augusta, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
William Page Richards, formerly headmaster 
of Blundell's school, Tiverton. She survived 

A portrait is in the ' Illustrated London 
News,' 11 Aug. 1860 (p. 135). 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 439, 
iii. 1456 ; Boase's Collect. Cornub. pp. 690, 1018 ; 




Ann. Register, 1880, pt. ii. p. 217; Western 
Morning News, 22 Nov. 1880; Boase's Exeter 
Coll. Commoners, p. 245 ; Trollope's What I 
Remember, ii. 222-7 ; Sir C. Forbes's Campaign 
of G-aribaldi, pp. 94-9, 143, 200, 217-31 ; Sir 
F. H. Doyle's Reminiscences, pp. 222-3 ; Py- 
croft's Oxford Memories, i. 48-9, ii. 71.] 

W. P. C. 

PEARD, SHULDHAM (1761-1832), 
vice-admiral, third son of Captain George 
Peard of the navy, was born at Penryn in 
1761, and baptised at St. Gluvias on 29 Oct. 
At the age of ten he was entered on the books 
of the Fly, and afterwards on those of the 
Racehorse, as an ' able seaman.' He probably 
first went afloat in 1776, in the Worcester, 
with Captain Mark Robinson ; he was after- 
wards in the Martin with Captain (after- 
wards Sir William) Parker, and in the Thetis 
with Captain John Gell on the Newfound- 
land station. In 1779, having been sent 
away in command of a prize, he was taken 
prisoner and carried into Cadiz. On his 
return to England he passed his examination 
on 6 April 1780, and on 26 April was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant. In June 
1780 he was appointed to the Edgar, one of 
the Channel fleet, and continued in her till 
February 1782, taking part in the relief of 
Gibraltar in Aprill781. From 1785 to 1790 he 
was in the Carnatic guardship at Plymouth ; 
in 1790-1, during the Spanish armament, he 
was in the Princess Royal, flagship of Rear- 
admiral Hotham, at Portsmouth, and was 
again in the Carnatic in 1791-2. In January 
1793 he joined the Britannia going out to 
the Mediterranean with the flag of Hotham, 
and on 30 Jan. 1795 was promoted to command 
the Fleche. 

On 5 May he was posted to the Censeur, 
and in July was appointed to the Britannia 
as second captain. From her, in January 
1796, he was moved into the St. George, 
which he still commanded on 18 Jan. 1797, 
when, as the fleet was leaving Lisbon, she 
got on shore, had to cut away her masts, and 
was left behind disabled, while the fleet went 
on to fight the battle of Cape St. Vincent. 
The ship afterwards rejoined the flag off 
Cadiz, and was still there in the beginning 
of July, when a violent mutiny broke out on 
board. Peard, with his own hands, assisted 
by the first lieutenant, seized two of the ring- 
leaders, dragged them out of the crowd, and 
had them put in irons. His daring and re- 
solute conduct struck terror into the rest, 
and they returned to their duty; but the 
two men were promptly tried, convicted, and 
hanged on 8-9 July [see JERVIS, JOHN, EARL 
OF ST. VINCENT]. Of Peard's conduct on 
this occasion St. Vincent thought very highly, 

and many years afterwards wrote, ' his merit 
in facing the mutiny on board the St. George 
ought never to be forgotten or unrewarded' 
(TUCKER, Memoirs of the Earl of St. Vincent, 
ii. 408). 

In March 1799 Peard commissioned the 
Success frigate for the Mediterranean, and 
on his way out, when off Lisbon, fell in with 
and was chased by the Brest fleet. He, how- 
ever, made good his escape, and joined Lord 
Keith off Cadiz on 3 May [see ELPHINSTONE, 
warn him of the approaching danger. In 
the following February the Success formed 
part of the squadron employed in the blockade 
of Malta, and on the 18th had a large share 
in the capture of the Genereux, hampering 
her movements as she tried to escape, and 
raking her several times (NICOLAS, Nelson 
Despatches, iv. 188-9). On 9 Feb. 1801 the 
Success was lying at Gibraltar, when a strong 
French squadron, under Rear-admiral Gan- 
teaume, passed through the Straits. Peard 
conjectured as was the fact that they were 
bound for Egypt, and thinking that Keith 
ought to have warning of their presence in 
the Mediterranean, he immediately followed, 
hoping to pass them on the way. He fell in 
with them off Cape Gata, but was prevented 
by calms and variable winds from passing, 
and, after a chase of three days, was overtaken 
and captured. From the prisoners Ganteaume 
learned that the route to Egypt might be full 
of danger to himself, and turned aside to 
Toulon, whence Peard and his men were at 
once sent in a cartel to Port Mahon. On 
his return to England he was appointed in 
June to the Audacious, in which he joined 
the squadron at Gibraltar under Sir James 
Saumarez (afterwards Lord de Saumarez) 
[q. v.], and took part in the actions at 
Algeziras on 6 July, and in the Straits on 
the night of the 12th. The Audacious was 
afterwards sent to the W T est Indies, and was 
paid off in October 1802. In 1 803 and during 
the war Peard commanded the sea-fencibles 
on the coast of Cornwall. On 5 July 1814 
he was superannuated as a rear-admiral, but 
was restored to the active list on 5 July 1827, 
advanced to be vice-admiral on 22 July 1830, 
and died at Barton Place, near Exeter, on 
27 Dec. 1832. He left two sons, of whom 
the elder, George, died, a captain in the navy, 
in 1837 ; the younger, John Whitehead, well 
known as l Garibaldi's Englishman,' is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii.) 
p. 23 ; Service-book, in the Public Record Office ; 
Ann. Biogr. and Obit, for 1834 ; James's Naval 
Hist. Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub.l 

J. K. L. 




PEARL, CORA (1842-1886), courtesan, 
the assumed name of Emma Elizabeth 
Crouch, was born at Caroline Place, East 
Stonehouse, Devonshire, on 23 Feb. 1842. 
She was the daughter of Frederick William 
Nicholls Crouch, by his wife, Lydia Pear- 
son, a singer. Crouch, who was born on 
31 July 1808, was a musical director and 
composer of many songs, including the well- 
known ballads ' Kathleen Mavourneen ' and 
' Dermot Asthore.' He went to America in 
1845, and took up his residence in that coun- 
try. Cora, one of a family of sixteen chil- 
dren, was educated at Boulogne until thirteen 
years of age. Coming to England in 1856, 
she was misled by an elderly admirer into 
a life of dissipation, and took the name of 
Cora Pearl. In March 1858 she went to 
France, and a series of liaisons followed with 
various persons of influence under the second 
empire. Although large sums of money, with 
diamonds and jewellery, passed through her 
hands, she never became rich. She main- 
tained a large establishment in the Rue de 
Chaillot, which her admirers called Les 
Petits Tuileries, and kept the finest carriages 
and horses of any one in Paris. For some 
time she excited the greatest interest among 
all classes of Parisian society, and ladies imi- 
tated her dress and manners. She inherited 
the singing talents of her father, and at one 
period, when in want of money, made her ap- 
pearance at LesBouifes Parisiens as Cupid in 
Offenbach's opera ' Orphee aux Enfers.' On 
the night of her d6but the theatre was filled 
to overflowing ; certain of the boxes sold at 
five hundred francs, and orchestra-stalls 
fetched 150 francs each. On the twelfth night 
she was hissed, and she never reappeared on 
the stage. At the commencement of the war in 
1870 she came to England, but, being refused 
admission at the Grosvenor Hotel, London, 
she returned to Paris, converted her resi- 
dence into an hospital, and spent twenty- 
five thousand francs on the care of the 
wounded. On the conclusion of the war 
the commissioners refused any recogni- 
tion of her services, and on her appealing to 
the law she only recovered fifteen hundred 
francs. A son of Pierre Louis Duval, the 
butcher and founder of the restaurants 
known as the Bouillons Duval, however, 
befriended her. In the two years following 
his father's death (1870-1) M. Duval spent 
on Cora Pearl seventeen million francs ; 
and when he reached the end of his fortune 
she left him with contempt. At various 
times she was expelled by the police from 
France, Baden, Monte Carlo, Nice, Vichy, 
and Rome. In her last years she occupied 
herself in compiling her ' Memoirs,' and 

sent round advance sheets to the people men- 
tioned, offering to omit their names on suit- 
able payment. The work as ultimately pub- 
lished in 1886 proved dull reading, and gave 
little information. She was often called La 
Lune Rousse, in allusion to her round face 
and red hair. She had small eyes, high cheek- 
bones, beautiful skin, and good teeth. Her 
figure was modelled in marble by M.Gallois in 
1880. She died of cancer, in squalid poverty, 
in a small room in the Rue de Bassano, Paris, 
on 8 July 1886. 

[Memoires de Cora Pearl, Septieme mille, 
Paris, 1886 ; Memoirs of Cora Pearl, London, 
1886; Folly's Queens, New York, 1882, pp. 
23-7; Vizetelly's Glances Back, 1893, ii. 232; 
' Truth, 15 July 1886, pp. 105-6; Daily News, 
10 July 1886, p. 5; London Figaro, 24 July 
1886, p. 6, with portrait.] G. C. B. 

PEARMAN, WILLIAM (ft. 1810- 
1824). vocalist, born at Manchester in 1792, 
entered the navy when a boy, but, being 
wounded in the leg before Copenhagen, re- 
tired with a pension from the service. He 
then made some unsatisfactory attempts to 
become an actor, appearing at Tooting, Surrey, 
at the Sans Pareil Theatre in the Strand, and 
| with Macready's company at Newcastle. He 
at last achieved some measure of success as 
a singer of Dibdin's nautical songs at Sad- 
ler's Wells. John Addison (1766P-1844) 
[q.v.] gave him lessons, and enabled him 
| to take leading singing parts in provincial 
theatres, while Macready again engaged him 
for musical drama at Newcastle. 

On 7 July 1817 Pearman made his debut 
at the English Opera House as Orlando in the 
' Cabinet,' and he leaped into public favour. 
Of other impersonations in a similar vein of 
light opera, his Captain Macheath was espe- 
cially good ; he was said to be impressive in 
the prison scene, and, in short, the best 
Macheath on the stage. In 1819 Pearman 
was retained at Drury Lane for secondary 
parts, and in 1822 at Covent Garden ; but 
his voice and style were ineffective in a large 
house. His best effort here was said to be 
the imitative song, in ' Clari,' composed for 
him by Bishop, ' Ne'er shall I forget the day.' 
In September 1824 he distinguished himself 
as Rodolph in ' Der Freischiitz ' at the Eng- 
lish Opera House. 

Pearman's natural voice, soft or veiled in 
tone (Oxberry describes it as smothered), did 
not reach beyond E, although he could force 
a G. His falsetto was sweet when audible. 
It was not possible for him to sing many 
tenor songs in their original key. He was a 
small man, well proportioned, and so easy and 
graceful that his lameness was scarcely per- 
ceived. A portrait of Pearman as Leander 




in ' The Padlock,' drawn by De AVilde and 
engraved by J. Rogers, was published by 

[Oxberry's Dramatic Biography, i. 143 ; Geor- 
gian Era, iv. 521 ; Brown's Dictionary of Musi- 
cians, p. 465; Harmonicon, October 1824.] 

L. M. AT. 

(1815-1875), schoolmaster and author, born 
at Pirbright, Surrey, on 20 Nov. 1815, was 
seventh son of the Rev. James Pears, head- 
master of Bath grammar school, and brother 
of Sir Thomas Townsend Pears [q. v.] Pears 
was educated at Bath under his father, and 
was elected scholar of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, in 1832. He graduated B.A. in June 
1836, with a second class in litercehumaniores ; 
was elected fellow of Corpus, and remained in 
residence till 1838. He then became tutor to 
Lord Goderich (the present Marquis of Ripon), 
of whom he took charge until 1842. In 1839 
he gained the Ellerton theological prize for an 
essay on the ' Conduct and Character of St. 
Paul,' and in 1841 the Denyer theological prize 
for an essay on the ' Divinity of our Lord/ In 
1843 he was sent abroad by the Parker Society 
to search the libraries of Zurich and other 
places for correspondence relating to the Eng- 
lish Reformation. In the course of his re- 
searches he discovered a number of original 
letters in Latin from Sir Philip Sidney to his 
friend Hubert Languet, which he translated 
and published on his return (London, 1845). 
During 1844 and 1845 he was in residence 
at Oxford as dean of Corpus Christi College. 
In 1846 he was appointed fellow and tutor 
of Durham University ; and in 1847, at the 
age of thirty-two, assistant-master at Har- 
row under Dr. Vaughan. In the same year 
he married the elder daughter of Temple 
Chevallier [q. v.], professor of mathematics 
and Hebrew in Durham University. He 
remained at Harrow until 1854, when he was 
elected head-master of Repton School. At 
the time there were about fifty boys in the 
school, many of them village boys ; the 
schoolhouse contained only two or three class- 
rooms, and there were two boarding-houses. 

In 1857 the tercentenary of the school was 
celebrated, and it was resolved to build a 
school-chapel, which a large increase in the 
number of boys had rendered necessary. A 
boarding-house was built by Pears about the 
same time. He built another in the next 
few years with class-rooms, fives-courts, 
and library ; and several other houses were 
erected during his mastership. In 1869 he 
was examined before the endowed schools 
commission ; and a scheme was settled for 
the government of the school, which was 
included in the list of first-grade public 

schools. In 1874 Pears resigned the head- 
mastership, after nearly twenty years' ser- 
vice, during which he had raised the school 
from a local grammar school of fifty boys to 
a first-grade public school of nearly three 

He was, shortly afterwards, presented by 
the president and fellows of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, to the living of Childrey, 
Berkshire, where he died on 15 Dec. 1875, 
aged 60. A fine speech-room, named after 
him, was subsequently erected at Repton in 
his memory. 

Besides Sidney's correspondence, he pub- 
lished ' Sermons,' 1851 ; ' Three Lectures on 
Education,' 1859; ' Short Sermons on the 
Elements of Christian Truth,' 1861 ; and he 
edited * Over the Sea, or Letters from an 
Officer in India to his Children at Home,' 

[Ann. Reg. 1875, p. 156 ; private informa- 
tion ] 


(1809-1892), major-general royal engineers, 
son of the Rev. James Pears, head-master of 
Bath grammar school, and brother of Steuart 
Adolphus Pears [q. v.], was born on 9 May 
1809. He went to the East India Company's 
Military College at Addiscombe in 1823 ; re- 
ceived a commission as lieutenant in the 
Madras engineers on 17 June 1825, and, after 
the usual course of professional study at Chat- 
ham, sailed for India towards the end of 1826. 
He was employed in the public works depart- 
ment, and became a superintending engineer 
as early as 1828. Invalided to England in 
1834, he returned to India overland through 
Persia in 1836, and was appointed com- 
mandant of the Madras sappers and miners. 
He was promoted second captain on 15 Sept. 
1838. In 1839, while still commanding his 
corps, he was appointed chief engineer with 
the field force employed in Karnul. At the 
close of this expedition, which resulted in the 
seizure of the fort and town of Karnul and 
the subsequent capture of the nawab, he 
was despatched as field engineer with the 
force in China, and took part in the capture 
of the island of Chusan on the east coast in 

In the following year he was appointed 
commanding engineer with the army in 
China under Sir Hugh Gough, and highly 
distinguished himself. In Sir Hugh Gough's 
despatch of 3 Oct. 1841, reporting the cap- 
ture of the city of Tinghai, he observes that 
* the scaling-ladders had been brought up in 
most difficult and rugged heights by the 
great exertions of the Madras sappers, and 
were gallantly planted under the direction 




of Captain Pears, who was the first to as- 
cend.' After the capture of the fortified 
city and heights of Chapoo, Pears was again 
honourably mentioned for his judgment and 
gallantry in placing the powder-bags which 
blew in the defences of a fort where a des- 
perate resistance was offered. With the ex- 
ception of the attack on Canton and the bom- 
bardment of Amoy, Pears was present as 
commanding engineer in every action of Sir 
Hugh Gough's China campaign of 1841-2. 
He was repeatedly mentioned in despatches, 
and at the close of the war was rewarded 
with a brevet majority on 23 Dec. 1842, and 
the companionship of the Bath. 

On Pears's return to Madras he was em- 
ployed in the public works department, as 
superintending engineer at Nagpiir, and in 
various other responsible situations, chiefly 
in the inception and development of the 
railway system. From 1851 to 1857 he was 
the consulting engineer for railways to the 
government of Madras. He was then ap- 
pointed chief engineer in the public works 
department for Mysore, and was the trusted 
adviser of Sir Mark Cubbon [q. v.] 

Pears was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
on 1 Aug. 1854, and colonel in the army on 
1 Aug. 1857. He retired on a pension on 
8 Feb. 1861 with the honorary rank of major- 
general, but, on his arrival in England, was 
offered, unsolicited, the appointment of mili- 
tary secretary at the India office in succes- 
sion to Sir William Baker. 

When Pears took office under Sir Charles 
Wood (afterwards Lord Halifax) the duties 
were formidable and delicate, consequent on 
the reorganisation of the whole military 
system after the abolition of the East India 
Company. Vested interests, often extra- 
vagantly asserted, had to be defended against 
attacks often unreasonable in their character. 
He gained the implicit trust of the several 
statesmen under whom he served Sir 
Charles Wood, Sir Stafford Northcote, the 
Duke of Argyll, and Lord Salisbury. The 
organisation at home of the arrangements for 
the Abyssinian expedition was entrusted to 
him, and Sir Stafford Northcote wrote to 
him expressing the highest appreciation of 
his labours. On 13 June 1871 his services 
were recognised by the honour of a civil 
K.C.B. He retired in 1877 from the public 
service. He died at his residence, Eton 
Lodge, Putney, on 7 Oct. 1892, and was 
buried in Mortlake cemetery. 

Pears married, at Madras, on 31 Dec. 1840, 
Bellina Marianne, daughter of Captain 
Charles Johnston of the Madras army. She 
died at Putney on 17 Jan. 1892. By her he 
had seven children, of whom six survive him. 

His eldest son, in the Bengal civil service,col- 
| lector of Budaon, died at Allahabad in 1883. 
His second son, Major T. C. Pears, Bengal 
staff corps, is political agent at Ulwar, Raj- 
putana. One daughter married the Rev. 
Loraine Estridge, vicar of Bursledon, Hamp- 
shire; and another, J. H. Etherington-Smith, 
j barrister-at-law and recorder of Newark. A 
! portrait of Pears, by W. W. Ouless, R.A., is 
' in the possession of Mrs. Etherington-Smith. 

[Despatches; private information; Vibart's 
History of the Madras Engineers, 1883, and his 
Addiscombf, 1894 ; Ouchterlony's Chinese War. 
1844; India Office Eecords ; Koyal Engineers' 
Journal, November, 1892.] R. H. V. 

PEARSALL, RICHARD (1698-1762), 
dissenting divine, was born at Kidderminster 
29 Aug. 1698. His eldest sister, Mrs. Hannah 
Housman, extracts from whose diary he 
published, stimulated his religious temper. 
Another sister, Phrebe, was married to Joseph 
Williams, esq., of Kidderminster, whose 
1 Diary' was published by the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge. Richard 
was educated at a dissenting academy at 
Tewkesbury under Samuel Jones. Joseph 
Butler, author of the ' Analogy/ and Seeker 
(afterwards archbishop of Canterbury) were 
among his fellow- students. He was admitted 
to the ministry among the dissenters before 
1721 (Evang. Mag. xviii. 377). 

He was ordained at Bromyard in Here- 
fordshire, and succeeded Samuel Philips (d. 
1721), whose daughter he married, in the 
pastorate of the presbyterian (now inde- 
pendent) congregation there. He removed in 
1731 to Warminster in Wiltshire, where he 
apparently ministered to a body of seceders 
who charged the original presbyterian society 
with Arianism. From 1747 until 1762 he 
was minister of the large independent church 
at Taunton, Somerset. He died at Taunton 
on 10 Nov. 1762. In the ' Evangelical Maga- 
zine' (xviii. 377) there is a fine portrait, 
engraved by Ridley. 

Pearsall as a religious writer was a feeble 
imitat or of James Hervey (17 14-1758) [q.v.], 
who gave him much encouragement (cf. 
HERVEY, Theron and Aspasio, vol. iii. let- 
ter 9). Apart from a few tracts, sermons, and 
letters, Pearsall's works were: 1. ' The Power 
and Pleasure of the Divine Life exemplified in 
the late Mrs. Housman of Kidderminster, 
Worcester, as extracted from her own papers/ 
London, 1744 ; new edit. 1832, London 
(edited by Charles Gilbert). 2. ' Contem- 
plations on the Ocean, Harvest, Sickness, 
and the Last Judgment, in a series of let- 
ters to a friend/ London, 1753 ; Nottingham, 
1801 ; Evesham, 1804. 3. < Meditations on 




Butterflies: philosophical and devotional, 
in two letters to a lady,' London, 1758. 
4. ' Reliquiae Sacrse, or Meditations on Select 
Passages of Scripture and Sacred Dialogues 
between a Father and his Children; pub- 
lished from his MSS., designed for the 
press by Thomas Gibbons, D.D.,' London, 
1765 (only one volume published). 

Some poems by Pearsall, one of which ap- 
peared in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' March 
1736, are printed in ' Extracts from the 
Diary, Meditations, and Letters of Mr. 
Joseph Williams [Pearsall's brother-in-law],' 
Shrewsbury, 1779. 

[Memoir by Gibbons, prefixed to Reliquiae 
Sacrae (supra) ; Mrs. Housman's Diary (supra), 
pp. 68, 82, 90, and editor's preface to 1832 
reprint ; Mayo Gunn's Nonconformists in War 
minster; Evangelical Mag. xviii. 377 ; Diary of 
Joseph Williams of Kidderminster ; Middleton's 
Biographia Evangelica, iv. 390 ; Jerome Murch's 
Presbyterian and Baptist Churches in the West, 
pp. 86, 193 ; Bogue and Bennett, iv. 293 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, 
i. 352 ; information kindly sent by the Rev. 
W. B. Row, minister of the Independent Church 
at BPOTI yard, and by Mr. W. Frank Morgan of 
Warminster.] W. A. S. 

(1795-1856), musical composer, was born at 
Clifton on 14 March 1795. His father, Ri- 
chard Pearsall, had held a commission in 
the army ; his maternal grandmother, Phi- 
lippa Still, was a descendant of John Still, 
bishop of Bath and Wells. His mother was 
Elizabeth Lucas, from whom he inherited 
his musical taste. At her desire he was edu- 
cated (by private tutors) for the bar, to 
which he was called in 1821. He went on 
the western circuit for four years. During 
that period he was a constant contributor to 
' Blackwood's ' and other magazines. 

His musical talent was precocious, and at 
thirteen he wrote a cantata, ' Saul and the 
Witch of Endor,' which was privately printed. 
In 1825 he went abroad to recruit his health, 
and, settling at Mainz, where he remained 
four years, he studied music under Josef 
Panny, an Austrian, who directed a private 
music-school there. In 1829 he returned for a 
year to England, staying at his seat, Wills- 
bridge House in Gloucestershire. Soon remov- 
ing to Carlsruhe, for the purpose of educating 
his children, he continued composing. Among 
other works he wrote an overture to ' Mac- 
beth,' with witches' chorus, which, after 
a spell of popularity in Germany, was pub- 
lished at Mainz in 1839. At Munich Pear- 
sall subsequently studied the strict style 
of church music under Caspar Ett (1788- 
1847), an organist and teacher of repute. 

From Munich he went to Vienna, where he 
formed a lasting friendship with Kiesewetter, 
and he visited Nuremberg, where he investi- 
gated the ' Kiss of the Virgin,' a mode of tor- 
ture which he described in ' Archseologia.' 

In 1836 he returned once more to England, 
and became in the following year one of the 
first members of the Bristol Madrigal So- 
ciety, a body which during the early years 
of its existence frequently performed his 
compositions. It was probably due to the 
encouragement offered him by this society 
that Pearsall devoted himself to the com- 
position of madrigals, with which his name 
is chiefly identified. An essay by him on the 
madrigalian style was published in Ger- 

In 1837 he sold his property of Wills- 
bridge, and returned to the continent. In 
1842 he purchased the beautiful castle of 
Wartensee, on the lake of Constance. With 
Schnyder von Wartensee, a former owner of 
the castle, Pearsall had previously studied ; 
and, after a brief visit (his last) to England 
in 1847, he restored the ruined parts of his 
castle, where he passed the remainder of his 
life. At Wartensee Pearsall kept open house, 
and was frequently visited by men eminent 
in music, literature, and archaeology. There, 
too, he wrote the greatest number and the 
best of his musical compositions. He died 
suddenly, of apoplexy, on 5 Aug. 1856, and 
was buried in a vault in the chapel of War- 
tensee. Before his death he was received by 
his friend the bishop of St. Gall into the 
Roman church, and added the prefix ' de ' 
to his surname. He left a widow, a son, and 
two daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth Still, 
married CharlesWyndham Stanhope, seventh 
earl of Harrington, in 1839. 

Pearsall's works include many settings of 
psalms (68th, 1847 ; 77th and 57th, 1849) ; 
a requiem, which he considered his chef 
d'ceurre; forty-seven part-songs, madrigals, 
including ' The Hardy Norseman,' ' Sir Pa- 
trick Spens ' in ten parts, ' Great God of 
Love,' ' Lay a Garland on her Hearse.' The 
last two, for eight voices, and his arrange- 
ment of ' In dulci jubilo ' (four voices) de- 
serve a place among the finest specimens 
of English part-writing. Pearsall's madrigals 
combine ' artistically the quaintness of the 
old style with modern grace and elegance' 
(GROVE, Diet, of Music, ii. 659, s.v. < Part- 
song '). Besides his numerous compositions, 
Pearsall co-operated in editing the old St. 
Gall hymn-book, which was published under 
the title ' Katholisches Gesangbuch zum 
Gebrauch bei dem offentlichen Gottesdienste ' 
in 1863. Pearsall was also an excellent 
draughtsman, and assisted in illustrating von 




Hefter's ' Geschichte der Gerathschaften des 
Mittelalters.' He also published translations 
in English verse of ' Faust ' and l Wilhelm 
Tell.' His extensive and valuable library of 
musical treatises was presented by his heirs 
to the Benedictine Abbey at Einsiedeln in 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, passim ; an excellent 
brief memorial of De Pearsall was published by 
Mr. Julian Marshall in the Musical Times, 1882, 
p. 376, which corrected many errors that had 
appeared in previous notices ; Novello's cata- 
logues.] K. H. L. 

PEARSE. [See also PEAECE and PIEKCE.] 

PEARSE, EDWARD (1633?-! 674?), 
nonconformist divine, born about 1633, ma- 
triculated as a servitor from St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 10 April 1652, and graduated 
B.A. on 27 June 1654. In June 1657 he was 
appointed morning preacher at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, the former preacher and lecturer 
having been removed by the Protector's in- 
junction (MACKENZIE WALCOTT, St. Mar- 
garet's, p. 93 n.} On 31 Dec. his salary 
was increased by 50/. a year (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1657-8, p. 239) ; but it 
does not appear that he was appointed re- 
gular incumbent, and Calamy's statement 
that he was ejected in 1662 probably only 
means that he lost his post as preacher. 
He seems to have continued to live in 
London, and was lying ill at Hampstead in 
October 1673 ; he apparently died there early 
in the next year. An engraved portrait by 
R. White is stated by Granger and Bromley 
to have been prefixed to Pearse's ' Last 
Legacy,' 1673, where his age is given as 

He wrote religious works of evangelical 
tone which passed through numerous editions. 
The chief are: 1. 'The Best Match, or the 
Soul's Espousal to Christ,' 1673, 8vo. Other 
editions appeared in 1676, 12mo ; 1683, 8vo ; 
1752, 12mo; 1831, 12mo (Religious Tract 
Society) ; 1839, 8vo ; and 1873, 8vo. 2. < A 
Beam of Divine Glory, or the Unchangeable- 
ness of God . . . whereunto is added the Soul's 
Rest in God,' 1674, 8vo. These two dis- 
courses were also published under the title 
1 Mr. Pearse's last Legacy, being two Dis- 
courses,' &c. The only edition in the British 
Museum is the third, dated 1704, 12mo; but 
Granger mentions one in 1673. 3. ' The 
Great Concern, or a Serious Warning for a 
timely and thorough Preparation for Death 
. . .' 17th edit., London, 1692, 12mo ; a 25th 
edit, appeared in 1715, 12mo, and a new 
edition in 1840. 

Pearse has been confused by Wood and 
others with another EDWARD PEARSE (1631- 

1694), divine, ' a Welshman born,' who ma- 
triculated from Jesus College, Oxford, on 
7 Dec. 1650, graduated B.A. on 10 March 
1654-5, and M.A. on 25 June 1657. He is 
then stated to have become rector of St. 
Michael's, Crooked Lane, London. In 1663 
he became vicar of Duston, rector of Ald- 
winckle All Saints, and of Cottesbrooke, all 
in Northamptonshire. He died at Cottes- 
brooke on 2 Sept. 1694, aged 63, and was 
buried in the chancel of his church. He was 
licensed on 15 May 1666, being described as 
about thirty-three years of age, to marry Eliza- 
beth, niece of Sir John Langham, bart., whose 
patronage he enjoyed. She died on 4 Aug. 
1705, aged 72, and was buried by her husband's 
side, leaving two sons John (1667-1732), 
who succeeded him as rector of Cottesbrooke ; 
and William. Pearse was author of : 1. ' The 
State of Northampton from the beginning of 
the Fire on Sept. 20th 1675 to Nov. 5th. By 
a County Minister,' 1675, 4to. 2. ' The Con- 
formist's Plea for the Nonconformists,' 1681, 
4to ; 2nd edit., corrected and enlarged, 1681 ; 
3rd edit., * enlarged with a full Vindication 
of the Nonconformists from the Charge of 
the Murder of the late King,' 1683 ; all of 
these editions are in the Bodleian, but none 
in the British Museum. 3. l The Conformist's 
Second Plea for the Nonconformists. By a 
charitable and compassionate Conformist, 
author of the former Plea,' 1682, 4to ; 2nd 
edit, in the same year. 4. ' The Conformist's 
Third Plea,' &c., 1682, 4to. 5. ' The Con- 
formist's Fourth Plea/ &c., 1683, 4to. These 
pleas are referred to by Dr. Robert South 
fq. v.] when he denounced ' all the Pleas and 
Apologies for the Nonconformists (tho' made 
by some Conformists themselves) ' as l sence- 
less and irrational' (Sermons, edit. 1711-44, 
vi. 33). 

No relationship has been traced between 
either of the foregoing and WILLIAM PEARSE 
(1625-1691), ejected minister, who was son of 
Francis Pearse of Ermington, Devonshire. He 
studied at Exeter College, Oxford (1649-50), 
was presented to the parish church of Duns- 
ford on 25 Dec. 1655, and was ejected on the 
passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662. He 
preached privately at Tavistock for ten years. 
Upon the passing of the Indulgence Act in 
1672 he received a license for himself and his 
house, but was afterwards much persecuted, 
being in January 1 683 committed to the New 
Prison. At the Revolution of 1688 he was 
instrumental in erecting a meeting-house at 
Ashburton, where he continued till his death, 
on 17 March 1 691, aged 65. He published < A 
Present for Youth, and an Example for the 
Aged, being some Remains of his Daughter, 
Damaris Pearse.' 




[Works in Brit. Museum and Bodleian Li 
braries; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 
Wood's Athense, iv. 700-1, &c. ; Granger's Biogr 
Hist. iii. 335; White Kennett's Register and 
Chron. ed. 1728, p. 835 ; Bridges's Northampton- 
shire, i. 448, 556 ; Chester's London Marriage 
Licenses; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, 
i.149; Darling's Cycl.Bibl.ii. 23 17-18 ; McClin- 
tock and Strong's Cycl. of Biblical Literature ; 
authorities quoted.] A. F. P. 

1789), colonel, born about 1738, after serving 
as lieutenant in the Royal Military Academy 
at Woolwich, was appointed second lieu- 
tenant royal artillery on 24 Oct. 1761, first 
lieutenant on 3 Feb. 1766, and was transferred 
to the East India Company's service in 
February 1768. He was made major in the 
Bengal artillery on 2 Sept. 1768, lieutenant- 
colonel on 30 Oct. 1769, and colonel on 
12 June 1779. In India he was high in the 
favour of Warren Hastings, the governor- 
general, and acted as Hastings's second in 
his duel with Sir Philip Francis [q. v.] on 
17 Aug. 1779. 

In 1781, on the formation of the Bengal 
sepoy corps, Warren Hastings resolved on 
sending a detachment of five regiments to the 
relief of the presidency of Fort St. George. 
This important force was assembled at Midna- 
poor, and the command of it was conferred 
on Pearse. Artillery officers of the East India 
Company's army, in the early wars in India, 
held general commands, and were not, as in 
the royal artillery, confined to their depart- 
ment of the armv. The detachment con- 
sisted of the 12th, 13th, 24th, 25th, and 26th 
regiments. They proceeded on their march 
through Orissa and the northern circars ; and, 
having reached the vicinity of Madras about 
the middle of 1781, the Bengal troops joined 
the other forces in the field, under the com- 
mander-in-chief, Sir Eyre Coote [q. v.] ; and 
during the arduous warfare in which they 
were engaged from that period down to the 
cessation of hostilities before Cudalore in 
June 1783, the Bengal corps, under Pearse, 
established for themselves a lasting reputa- 
tion. The attack on the French lines at 
Cudalore was one of the first occasions on 
which European troops and the disciplined 
natives of India had met at the point of 
the bayonet. Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) 
John Kennaway [q. v.] was Pearse's Persian 
secretary in the campaign. Some two thou- 
sand out of the five thousand troops, the 
veteran remains of those gallant corps, re- 
turned to Bengal early in 1785, when their 
encampment was visited by the governor- 
general in person, and his testimony of their 
services was recorded in the general orders 

issued at Fort William on 22 Jan. 1785, and 
three days later in the camp at Ghvretty. 
In the latter the governor-general desires 
that ' the commanding officer, Colonel Pearse, 
whom he is proud to call his friend, will 
make [his thanks] known in public orders 
to the officers, his countrymen, and to the 
native officers and private sepoys of the de- 
tachment.' For his services in the defence 
of the company's territories in the Carnatic 
Pearse received a sword of honour. 

In May 1785 Pearse contributed a paper 
on < Two Hindu Festivals and the Indian 
Sphinx ' to the proceedings of the Asiatic 
Society at Calcutta, which was subsequently 
published in * Dissertations and Miscel- 
laneous Pieces relating to the History and 
Antiquities ... of Asia, by Sir W. Jones 
. . . and others, Dublin,' 1793. Pearse died 
on the Ganges on 15 June 1789. 

[India Office Records ; Philippart's East India 
Military Calendar; Malleson's Decisive Battles 
of India; cf. Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 29147-193 
(Warren Hastings Papers).] B. H. S. 


lord of session, under the title of LORD 
SOUTHALL, is supposed to have been the son 
of Alexander Pearson who was one of the 
counsel for Lord Balmerino in 1634 (BRUBT- 
TON and HAIG, Senators of the College of 
Justice, p. 338), but not improbably he him- 
self acted as Balmerino's counsel. Possibly 
also he was the Alexander Pearson who was 
appointed in 1638 one of a committee to 
examine if certain registers of the kirk were 
full and authentic (BAILLIE, Letters and 
Journals, i. 129), and in 1641 was appointed, 
with other advocates, to draw up the summons 
and libel against Montrose (ib. p. 384). Along 
with seven others he was in March 1649 
nominated a lord of session, in succession to 
those lords who had been cashiered for their 
loyalty (BALFOUR, Annals, iii. 390 ; GUTHRY, 
Memoirs, p. 300). He was also shortly after- 
wards named one of a committee for the re- 
vision of the laws and acts of parliament, a 
commissioner for the plantation of kirks, and 
one of the visitors of the university of Edin- 
burgh. He sat as lord of session until the 
supremacy of Cromwell in 1651 (NICOLL, 
Diary, p/76), and in October 1653 he was 
appointed a commissioner of judicature by 
the English parliament (ib. p. 115). In 1654 
he was conjoined, with Sir John Hope of 
Craighall, as judge of the high court; but, 
ac3ording to Nicoll, he was 'not comparable 
to Sir John Nather [sic] in judgement nor 
actioun' (ib. p. 122). In November 1655 he 




was continued an extraordinary jud^e (ib. p. 
1G8). He died at Edinburgh on 12 May 1657 
(LA.MOXT, Diary, p. 98). 

[The authorities mentioned in the text.] 

T. F. H. 

PEARSON, ANTHONY (1023-1670?), 

quaker, of Ramshaw Hall, West Auckland, 
Durham, was probably born there in 1628. 
After a good education and some training in 
law, he became, in 1648, secretary to Sir 
Arthur Hesilrige [q. v.] He acted as clerk 
and registrar of the committee for compound- 
ing from its appointment on 2 March 1649 
(Cal. State Papers, Committee for Com- 
pounding pp. 812, 821). On 10 Feb. 1651-2 
Pearson was nominated by the committee 
sequestration commissioner for the county of 
Durham (ib. pp. 541, 649). 

On the sale of bishops' lands Pearson 
purchased the manors of Aspatricke, Cum- 
berland (31 May 1650), and Marrowlee, 
Northumberland (5 March 1653), with other 
delinquents' estates belonging to Sir Thomas 
Elddell and the Marquis of Newcastle (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 239), but he 
continued to reside at Ramshaw. He was 
appointed a justice of the peace in three 
counties, and went on circuit to Appleby, 
Westmoreland, in January 1652. James 
Nayler [q. v.], the quaker, was tried before 
him there (SEWEL, Hist, of the Rise, Sfc. ii. 
432). Pearson appears to have regarded him 
as a dangerous fanatic (see NAYLER, Works, 
pp. 11-16, and NICHOLSON and BURNS, Hist. 
of Westmoreland, i. 537 seq.), but Fox, who 
had previously been to his house, made a 
better impression. So attracted was Pearson 
by the quaker's teaching that he repaired to 
Swarthmore Hall, and came under the strong 
personal influence of Margaret Fell [q. v.] 
and her daughters. In a letter to Alexander 
Parker [q. v.], dated 9 May 1653, he says he 
heard from her the truth of quakerism, which 
he had ' thought only the product of giddy 
brains ' (Swarthmore MSS.} Pearson and his 
wife afterwards accompanied Fox to Bootle in 
Cumberland, and Pearson was thenceforth a 
devoted follower of Fox (cf. Journal, p. 109). 
On 3 Oct. Pearson wrote ' An Address to the 
Parliament of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land' (4to, no printer's name or place), repre- 
senting in measured terms the unjust perse- 
cution of the quakers. 

In the spring of 1654 he was in London, 
and there wrote ' A fe w Words to all Judges, 
Justices, and Ministers of the Law in Eng- 
land,' London, Giles Calvert, 1654. On his 
return home he wrote to Fox, urging that 
no quakers should go to London ' save in 
the clear and pure movings of the Spirit, for 


there were many mighty in wisdom, and 
weak ones would suffer the truth to be 
trampled on.' The same year he was sent 
to Scotland as a commissioner for the admini- 
stration of justice (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1654, p. 126). On 9 May 1655 Pearson re- 
turned to London, and began a systematic 
visitation of all law courts, to gather informa- 
tion about tithes, and the treatment of the 
quakers who declined to pay them (BARCLAY. 
Letters of Early Friends, pp. 31, 33, 34). On 
28 May he delivered to Cromwell papers 
gathered by Thomas Aldam [q. v.] and him- 
self during a visit to most of the principal 
prisons in England as to the commitments 
(Swarthmore MSS.} Cromwell promised to 
read the papers, but was evidently averse to 
the release of prisoners. Aldam was soon 
after imprisoned, and Pearson with great 
difficulty, and after ' seeing Treasury Barons 
of Exchequer and other great men about it,' 
at last obtained, in a remarkable personal 
interview with Cromwell, a warrant for his 
discharge under the Protector's own hand. 

This interview is related in a letter, dated 
18 July 1654, from Pearson to George Fox 
(ib.) On the previous Sunday, near sundown, 
the Protector was walking alone on tha leads 
of the housetop, after his return from chapel. 
He led Pearson to a gallery, and ' kindly 
asked me how I did, with his hat pulled oft'.' 
The quaker remained covered, stood still, 
and gave him not a word. Fixing his eyes 
on Cromwell, Pearson fell into a trance, and 
at length began an impassioned and highly 
mystical harangue. The late wars he de- 
scribed as a figure, not for the Protector's or 
any person's interest, but for ' the seed's sake.' 
Cromwell had been raised up to throw down 
oppression, and was alone responsible for the 
cruel persecution of the quakers. Cromwell's 
wife and fifty or more ladies and gentlemen 
then coming in, Pearson l cleared his con- 
science to them all ; ' but the Protector now 
grew weary, and bade them let him go, 
maintaining that ' the light within was an 
unsafe guide, since it led the ranters and 
their followers into all manner of excesses.' 
Pearson adds, * I think he will never suffer 
me to see him again.' 

Pearson's well-known work, 'The great 
Case of Tythes truly stated, clearly opened, 
and fully resolved. By a Countrey-man, 
A. P.,' London, was published in 1657. The 
preface is addressed to the ' Countrey-men, 
Farmers, and Husbandmen of England.' A 
second edition was published in 1658; a 
third, corrected and amended, in 1659. An 
answer to this edition was published by Im- 
manuel Bourne [q. v. On 22 June 1659 

he delivered, with Thomas 







' Friends' Subscription against Tithes' to par- 
liament (BAKCLAY, Letters, p. 71). He acted 
as clerk to the general meeting of Durham 
Friends held on 1 Oct. 1659 (Letters, p. 

At the Restoration Pearson's loyalty was 
suspected. He was described as ' the prin- 
cipal quaker in the north, having meetings 
of at least one hundred in his house almost 
every night, with two or three horse-loads of 
skeene knives and daggers concealed there ' 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 93 a). He 
admitted to having stored the arms, but for 
the service of the king (Cal. State Papers, 
1661-2, p. 239). On 14 Dec. 1661 he was 
examined at Whitehall, and reported that he 
had lately been in Scotland by direction of 
Sir John Shaw and Sir Nicholas Crisp, that 
he had not corresponded with any one there 
since the Restoration, nor borne arms against 
the king. He was apprehended on 16 Jan. 
1662 for being in London contrary to the 
proclamation, but released under a certificate 
of Sir Edward Nicholas [q. v.], secretary of 
state. After this he appears to have renounced 
his quakerism, in his endeavour to stand well 
with the monarchy, going so far as to say that, 
although he had ' embraced the chimerical 
notions of those times and ran into excesses 
in his zeal for religion, he was still one of 
the best friends to the king's distressed ser- 
vants or to expelled ministers.' He protested 
that he was won over to different opinions 
many years ago, ' when it was not seasonable 
to express them,' by Sir William D'Arcy, and 
in proof of sincerity surrendered the delin- 
quents' estates that he had bought (loc czY.) 
He was further employed in Edinburgh by 
the government (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
1663-4, p. 191). 

In 1665 he was under-sherifFfor the county 
of Durham, and high in favour with the 
bishop, John Cosin [q. v.], in whose nomina- 
tion the office was (ib. 1664-5, p. 482, and 
1665-6, p. 224). Pearson probably died at 
Ramshaw Hall in 1670. He appears to have 
been a man of many parts, and one who came 
to the front in whatever he did, but without 
much stability. 

He married some time before May 1652. 
A daughter Grace married Giles Chambers, 
and became a noted quaker minister, travel- 
ling through England, Ireland, and Wales. 
She died in 1760, aged between 90 and 100 
(Notes and Queries, 1st ser. xii. 520). 

Pearson's work on tithes was reprinted, 
London and Dublin, 1730, and again in the 
same year (London, J. Sowle), with l an 
Appendix thereto.' To which is added a 
' Defence of some other Principles held by 
the People called Quakers .... By J. M.,' 

i.e. Josiah Martin [q. v.] Another edition, 
with a new appendix, consisting of ' An Ac- 
count of Tithes,' by Thomas Ell wood, Thomas 
Bennett, and others, was published London, 
Luke Ilinde, 1754, 8vo, and reprinted as the 
seventh edition, 1762. Subsequent editions 
have appeared, one by the Tract Associa- 
tion of the Society of Friends being dated 

[Authorities quoted above ; Lilburne's Just 
Reproof to Haberdashers' Hall, 1651, p. 6 ; Jan- 
ney's Hist, of Friends, i. 162, 163 ; Fox's Jour- 
nal (fol. ed.), pp. 05, 108, 109, 161, 181, 182, 265, 
286, 456 ; Barclay's Letters of Early Friends, 
pp. 31, 33, 34, 71, 292; Sewel's Hist, of the 
Rise, &c., ed. 1834, i. 86, 95, 104, 240, ii. 431 ; 
Webb's Fells of Swarthmore, pp. 47, 59, 71, 81 ; 
Smith's Catalogue ; Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 
979; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1654 p. 126, 1658-9 
i p. 360, 1G59-60 p. 127, 1661-2 pp. 177, 181, 
' 239, 244, 1663-4 p. 191, 1664-5, p. 482, 1655-6 
p. 224; Committee for Compounding, pp. 201, 
541,679, 812, 821, 1739; Thurloe State Papers, 
vi. 811. An autograph letter from Pearson is 
Addit. MS. 21425, fol. 178. Six letters from 
him are in the Swarthmore MSS. at Devonshire 
House, and continual mention of him is to be 
found in the letters from Thomas Willan and 
Greorge Taylor of Kendal, to Margaret Fell, in 
the same collection.] C. F. S. 

1894), colonial minister and historian, born 
at Islington on 7 Sept. 1830, was fourth son 
of the Rev. John Norman Pearson [q. v.] 
His brother, Sir John Pearson the judge, 
is separately noticed. He was a quiet boy, 
and, his parents belonging to the evangelical 
party, he was when quite young accustomed 
to read many religious books. Having, 
until the age of twelve, been taught by his 
father, he was in 1843 sent to Rugby school, 
where he remained until May 1846. After 
being for a year with a private tutor, he 
entered King's College, London, in 1847, 
and that year obtained the prize for English 
poetry. At King's College he was diligent, 
became a disciple of Frederick Denison 
Maurice [q. v.], and highly valued the teach- 
ing of Professor John Sherren Brewer [q. v.] 
While acting as a special constable on 10 April 
1848, the day of the chartist demonstration, 
he contracted a chill, which brought on a long 
and severe illness and left permanent bad 
effects on his constitution. He matriculated 
as a commoner from Oriel College, Oxford, in 
June 1849, obtained a scholarship at Exeter 
College the next year, and was in the first 
class in the literce humaniores examination in 
the Michaelmas term of 1852. He graduated 
B. A. in 1 853, proceeding M. A. in 1856. From 
boyhood he knew French, and while an under- 
graduate he studied, in addition to his uni- 




versity work, German, of which he read much, 
Bohemian, Italian, and Swedish; he belonged 
to a small society for intellectual discussion, 
which included some of the most promising 
among the younger members of the univer- 
sity, and he was president of the Union de- 
bating society. Intending to enter the medical 
profession, he read anatomy and physiology 
at Oxford for about two years after taking his 
degree, employing himself also in private 
tuition. In Easter term 1854 he was elected 
a fellow of Oriel, and soon after, being attacked 
by pleurisy, gave up his intention of becoming 
a physician, on the advice of his doctors. In 
the following year he was appointed lecturer 
on English literature, and shortly afterwards 
professor of modern history at King's Col- 
lege, London. lie obtained the prize for a 
poem on a sacred subject at Oxford in 1857 
with a poem on the death of Jacob, and 
about that time became a contributor to the 
* Saturday Review.' He was editor of the 
short-lived l National Review ' in 1862-3. 
Believing that his religious opinions were 
not in harmony with those held by the 
authorities at King's College, he proposed to 
the principal, Dr. Richard William Jelf 
[q. v.], to resign his professorship without 
making the cause of his resignation public, 
but was persuaded by Jelf to retain office, 
and did so until 1865. For several years 
he travelled much in Europe, applying him- 
self when abroad to the study of foreign 
languages, and in 1865 visited Australia, 
and remained there about a year. From 
1869 to 1871 he lectured on modern history 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Finding that his eyesight was suffering, 
he resolved to emigrate in 1871, and to 
engage in sheep-farming in South Australia. 
He landed in Australia in December, and 
his health was much strengthened by his 
new mode of life. On 6 Dec. 1872 he mar- 
ried, at Gawler, Edith Lucille, daughter of 
Philip Butler of Tickford Abbey, Bucking- 
hamshire. About a year after his marriage 
he gave up farming, and, leaving South 
Australia, became in 1874 lecturer on his- 
tory at the university of Melbourne. He 
resigned this post in 1875, and was appointed 
to the head-mastership of the Ladies' Presby- 
terian College, which he resigned in 1877, on 
account of the dislike with which the patrons 
of the college regarded his advocacy of a 
policy with reference to the land question 
contrary to their own (The Age, 4 June 
1894). He took a deep interest in the public 
affairs of the colony ; from this time onwards 
contributed freely to its newspapers ; and 
in 1877 unsuccessfully contested the repre- 
sentation of Boroondara in the liberal in- 

terest. Having been appointed by the 
minister of education to inquire into, and 
report on, the state of education in Victoria, 
and the best and most economical mode of 
rendering it completely free, he drew up an 
exhaustive report, issued in the spring of 

1878, advocating several changes of system, 
some of which have since been adopted. For 
this report, which involved much labour, he 
received a fee of 1,000/. He was in the 
same year elected member of the legislative 
assembly for Castlemaine. He advocated an 
advanced liberal policy, specially with regard 
to a progressive taxation of landed estates. 
Being chosen to accompany Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) Graham Berry on his unsuccessful mis- 
sion to England to request the intervention 
of the home government in a difficulty be- 
tween the houses of the legislature, he left 
Australia on 27 Dec. and returned in June 

1879, He was re-elected for Castlemaine in 

1880, and was minister without portfolio in 
the Berry administration from the August of 
that year until July 1881, when he was offered 
the agent-generalship of Victoria ; but the 
ministry being then on the point of being 
turned out, he did not think that it would be 
honourable to take the office, and accordingly 
declined it. He was elected in 18S3 for the 
East Bourke boroughs, for which he sat until 
the general election in April 1892, when he 
did not contest the seat. On the formation 
of the Gillies and Deakin administration, in 
February 1886, he became minister of educa- 
tion, and held that office until November 

His official duties were congenial to him, 
and he performed them zealously, introducing 
many changes into the system of education 
in the colony. Working in opposition to the 
general colonial tendency, he set himself to 
separate primary from secondary education, 
and to this end founded two hundred scholar- 
ships, admitting the holders of them to pass 
from primary to high schools. He tried, 
though without success, to make the com- 
pulsory clauses of the Education Act as 
operative as like provisions in Switzerland, 
reduced the limit of compulsory attendance 
at school from, fifteen to thirteen years of 
age, and the statutory amount of attend- 
ances from forty to thirty days a quarter. 
He largely raised the pay of certificated 
teachers, though he made some saving in 
that direction by employing teachers of in- 
ferior quality in very small schools. Be- 
lieving strongly in the importance of technical 
education, he procured liberal endowments 
for technical schools, and increased their 
number ; and, having obtained the assistance 
of an expert from England, he reorganised 

M 2 




the teaching of drawing. He was a firm 
supporter of secular education as established 
in the colony, thinking it the only means of 
securing perfect fairness towards all religious 
denominations. Some parts of his work as 
minister are embodied in the Act for Amend- 
ing the Education Act, which he succeeded 
in carrying through both the houses of the 
colonial parliament in 1889. At the time of 
his resignation of office he was preparing a 
scheme for the abolition of the system of 
payment by results. 

An attack of influenza with pneumonia in 

1892 led to his retirement from the assembly 
and to his return to England, where for a time 
his health was restored. Owing to pecuniary 
losses he accepted in 1893 the post of per- 
manent secretary to the agent-general. He 
contributed to some English journals, and in 

1893 published his * National Life and Cha- 
racter : a Forecast,' which attracted general 
attention. In this book Pearson arrived at 
very pessimistic conclusions respecting the 
future of mankind. He prophesied the triumph 
of state socialism, the substitution of the state 
for the church, the loosening of family bonds, 
the tyranny of industrial organisations, and 
other developments consequent on the growth 
of modern democracy in highly civilised coun- 
tries. He pointed out that these develop- 
ments imply the decay of character, of in- 
dependent genius, and of all that is best and 
noblest ; and he argued that the time will 
come when Europeans will find that the in- 
crease of the black and yellow races will be 
so far greater in proportion to the white that 
Chinamen and negroes will become masterful 
factors in the trade and politics of the world. 
A second edition appeared in 1894, and the 
reception of the work held out to its author 
the hope of further literary success. He died 
in London on 29 May 1894, in his sixty-fourth 
year, his wife and three daughters surviving 
him. Speeches were made by the head of 
the government of Victoria and others in the 
assembly on 5 June expressing the general 
regret with which the news of his death 
had been received, and the high esteem felt 
for him by men of different parties. In 189o 
his widow was granted a pension of 100/. on 
the civil list. 

Pearson was a polished speaker, and his 
literary style was simple and graceful. 
Though he was primarily a man of letters, 
he showed practical ability in public aiFairs. 
His convictions were strong, and he stated 
them courageously and in forcible language, 
yet he never spoke harshly of his opponents ; 
and one of the foremost of them, in a speech 
made in the legislative assembly on his death, 
declared that he had not left a personal 

enemy, and that he had raised the tone of 
debate in the house. Throughout his whole 
career he showed a fine sense of honour, and 
was always ready to sacrifice his personal 
interests to what he believed to be right. 
He was an honorary LL.D. of the university 
of St. Andrews. 

In addition to ' National Life and Cha- 
racter/ magazine articles, contributions to 
journalism, and the report already noticed, 
his published works are: 1. l Russia, by 
a recent Traveller,' 1859, written after a 
visit to that country in the previous year. 
2. ' The Early and Middle Ages of England/ 
1861, a brightly written and interesting book, 
though not fully representing the then state 
of historical scholarship, and afterwards held 
unsatisfactory by the author, who extensively 
revised it, and republished it as the first vo- 
lume of 3. ' The History of England during 
the Early and Middle Ages/ 1867, 2 vols., the 
second volume of which continues the his- 
tory from the accession of John to the death 
of Edward I. This book was reviewed with 
some bitterness by E. A. Freeman in the 
'Fortnightly Review/ 1868 (vol. ix. new ser. 
iii. pp. 397 sqq.), though the value of the 
second volume was acknowledged by him as 
well as by all others. Pearson replied to Free- 
man's review, referring to other criticisms 
which had appeared elsewhere anonymously, 
though coming, as he believed, from the same 
quarter, in a pamphlet entitled 4. ' A Short 
Answer to Mr. Freeman's Strictures/ &c. 

5. ' An Essay on the Working of Australian 
Institutions ' in ' Essays on Reform/ 1867. 

6. 'An Essay' in 'Essays on Woman's 
Work/ 1869. 7. < Historic Maps of England 
during the first Thirteen Centuries/ 1870, a 
work of much value. 8. ' English History 
in the Fourteenth Century/ 1873, a hand- 
book. 9. ' A Brief Statement of the Con- 
stitutional Question in Victoria ' [1879 ?], a 
pamphlet. 10. ' An English Grammar/ with 
Professor H. A. Strong, published in Aus- 
tralia. Pearson also edited Blaauw's [see 
1871, and Thirteen Satires of Juvenal/ with 
Professor Strong, Oxford, 1887, 1892. 

[Mennell's Diet, of Australian Biogr. ; Age 
(Melbourne), 4 and 6 June 1894; Argus (Mel- 
bourne), 2 June 1894 ; Westminster Gazette, 
1 June 1894, with portrait; Academy, 9 June 
1894; Sydney Mail, 1 6 June 1 894, with portrait ; 
private information.] W. H. 

PEARSON, EDWARD (1756-1811), 
theologian, was born at St. George's Tomb- 
land in Norwich on 25 Oct. 1756. His father, 
Edward Pearson (d. 1786),who was descended 
from a collateral branch of the family of Dr. 




John Pearson [q. v.], bishop of Chester, fol- 
lowed the business of a wool-stapler at Nor- 
wich, but shortly after 1756 he removed to 
Tattingstone, Suffolk, where he obtained the 
post of governor of the local poorhouse. Ed- 
ward, the eldest son, was educated at home, 
and entered as sizar at Sidney-Sussex College, 
Cambridge, on 7 May 1778. He attracted 
the favourable notice of Dr. William Ellis- 
ton, the master; and the Rev. John Hey, 
the college tutor, who held the rectory of Pas- 
senham, Northamptonshire, soon appointed 
him his curate (26 April 1781). Pearson 
was ordained by the bishop of Peterborough 
on 26 June 1781. He came out sixth senior 
optime in the mathematical tripos for 1782. 
proceeded to the degree of B.A. (M.A. 1785, 
B.D. 1792), and was elected fellow of his 
college. In 1786 he obtained the Norrisian 
prize for an essay on ' The Goodness of God as 
manifested in the Mission of Jesus Christ.' 
Early in 1788 he became tutor of Sidney- 
Sussex College, and at the same time under- 
took the curacy of Pampisford, about seven 
miles from Cambridge. He had previously 
held curacies successively not only at Pas- 
senham, but also at Cosgrove and at Strut- 
ton. He obtained fame as a preacher, and 
published in 1798 ' Thirteen Discourses to 
Academic Youth, delivered at St. Mary's, 
Cambridge.' In 1796 he left Cambridge to 
become vicar of Rempstone, Nottinghamshire, 
and thenceforth took a prominent position 
as a controversialist. In 1800 he published 
a searching criticism of Dr. Paley's system, 
entitled l Remarks on the Theory of Morals,' 
which was followed in 1801 by ' Annotations 
on the Practical Part of Dr. Paley's Work.' 
He next attacked the writings in defence of 
justification by faith published by John Over- 
ton (1763-1838) [q. v.] Of his tracts on this 
subject the most important is ' Remarks on 
the Controversy subsisting, or supposed to 
subsist, between the Arminian and Calvinistic 
Ministers of the Church of England ' (June 

In May 1806 Pearson proposed, in the 
' Orthodox Churchman's Magazine/ the foun- 
dation of ' a ritual professorship in divinity ' 
at Cambridge. Spencer Perceval, then chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, approved the scheme, 
and offered to guarantee the expenses for five 
years ; but the academic authorities refused 
to adopt it. Pearson was a strong advocate 
of Perceval's conservative policy in church 
matters, and issued, among other tracts in 
this connection, ' Remarks on the Dangers 
which threaten the Established Religion, and 
the Means of Averting Them ' (1808). 

In 1807 Pearson was appointed by Per- 
ceval's interest Warburtonian lecturer at 

Lincoln's Inn. In 1808, after the death of 
Dr. Elliston, he was elected master of Sidney- 
Sussex College, and received by royal man- 
date the degree of D.D. In the same year 
he was appointed vice-chancellor, and in 
1810 he was elected Christian advocate on 
the Hulsean foundation; his 'Hulsean De- 
fence, consisting of an Essay on the Pre- 
existence of Christ, a Sermon on the Trinity, 
and a Proposal respecting the Athanasian 
Creed,' was published the same year. During 
the later years of his life Pearson engaged in 
frequent discussions with Charles Simeon, 
i Avhose views he attacked in ' Cautions to 
j the Hearers and Readers of the Rev. Mr. 
Simeon's Sermon entitled " Evangelical 
and Pharisaical Righteousness compared " ' 
(1810). Pearson died of an apoplectic fit at 
his parsonage at Rempstone on 17 Aug. 1811. 
Besides the above-mentioned works, his pub- 
lications include numerous tracts, sermons, 
and ' Prayers for Families,' which went 
through four editions. In 1797 he married 
Susan, daughter of Richard Johnson of Hen- 
rietta Street, Covent Garden, London. 

[Green's Biographical Memoir, 1819, reprinted 
in IS ichols's Literary Illustr. v. 86-91; Hunt's Brief 
Memoir, 1815 (containing full bibliography) ; 
Records of Sidney-Sussex College ; Graduati 
Cantabr. ; Gent. Mag. 1811, pt. ii. p. 198; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] G. P. M-Y. 

PEARSON, GEORGE (1751-1 828),phy- 
sician and chemist, son of John Pearson, an 
apothecary, and grandson of Nathanael Pear- 
son, vicar of Stainton, was born at Rother- 
ham in 1751. He studied medicine in Edin- 
burgh, and became the pupil of Joseph Black 
[q. v.] the chemist. In 1773 he obtained 
the degree of M.D. with a thesis 'De Putre- 
dine.' In 1774 he removed to London, and 
studied at St. Thomas's Hospital. In 1775 
he travelled through France, Germany, and 
Holland, returning to England in 1777, and 
settling in Doncaster, where he became inti- 
mate with the actor John Philip Kemble 
[q. v.] During his six years' stay in Doii- 
caster he made his remarkable ' Observations 
and Experiments . . . [on] the Springs of 
Buxton,' London, 2 vols. 1784. He showed 
that the gas rising from the springs was 
nitrogen. He was admitted L.R.C.P. on 
25 June 1784, and became on 23 Feb. 1787 
physician to St. George's Hospital, where he 
lectured on ' chemistry, materia medica, and 
the practice of physic.' 

He was elected F.R.S. on 30 June 1791, and 
was for many years a member of the council. 
In 1796, when his name appears in the ' List 
of the Members of the Board of Agriculture,' 
he lived in Leicester Square. Pearson and his 
colleague Woodville were among the first to 




recognise the value of the discovery of vacci- 
nation by Edward Jenner (1749-1823) [q. v.], 
and were, indeed, the first to make experiments 
on a large scale in this matter. Soon after 
Jenner's first publications they vaccinated 160 
patients, and subsequently inoculated sixty 
for smallpox, of whom none took the 
disease (20 Jan. to 17 March 1799). Some 
of these experiments seem, however, to have 
been vitiated by the introduction of small- 
pox virus into the lymph. Pearson sent out 
letters to doctors in England and abroad 
with regard to his work ; and, in spite of the 
continental war, correspondence on vacci- 
nation was permitted between him and 
medical men in France and Italy (Gent. 
Mag.} On 2 Dec. 1799 a vaccine pock in- 
stitution, which became the official institu- 
tion for the army and navy, was established 
by his efforts at 5 Golden Square. He had 
not informed Jenner of his plan, though he 
eventually offered him the post of extra 
corresponding physician, an honour promptly 
declined. Jenner was now persuaded by 
his friends to come to London, and induced 
the Duke of York and Lord Egremont to 
withdraw their support from Pearson's in- 
stitution. When Jenner was rewarded for 
his services by parliament, the claims of 
Pearson and Woodville were ignored, and 
the former at once published an 'Examina- 
tion of the Report ... on the Claims of 
Remuneration for the Vaccine Pock Inocu- 
lation ' (1802), a violent but able and im- 
portant polemic against Jenner, whom he 
now took every opportunity to denounce. 
Jenner wisely made no reply. While Pear- 
son was evidently anxious for an undue 
share of credit in the matter, his claims 
both as a critic and a populariser of vacci- 
nation are undeniable. His objection to 
Jenner's term, ' Variola Vaccinae,' and the 
identification of cowpox with smallpox which 
it involves, and also to Jenner's identification 
of cowpox with the ' grease ' of horses, have 
been sustained by subsequent research (see 
Chauveau and others, quoted in CKOOZ- 
SHANK'S History, &c. pp. 302-5). Later, Pear- 
son seems to have lost faith in vaccination 
(BAKON, Life of Jenner, ii. 359). 

Pearson was intimate with Home Tooke 
and Sir F. Burdett, but took no part in 
politics. He was physician to the Duke of 
York's household. He died from an acci- 
dental fall at his house in Hanover Square, 
on 9 Nov. 1828. He left two daughters. 

Pearson was ' a disinterested friend, and 
a good-humoured and jocose companion.' 
As a practitioner he was 'judicious rather 
than strikingly original' (MuNK). As a 
lecturer he was ' distinct, comprehensive, 

argumentative, witty, and even eloquent/ 
It is as a chemist, and as an early advocate 
of vaccination, that he will be remembered. 
He was one of the first Englishmen to wel- 
come the theories of Lavoisier, and did much 
to spread them in England by translating in 
1794 the 'Nomenclature Chimique,' in which 
he substituted, without acknowledging the 
source, Chaptal's name ' nitrogen ' for ' azote/ 
As an experimenter he was methodical, in- 
genious, and trustworthy. His critical power 
is best illustrated in the memoir ' On the 
Nature of Gas produced by passing an Elec- 
tric Discharge through W T ater ' (Nicholson's 
'Journal,' 1797, abstracted in Annales de 
Chimie, xxvii. 61). Among his most im- 
portant chemical papers are those on the 
composition of carbonic acid, an extension 
of the work of Smithson Tennant [q. v.], 
which led Pearson to the discovery of calcium 
phosphide ; on wootz, an excellent account of 
the properties of iron and steel ; and on 
urinary concretions, including a chemical de- 
scription of uric acid (a term invented by 
Pearson), which was criticised by Fourcroy 
in * Annales de Chimie,' xxvii. 225. 

[G-ent. Mag. vol. ii. p. 549 (1828) and 
vol. xcix. pt. i. p. 129 (1829) ; Pantheon of the 
Age, 2nd edit. iii. 107; Eose's Biogr. Diet.: 
Munk's Coll. of Phys. ; Baron's Life of 
Jenner, i. 312,319, ii. 32,359; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Crookshank's Hist, and Pathology of 
Vaccination, i. 302-5, vol. ii. ; Thorpe's Diet, of 
Applied Chemistry (Lac-Dye) ; Percy's Iron and 
Steel (1864), p. 775 ; Lettsom's Observations on 
the Cowpock, 2nd edit. 1801, gives silhouette; 
Creighton's Epidemics in Great Britain, ii. 563 
(1894); Scudamore's Treatise ... on Mineral 
Waters, 2nd edit. p. 12 (1833); Donaldson's Agri- 
cultural Biography ; Diet, of Living Authors, 
1816 ; Wiegleb's Geschichte der Chemie. ii. 
449, 463 ; Griuelin's Gesch. der Chemie, passim ; 
Kopp's Gescb. der Chemie, passim; Observa- 
tions on Dr. Pearson's Examination of the Ee- 
port, &c., by T. Greaser (1803); Eoyal Society's 
Catalogue.] P. J. H. 

1856), dean of Salisbury, only son of Hugh 
Pearson, was born at Lymington, Hamp- 
shire, in 1767, and matriculated from St. 
John's College, Oxford, on 16 July 1796. 
He graduated B.A. in 1800, M.A. in 1803, 
and D.D. as 'grand compounder' in 1821. 
He gained in 1807 the prize of 500/. offered 
by Claudius Buchanan [q. v.] for the best 
essay on missions in Asia, and printed his 
work in the following year at the university 
press under the title ' A Dissertation on the 
Propagation of Christianity in Asia,' Oxford, 
4to. The interest thus aroused in Christian 
missionary enterprise in Asia prompted him 




to undertake in 1817 his ' Memoirs of the Life 
and Writings of the Rev. Claudius Buchanan' 
(2 vols. Oxford, 8vo : another edition, Phila- 
delphia), which he dedicated to William Wil- 
berforce ; and in 1834 a biography of greater 
interest, namely, ' Memoirs of the Life and 
Correspondence of the Rev. Christian Frede- 
rick Swartz, to which is prefixed a Sketch of 
the History of Christianity in India.' This 
reached a third edition in 1839, and was 
translated into German by C. P. Blumhardt, 
Basel, 1846. Pearson was in 1808 appointed 
vicar of St. Helen's, Abingdon, with Radley 
and Dray ton chapelries, and in 1823 he was 
preferred to the deanery of Salisbury and 
made a domestic chaplain to George IV. He 
resigned his deanery in 1846, and died at Son- 
ning in Berkshire on 17 Nov. 1856. Dur- 
ing the last years of his life he resided mainly 
with his fourth son. Hugh [see below]. 

The dean's eldest son, CHAELES BTJCHAXAN 
PEAESON (1807-1881), born in 1807 at Elm- 
don,Warwickshire, graduated B. A. from Oriel 
College, Oxford, with a second class in liter ce 
humaniores in 1828. He took orders in 1830, 
and was, in November 1838, preferred to the 
rectory of Knebworth, Hertfordshire, where 
he became intimate with the first Lord Ly tton. 
Besides a paper on 'Hymns and Hymn- 
writers/ contributed to ' Oxford Essays for 
1858,' and ' Latin Translations of English 
Hymns' (1862), he published ' Sequences 
from the Sarum Missal, with English Trans- 
lations ' (London, 1871), and ' A Lost Chap- 
ter in the History of Bath ' (Bath, 1877). 
His translations and paraphrases of hymns, 
based upon the best Latin models, are com- 
mended by Dr. Julian for their gracefulness. 
He died at Bath on 7 Jan. 1881 (MozLEY, 
Reminiscences, i. 168 ; Times, 10 Jan. 1881 ; 
Guardian, 12 Jan. 1881). 

The dean's second son, William Henley 
Pearson (1813-1883), assumed in 1865 the 
additional name of Jervis [see JERVIS, WIL- 
LIAM HENLEY PEARSON-]. Another son, 
Henry Hugo, who changed his surname to 
Pierson, is also separately noticed. 

The dean's fourth son, HUGH PEAESON 
(1817-1882), canon of Windsor, born on 
25 June 1817, graduated M.A. from Balliol 
College, Oxford, in 1841, and was in the 
same year appointed vicar of Sonning in 
Berkshire, a preferment which he held until 
his death. He was rural dean of Henley- 
on-Thames from 1864 to 1874, and of Son- 
ning from 1874 to 1876; he was appointed 
chaplain to the bishop of Manchester in 
1870, was created a canon of Windsor in 
1876, and, upon Dean Stanley's death in 
1881, succeeded him in the post of deputy- 
clerk of the closet to the queen. By nature 

! excessively retiring, and undogmatic to the 
j extreme limits of latitudinarianism, Canon 
Pearson was a notable figure within the 
: church ; while, outside it, his character en- 
deared him to people of every rank in life. 
He was an excellent preacher, but would not 
allow his sermons to be printed ; and though 
he had an extraordinary knowledge of lite- 
; rature, he never dreamed for a moment of 
| becoming an author. His friendships among 
j persons of eminence were many and sincere, 
I but the attachment of his life was that to 
Dean Stanley, with whom his friendship com- 
menced from the days that they were under- 
graduates together in 1836. He frequently 
I accompanied Stanley abroad, and was with 
him in Italy just before his marriage and 
his decision to accept the deanery of West- 
minster in 1863 ; he was present at Stanley's 
deathbed on 18 July 1881. He declined an 
invitation to succeed Stanley in the deanery 
at Westminster, on the ground that he wished 
to remain what he had always been a pri- 
vate person. He died, unmarried, on 13 April 
1882, and at his funeral in Sonning church, 
on 18 April, Lord-chief-justice Coleridge, 
Matthew Arnold, Benjamin Jowett, John 
Walter, and Professor Goldwin Smith were 
among the principal mourners. A memorial 
was erected in Sonning church, which had 
been finely restored through his instrumen- 
tality (Times, 15 and 19 April and 25 May 
1882 ; Guardian, 20 April 1882 ; PEOTHEEO, 
Life of Stanley, i. 218, 280, 301, 309, 422, 
500, ii. 45, 133, 137, 145, 332, 467, 571). 

[Jones's Fasti Ecclesiae Sarisberiensis, p. 325 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Gent. Mag. 
1856, ii. 775; Annual Eegister, 18o6 p. 279 
(the name is here given ' Pearsun '), 1882 p. 
129; Darling's Encycl. Bibl. ; Times, 24 Nov. 
1856; Salisbury and Winchester Journal, 22 Nov. 
1856 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

PEARSON, JAMES (d. 1805), glass- 
painter, was a native of Dublin, but was 
trained as an artist in Bristol. He had a 
large practice as a glass-painter, and intro- 
duced some improvements into the colouring 
of glass. Pearson executed on glass, in 1776, 
' Christ and the Four Evangelists' for Brase- 
nose College, Oxford, and ' The Brazen Ser- 
pent,' from the designs of J. H. Mortimer, 
R.A., for the east window of Salisbury 
Cathedral, inserted at the expense of the 
Earl of Radnor. He was assisted in his work 
(d. 1823), daughter of Samuel Paterson the 
auctioneer, who sold the first collection of 
pieces of glass-painting brought from abroad, 
and they together copied some of the paint- 
ings by the old masters, such as * The Saluta- 




tion' by Carlo Marat ti, ' The Temptation of 
St. Anthony ' by Teniers, &c., which they 
transferred to glass. A copy of Guide's ' Au- 
rora ' by Mr. and Mrs. Pearson is in the col- 
lection of the Duke of Norfolk at Arundel 
Castle. A collection of small paintings on 
glass, executed by Mr. and Mrs. Pearson 
conjointly, was sold by auction in 1797. 
Specimens of Pearson's work are to be seen 
in the churches of St. Botolph, Aldersgrate, 
and St. Giles's, Cripplegate ; and also in the 
parish churches of Battersea and Wands- 
worth. Pearson died in 1805. Mrs. Pear- 
son executed two sets of copies from Raphael's 
cartoons, one purchased by the Marquis of 
Lansdowne, and the other by Sir Gregory 
Page-Turner, bart. While she was making 
a third copy, a too close application to her 
art brought on an illness of which she died 
on 14 Feb. 1823. Mr. and Mrs. Pearson ex- 
hibited paintings at the Society of Artists' 
exhibitions in 1775, 1776, and 1777, and 
were then residing in Church Street, St. 
John's, AVestminster. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Winston's Me- 
moirs of the Art of Glass-Painting ; Dalla way's 
Anecdotes of the Arts in England ; Smith's Anti- 
quities of Westminster; Notes and Queries, 6th 
ser. xii. 255.] L. C. 

PEARSON, JOHN (1613-1686), bishop 
of Chester, was born at Great Snoring in 
Norfolk on 28 Feb. 1612-13, and was bap- 
tised on 12 March. His father, Robert Pear- 
son, Person, or Pierson, a native of Whin- 
fell, near Kendal, entered at Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge, as a sizar in 1587, and was 
elected fellow in 1592. In 1607 he was 
presented to the rectory of North Creake in 
Norfolk, and in 1610 to the neighbouring rec- 
tory of Great Snoring. Bishop John Jegon 
[q. v.] appointed him archdeacon of Suffolk 
on 6 Oct. 1613. That office he retained till 
his death in 1639, zealously aiding Bishops 
Wren and Montague in their enforcement 
of ecclesiastical order in the diocese. Arch- 
deacon Pearson married Joanna, daughter 
of Richard Vaughan [q. v.], successively 
bishop of Bangor, Chester, and London, by 
whom he had a large family. 

John, the eldest child, seems to have re- 
ceived his early training under his father's 
eye. In after life he ' took occasion very 
often and publicly to bless God that he 
was born and bred in a family in which God 
was worshipped daily ' ( WILSON, Parochialia}. 
From 1623 till 1631 he was at Eton. Sir 
Henry Wotton [q. v.] was provost, and John 
Hales (1584-1656) [q. v.] was one of the 
fellows, and while at Eton Pearson was thus 
able to lay the foundation of the erudition 

which distinguished him in an age of great 
scholars. One of his school contemporaries 
alleges that he spent all his money in books, 
and scarcely allowed himself natural rest, so 
intent was he in the acquisition of learning. 
Before he left school he had read many of 
the Greek and Latin fathers, and other books 
outside the ordinary study of schoolboys. 
Pearson's gratitude to Eton found expression 
in his ' Vindicise Ignatianse ' (cui ego lite- 
rarum primitias debeo). 

He was admitted at Queens' College, 
Cambridge, on 10 June 1631 : but, within a 
year, in April 1632, he was elected scholar 
of King's. Here he was made fellow in 
1634, graduated B.A. in 1635, and M.A. in 
1639. In the last year he took holy orders. 

Pearson's earliest extant literary produc- 
tion are some Latin verses, composed in 
1632, on the king's recovery from smallpox 
(' Anthologia Cantabrigiensis in Exanthe- 
mata Regia'). A few years later he wrote 
other verses to commemorate the death of 
Edward King (1612-1637) [q. v.], the Lycidas 
of Milton's elegy, who was drowned on the 
passage to Ireland on 10 Aug. 1637 (' Justa 
Edovardo King, naufrago ab amicis mreren- 
tibus, amoris et Mveias x<*P iV > Cantabr.', 1638, 
p. 14). Pearson's verses, while displaying 
accurate scholarship, are quite destitute of 
poetic fire. 

In 1640 Pearson paid his firstfruits for 
the prebend of Netherhaven in the cathedral 
of Salisbury, to which he had been collated 
by his father's friend, Bishop John Davenant 
[q.v.] He thereupon resigned his fellow- 
ship on 2 Aug. 1640, though he continued to 
reside at King's as a fellow-commoner. In 
the same year he was appointed chaplain to 
Lord-keeper Finch [see FINCH, Sir JOHN, 
BARON FINCH or FORDWICH], but that unfor- 
tunate statesman went into exile before the 
end of the year. The loss of his chaplaincy 
was in some degree made up to Pearson by 
his presentation to the rectory of Thorington 
in Suffolk on 27 Oct. 1640. 

In the troubled years which ensued Pear- 
son cannot have resided much at Thoring- 
ton. He certainly spent a portion of his 
time at Cambridge up to 1643. In that 
year, just before the opening of the West- 
minster Assembly, he preached a remarkable 
university sermon on 'The Excellency of 
Forms of Prayer.' He boldly declared his 
theological and political views, and with 
undisguised passion from which his other 
published writings are wholly free lamented 
the risk to which the cherished institutions 
of the church were being subjected by men 
who had little regard for learning and 




Subsequently Pearson joined the last rem- 
nant of Charles I's party in the west, acting 
as chaplain in 1645 to Goring's forces at 
Exeter (SHERMAN, Hist. MS. Coll. Jesu, 
Cantabr. p. 407). On the collapse of the 
royal cause he withdrew to London, where 
he seems to have remained till the Restora- 
tion, devoting the greater part of his time to 
his studies. He had lost the revenue of his 
prebend as early as 1642, and had resigned 
or been deprived of his rectory four years 
later ; but the possession of a small patrimony 
in Norfolk freed him from extreme privations, 
and enabled him to maintain two younger 
brothers at Eton. Moreover, patrons gave 
him pecuniary assistance. He is said to have 
been for a time chaplain to Sir Robert, the 
eldest son of Sir Edward Coke, and subse- 
quently to George, lord Berkeley, and his son 
of the same name and title, afterwards first 
Earl of Berkeley. In 1654 he accepted an 
invitation from the inhabitants of St. Cle- 
ment's, Eastcheap, to deliver a weekly ser- 
mon in their parish church. This he appears 
to have regularly continued up to the Re- 
storation, without receiving any pecuniary 
recompense. It was at St. Clement's that 
he preached in substance the series of dis- 
courses which he published in 1659 under 
the title of ' An Exposition of the Creed,' 
a work which is, within its limits, the most 
perfect and complete production of English 
dogmatic theology. Evelyn writes in his 
'Diary,' 15 April 1655: 'In the afternoon 
Mr. Pierson (since bishop of Chester) preached 
at East Cheap, but was disturbed by an 
alarm of fire, which about this time was very 
frequent in the city.' 

While debarred from the full exercise of 
his ministry, Pearson defended the church 
with his pen against both Romanist and 
puritan assailants. In a preface to Lord Falk- 
land's < Infallibility of the Church of Rome/ 
he pointed out some singular admissions 
made by Hugh Paulinus Cressy [q. v.], a recent 
convert to the Roman catholic communion ; 
and in 1649 he published a short tract, en- 
titled ' Christ's Birth not mistimed,' in refu- 
tation of an attempt made by some of the 
church's opponents to throw discredit on the 
calculation by which Christ's nativity is 
observed on 25 Dec. He also interested 
himself in promoting the great work of the 
silence^ clergy, the polyglot Bible, which 
appeared in 1654-7, under the editorship of 
Brian Walton [q. v.] (see EVELYN, Diary, 
22 Nov. 1652). It does not, however, ap- 
pear that Pearson had any literary share in 
this undertaking. He only gave or obtained | 
for it pecuniary aid. 

Pearson's reputation as a scholar was soon 

established, and his commendation was con- 
sidered sufficient evidence of the value of a 
work. Prefaces by him were published with 
Meric Casaubon's edition of Hierocles, 
Stokes's Explication of the Minor Pro- 
phets/ and John Hales's 'Remains.' In 
1657 Pearson, with his friend Peter Gunning 
[q. v'.], engaged in a conference with two 
Roman catholics on the question whether 
England or Rome was guilty of schism at 
the Reformation. A garbled account of this 
controversy, under the title of ' Schism 
Unmaskt/ appeared in the following year. 

Al'ter the Restoration, Pearson was col- 
lated by Juxon to the rectory of St. Chris- 
topher-le-Stocks in the city of London on 
17 Aug. 1660, and in the same month Bishop 
Wren made him a prebendary of Ely. On 
26 Sept. Brian Duppa, bishop of Winchester, 
conferred upon him the archdeaconry of 
! Surrey, which he retained till his death. 
j About this time he proceeded to the degree 
of D.D., and was appointed a royal chaplain, 
and on 30 Nov. he received from the patron, 
Bishop Wren, the mastership of Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

In February 1661 Pearson was one of the 
Lent preachers at court, and three months 
later one of the posers at the annual exami- 
nation of the Westminster scholars (EVELYN, 
Diary, 13 May). In the spring and sum- 
mer of this year he took an active part in 
the Savoy conference, where his courtesy and 
forbearance won the respect of his oppo- 
nents. He was the only champion of episco- 
pacy whom Baxter notices favourably. ' Dr. 
Pierson/ he says, 'was their true logician 
and disputant. . . . He disputed accurately, 
soberly, and calmly, being but once in any 
passion, breeding in us a great respect for 
him, and a persuasion that if he had been 
independent he would have been for peace, 
and that if all were in his power it would 
have gone well.' 

Pearson sat in the convocation which met 
in May 1661, when he was chosen, with John 
Earle, to superintend a version into Latin 
of the amended Book of Common Prayer ; 
he also took part in drawing up the service 
for 29 May, and the prayer for parliament, 
and was one of three to whom the revision 
of all the additions and amendments of the 
prayer-book was committed prior to its 
acceptation by both houses. By order of 
the upper house he prepared in 1664 a Latin 
and Greek grammar to be used in all the 
schools of England. 

Meanwhile, in June 1661, he succeeded 
Gunning as Margaret professor of theology 
at Cambridge, and hereupon he resigned his 
stall at Salisbury and his London living. 




As professor he at once delivered an im- 
portant series of lectures ' On the Being 
and Attributes of God/ forming the first 
portion of a scholastic treatise on the chief 
heads of Christian theology. A later course 
of lectures was on the Acts of the Apostles. 

On the appointment of Henry Feme [q. v.] 
to the bishopric of Chester, Pearson was 
chosen to succeed him as master of Trinity 
College, 14 April 166:?. This position, which 
he probably owed to the discernment of 
Clarendon, he held for nearly eleven years. 
He proved a popular ruler, and during his 
reign the college was free from all intestine 
divisions and disorders, but he probably de- 
ferred too much to the seniors (JEBB, Bentley, 
p. 93). He firmly resisted, however, an at- 
tempt of the crown to encroach upon the 
rights of the master and fellows in the exer- 
cise of their patronage. 

In 1667 Pearson was elected a fellow of 
the newly founded Royal Society, though he 
seems to have shared little in its proceedings. 
In the same year he pronounced a noble 
oration at the funeral of his friend and patron 
Bishop AYren. 

During his stay at Trinity, Pearson made 
several important contributions to learning. 
In 1664 he wrote a preface to Menage's 
edition of l Diogenes Laertius,' and in the 
following year he prefixed a critical essay to 
a Cambridge edition of the ' Septuagint.' 
But the great work which employed his 
learned leisure was his * Yindicise Epistola- 
rum S. Ignatii,' on which, with his ' Expo- 
sition of the Creed,' his reputation mainly 
rests. This profoundly learned work ap- 
peared in 1 672, the last Vear of his residence 
at Cambridge. 

Early in the following year (9 Feb. 1673) 
Pearson was consecrated bishop of Chester, 
in the place of John Wilkins [q.v.] His 
elevation to the episcopate had been long 
delayed by the influence of the Cabal ministry ; 
but Archbishop Sheldon at length succeeded 
in bringing about the well-earned promo- 
tion. Pearson took little or no part in state 
affairs, and seems to have resided seldom in 
London, spending most of his time in his 
diocese, either at Chester or Wigan, the 
rectory of which town he held in commen- 
dam. He occasionally preached at White- 
hall, but there is only one of his sermons 
extant preached after he became a bishop. 
Burnet asserts that l he was not active in 
his diocese, but too remiss and easy in his 
episcopal functions ; and was a much better 
divine than bishop.' This charge is not borne 
out by facts. The act-books of the diocese 
prove his painstaking care, and he was cer- 
tainly wise in the choice of those he pre- 

ferred. The testimony of Laurence Echard, 
that ' he filled the bishopric of Chester with 
great honour and reputation,' is probably 
entirely true. During his episcopate he con- 
tinued to employ the hours spared from 
public duties in the service of sacred learn- 
ing. The fruit of those labours was dis- 
played in the ' Annales Cyprianici,' prefixed 
to Bishop Fell's edition of St. Cyprian, which 
appeared in 1682, and in two dissertations 
on the ' Succession and Times of the first 
Bishops of Rome,' which were not published 
till after his death. 

Pearson died at Chester on 16 July 1686. 
The common report that he was disqualified 
from all public service by his infirmities, and 
especially by a total loss of memory, for 
some years before his death is groundless. 
He held an ordination service so late as 
'2\ Dec. 1684, and six months later he added 
to his will a codicil which showed him in 
full possession of his mental faculties. In 
the last year of his life he certainly suffered 
from decay of mind as well as body ; and 
Henry Dodwell has left an affecting account 
of the great scholar, led by his nurse, stretch- 
ing his hands to his books, and crying ' O sad, 
whose books are all these ! ' (BBYDGES, Re- 
stituta, i. 53). 

The bishop's body was laid in his cathe- 
dral at the east end of the choir, but no 
monument was raised to his memory till 
1860, when a stately tomb, designed by Sir 
A. Blomfield, was placed in the north tran- 
sept, at the expense of admirers of Pearson 
both in Great Britain and America (How- 
soff, Handbook to Chester Cathedral). 

It seems all but certain that Pearson died 
unmarried. The only reference to a wife 
occurs in a reported conversation with a 
nonagenarian fellow of Trinity, in which 
either the old man's memory or the re- 
porter's statement appears to have been at 

Pearson was a man of spotless life and of 
an excellent temper. His equanimity per- 
plexed his nonconformist opponents. This 
absence of passion, while it proved a most 
valuable quality in controversy, rendered 
him * more instructive than affective ' as a 
preacher. Pearson strongly supported the 
Restoration settlement of the church, and 
would give no support to any schemes of 
comprehension which did not insist on uni- 

Among Englishmen of the seventeenth 
century, Pearson was probably the ablest 
scholar and systematic theologian. Burnet 
pronounces him ' in all respects the greatest 
divine of the age,' Menage ' le plus savant 
des Anglais,' and Bentley writes of ' the 




most excellent Bishop Pearson, the very 
dust of whose writings is gold' (Disserta- 
tion on Phalaris, pp. 424-5, ed. 1699). ' Pro- ( 
bably no other Englishman,' says Archdea- 
con Cheetham, ' few of any nation, had the 
same accurate knowledge of antiquity which 
Pearson possessed, and the same power of | 
using it with skill and judgment. If he had ' 
not been a theologian, he might have been j 
known simply as the best English scholar be- 
fore Bentley ; he was a theologian, but he was \ 
none the less a great scholar. . . . Xo Eng- ' 
lish theologian has less claim to originality or 
imagination ; he proceeds always upon autho- 
rities, and his distinctive skill is in the dis- 
crimination and use of authorities/ 

The ' Exposition of the Creed,' on which 
Pearson's reputation still mainly rests, has , 
long been a standard book in English divinity. ! 
It has won the highest praise, not only from i 
Anglican theologians, but from such men as : 
Dr. Johnson, Dean Milman, and Hallam. 
The last-mentioned writer says : t It expands ! 
beyond the literal purport of the Creed 
itself to most articles of orthodox belief, 
and is a valuable summary of arguments and 
authorities on that side. The closeness of j 
Pearson and his judicious selection of proofs 
distinguish him from many, especially the 
earlier, theologians ' (Lit. Hist. Eur. pt. iv. 
ch. ii.) ' Pearson's preference for the scho- i 
lastic method of theology appears in the 
book ; it is the work of one accustomed to i 
vigorous definition and exact deduction, and j 
might easily be thrown into a form similar 
to that in which the schoolmen have treated 
the same subjects. The style is singularly 
unambitious, and seems to aim at nothing 
beyond the careful and accurate statement 
of propositions and arguments.' The notes 
to the ' Exposition ' a rich mine of patristic 
and general learning are at least as re- 
markable as the text, and form a complete 
catena of the best authorities upon doctrinal 

The first edition of the book (which is 
dedicated to the parishioners of St. Cle- 
ment's, Eastcheap) appeared in quarto in 
1659 ; all the subsequent editions down to 
1723 were folios. The latest in which the 
author made any alterations was the third, 
1669. The famous ninth edition, 'by W. 
Bowyer'the elder, appeared in 1710. The 
earliest octavo edition was published at 
Oxford in 1797. Numerous editions of the 
work have appeared in the present century 
under the editorship of W. S. Dobson, E. 
Burton, Temple Chevallier, J. Nichols, and 
E. Watford ; the latest and best is Cheval- 
lier's, revised by R. Sinker, Cambridge, 1882. 
Numerous abridgments have been made, the 

best known being those of Basil Kennett, 
Charles Burney, and C. Bradley. There are 
also several analyses, that by" William H. 
Mill (London, 1843) being a* masterly per- 
formance. The ' Exposition ' has been trans- 
lated into many languages ; a Latin ver- 
sion, by S. J. Arnold, appeared as early as 

The other great work of Pearson, the 
' Yindiciae Epistolarum S. Ignatii,' was an 
elaborate answer to Daille's attack on the 
authenticity of the letters ascribed to Igna- 
tius of Antioch. It was probably Pearson's 
veneration for episcopacy which induced him 
to undertake this work. " The letters every- 
where recognised it as an institution essen- 
tial to the completeness of a church, and, if 
their early date could be proved, the oppo- 
nents of episcopacy recognised the untenable- 
ness of their position. Daille therefore 
sought to show that all the so-called Igna- 
tian writings were not much earlier than 
Constantine. On this point Pearson gained 
an easy victory over him, and went a great 
way in proving the authorship of the letters. 
1 It was incomparably the most valuable con- 
tribution to the subject which had hitherto 
appeared, with the exception of Ussher's 
work. Pearson's learning, critical ability, 
clearness of statement, and moderation of 
tone, nowhere appear to greater advantage 
than in this work. If here and there an 
argument is overstrained, this was the almost 
inevitable consequence of the writer's position 
as the champion of a cause which had been 
recklessly and violently assailed on all sides. 
. . . Compared with Daille's attack, Pearson's 
reply was as light to darkness ' (LiGHxrooT, 
Apostolic Fathers, pt. ii. vol. i. p. 333). Till 
the discovery of Cureton's ' Syrian Recen- 
sion of the Epistles,' in 1845, Pearson was 
considered to have practically settled the 
question of their genuineness. Cureton's 
discovery reopened the dispute, and for a 
while three only of the seven letters de- 
fended by Pearson were allowed to be of 
Ignatian origin. The recent labours of Zahn 
and Lightfoot have, however, vindicated the 
authenticity of the suspected letters, and 
Pearson's position is therefore once more 
generally accepted by scholars. 

The first edition of the ' Vindicise ' ap- 
peared in 1672, later editions in 1698 and 
1724. The work was included in the Anglo- 
Catholic Library, edited by Archdeacon 

The following is a list of Pearson's minor 
works: 1. 'A Sermon preached before the 
University of Cambridge at St. Mary's on St. 
Luke xi. 2, A.D. 1643.' This sermon is said 
to have been first printed in 1644, 4to, but 




no copy of this edition is known to exist. 
It was, however, published in 1711 in 8vo, 
with the statement that it had never before 
been printed. 2. ' Christ's Birth not mis- 
timed ; or a clear refutation of a resolution 
to a question about the time of Christ's 
Nativity by R. S., pretending- to evidence by 
Scripture that lesvs Christ was not born in 
December,' London, 1649. 3. Preface to Lord 
Viscount Falkland's ' Discourse on the Infal- 
libility of the Church of Rome.' This preface 
appears to have been first prefixed to a Lon- 
don edition of the treatise, published in 
1647. Subsequent editions were issued in 
1651 and 1660. The attack on De Cressy's 
views elicited from him a new edition of 
his ' Exomologesis,' with a long appendix, 
' wherein certain misconstructions of the 
book by J. P. are cleared,' &c., 1653, 12mo. 
4. * Prolegomena in Hieroclem,' first printed 
at London 1655 as a preface to Meric Casau- 
bon's edition of the ' Opuscula of Hierocles.' 
They were reprinted with an edition in 8vo, 
1673 ; and again by Needham in his edition 
of 1709. Pearson's essay is a singular proof 
of the many strange untrodden paths of 
learning which he had explored, and with 
much curious illustrative criticism combines 
some notice of the last efforts of Gentile 
philosophy againt Christianity. 5. ' Papers 
in Schism unmasked ; or a late conference 
between Mr. Peter Gunning and Mr. John 
Pierson, Ministers, on the one part, and two 
Disputants of the Roman Profession on the 
other ; wherein is defined both what Schism 
is and to whom it belongs,' Paris, 1658, 
12mo. There are some tokens of the hand 
of Pearson in this work, particularly in a 
vindication of the character of Firmilian ; 
but the argument on the Anglican side Avas 
mainly sustained by Gunning. 6. ' The 
Patriarchal Funeral ; a sermon on the death 
of George, Lord Berkeley,' London, 1658. 
This was preached in Lord Berkeley's private 
chapel. 7. Preface to the ' Explication of the 
Minor Prophets ' of Dr. David Stokes [q. v.], 
1659. 8. Preface to the ' Golden Remains 
of the ever memorable Mr. John Hales of 
Eton College,' London, 1659 ; 2nd edit. 
1673 ; 3rd edit. 1688. 9. ' No Necessity of 
Reformation of the Publick Doctrine of "the 
Church of England,' London, 1660. 10. < An 
Answer to Dr. Burges his Word, by way 
of Postscript, in vindication of No Necessity 
of Reformation of the Public Doctrine of 
the Church of England,' London, 1660. 
These tracts, written by Pearson, in contro- 
versy with Dr. Cornelius Burges, under all 
the provocations which the character and 
style of his opponent could occasion, are a 
model for Christian controversy. 11. 'Prae- 

fatio ad Criticos Sacros,' 9 vols. London, 
1660. The ' Critici Sacri' was an under- 
taking of some of the deprived clergy, and 
embraced a commentary on holy scrip- 
ture. The selection of commentators and 
the collection of tracts in the last two 
volumes were probably the work of Pearson, 
who also contributed the preface. 12. ' De- 
dicatio et Praefatio ad Diogenem Laertium 
Menagii,' London, 1664. An English edi- 
tion of the author, as published by Gilles 
Manage, was preceded by a short dedication 
to Charles II, and a preface by Pearson. 
13. ' Praefatio Paraenetica ad Vetus Testa- 
mentum Graecum ex Versione LXX inter- 
pretum,' Cambridge, 1665. This essay is 
mainly a defence of the old translators 
against some censures of St. Jerome ; it was 
reprinted by Grabe with his LXX. 14. ' Ora- 
tio ad Exsequias Matthaei Wrenn, Episc. 
Eliensis,' 1667. 15. ' Promiscuous Ordina- 
tions are destructive to the Honour and 
Safety of the Church of England, if they 
should be allowed in it. Written in a Let- 
ter to a Person of Quality,' 1668. 16. ' Lec- 
tiones de Deo et Attributis,' about 1661. 
These were some of Pearson's professorial 
lectures, which were first printed in Chur- 
ton's edition of the f Minor Theological 
Works.' 17. ' Orationes in Comitiis Canta- 
brigiens. 1661-71.' Seven orations first 
printed by Churton. 18. ' Conciones ad 
Clerum sex, eodem decennio habitae.' First 
printed by Churton. 19. ' Determinationes 
Theologicee Sex.' First printed by Churton. 
20. 'A Sermon [on Ps. cxi. 4] preached 
Nov. 5, 1673, at the Abbey Church in West- 
minster,' London, 1673. 21. l Annales Cy- 
prianici.' In 1682 Bishop Fell brought out 
an excellent edition of * St. Cyprian,' to 
which Pearson prefixed the ' Annales,' which 
display his usual untiring research, sifting 
of historical testimonies, and well-weighed 
decision of disputed points. Schonemann 
published an abridgment of the ' Annales ' 
in 1792, declaring that ' they have ever been 
and ever will be esteemed among the learned 
as of the highest value.' 22. * Annales 
Paulini.' 23. ' Lectiones in Acta Apostolo- 
rum.' 24. ' Dissertationes de Serie et Suc- 
cession e Primorum Romse Episcoporum.' 
These three works were edited by Dodwell, 
and included in Pearson's ' Posthumous 
Works,' 1688. The ' Annals of St. Paul ' 
were translated into English by J. M. Wil- 
liams in 1825, and again, together with the 
'Lectures on the Acts,' byJ. R. Crowfoot in 
1851. 25. 'Various Letters, Epistolae La- 
tinse, Fragments,' &c., collected by Churton 
' in Pearson's ' Minor Theological Works,' Ox- 
ford, 1844. 26. ' Adversaria Hesychiana,' 




2 vols. Oxford, 1844. Under this title Pear- 
son's ' Notes on Hesychius ' were edited by 
Dean Gaisford. Albert! had previously tried 
to get them (Fabricii Vita, p. 215). * There 
is a copy of Hesychius's lexicon in the 
cathedral library at Chester, on the title- 
page of which Pearson has written : l Hesy- 
chium integrum primo perlegi MDCLV. 
Oct. xv Iterum MDCLXVII. Mart, xxvi 
(BuKGOtf, Twelve Good Men, ii. 277-8). 
27. 'Notes on St. Ignatius,' published in 
Smith's edition, Oxford, 1709. 28. Notes on 
St. Justin,' published by Thirlby in his edi- 
tion, London, 1722. 29. ' Notes on ^Eschy- 
lus,' Bibl. Bodl. Rawl. MS. 193. On Pear- 
son's 'Emendations on yEschylus/ see Butler's 
' /Eschylus,' vol. iv. (4to edit.), pp. xx, xxi. 
30. ' Marginalia,' from certain of Pearson's 
books preserved in Trinity College Library, 
published by Dr. Hort in the ' Journal of 
Classical and Sacred Philology/ i. 98 ff. 
399 ff. 

Among the works of Pearson which have 
been lost are a sermon preached at the funeral 
of the poet John Cleveland [q. v.], and 
one mentioned by Evelyn on Hebrews ix. 
14 ; f Lectiones Theologicse quamplures 
Adversaria Sacra ; ' ' Vita S. Justini ; ' ' Epi- 
stolae ad Vir. Rev. Geo. Bull ; ' i Liber Gram- 

The whole of Pearson's theological works, 
with the exception of the ' Exposition of the 
Creed ' and the f Annales Cyprianici,' were 
collected and admirably edited by Arch- 
deacon Churton in 1844. 

There is an original portrait of Pearson in 
the hall of Trinity College, Cambridge, which 
has been engraved for Churton's work. In 
the older folio editions of the ' Exposition 
of the Creed ' there is an engraving from a 
portrait, by W. Sonman, representing the 
bishop with a lean, attenuated face. The 
sixth and later editions contain a well-exe- 
cuted engraving from a drawing by Loggan, 
taken when Pearson was in his seventieth 
year ; here he appears ' fair and comely.' 

Pearson bore for his arms: argent, a 
chevron erminois between three leaves vert 
(JSlazon of Episcopacy). 

[Life of Pearson, by Archdeacon E. Churton, 
prefixed to the Minor Theological Works, Ox- 
ford, 1844. This is by far the best account of 
the bishop, and is a most painstaking and accu- 
rate piece of work. ' History of the Church and 
Manor of Wigan,' by G-. T. 0. Bridgeman, in 
Publications of Chetham Society; John Pearson, 
by Archdeacon Cheetham in Masters in English 
Theology, edited by Bishop Barry ; D'Oyly's 
Life of Archbishop Sancroft ; Walker's Sufferings 
of the Clergy; Burnet's History of His Own 
Times ; Evelyn's Diary ; Dean Howson's Hand- 

book to Chpster Cathedral; Baxter's Life and 
Times; Bishup Lightfoot's Ignatius; Wake on 
Convocations; Brydges's Eestituta; Bos well's 
Johnson ; Nelson's Life of Bull ; Bentley's 
Works ; Life of J. Milles ; Birch's Hist. Royal 
Society ; Blomefield's Norfolk ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
Wills and Admonitions in P C. C. ; Bishop's 
Certificates in dioc. Norwich ; First Fruits Com- 
position Books; G-raduatiCantabrigienses;No. 13 
Publications of Cambr. Antiq. Soc. ; Wood's 
Athense ; the ' Old Parchment Eegister,' Queens' 
College, Cambridge.] F. S. 

PEARSON, JOHN(1758-1826),surgeon, 
son of John Pearson of Coney Street, York, 
was born there on 3 Jan. 1758. He was ap- 
prenticed, at the age of sixteen, to a surgeon in 
Morpeth, whence he removed, in June 1777, to 
Leeds. There he lived for three years, under 
the roof of William Hey (1736-1819) [q.v.J, 
the great surgeon to the Leeds General In- 
firmary, whose biography he afterwards wrote. 
He came to London in 1780, and entered as 
a student at St. George's Hospital, to work 
under John Hunter (1728-1793) [q.v.] He 
appears to have been granted the diploma 
of the Surgeons' Company on 4 Oct. 1781, 
when he was found qualified to act as sur- 
geon to a regiment. In the same year he 
became house surgeon to the Lock Hospital 
at so critical a period of its fortunes that in 
1782 he was appointed surgeon there, a post 
he held until 1818. He was also made sur- 
geon, about this time, to the public dispen- 
sary, then newly founded, in Carey Street, 
an office which he resigned in 1809. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
24 March 1803, and he afterwards became a 
fellow of the Linnean Society. In 1820 he 
was made an honorary member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of Ireland, and he also 
became a member of the Royal Medical So- 
ciety of Edinburgh. In 1785 he was living 
in Air Street, but he afterwards moved into 
Golden Square. He died on 12 May 1826. 
He married Sarah, daughter and heiress of 
Robert Norman of Lewisham. His son John 
Norman is separately noticed. 

Pearson appears to have been a careful 
surgeon, with a strong scientific bias. His 
writings, however, are neither numerous nor 
important. His chief works are : 1 . ' Prin- 
ciples of Surgery/ pt. i. 1788, 8vo (the second 
part was never published) ; a new edition, 
1808. The principles are drawn up in a con- 
cise and aphoristical form for the use of 
students attending Pearson's lectures on 
surgery. 2. ' A plain and rational Account 
of the Nature ... of Animal Magnetism,' 
1790, 8vo. 3. 'Practical Observations on 
Cancerous Complaints,' London, 1793, 8vo. 
4. ' Observations on the Effects of Various 




Articles of the Materia Medica in the Cure 
of Lues Venerea,' London, 1800, 8vo ; 2nd 
edit. 1807, 8vo. 5. l Some Account of the 
Two Mummies of the Egyptian Ibis,' l Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' 1805, pt. i. p. 264, and 
plates. 6. ' Life of William Hey,' London, 
1822, 2 vols. 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1823. 

[Lond. Med. and Phys. Journ. 1S'26, Ivi. 51.] 

D'A. P. 

PEARSON, SIE JOHN (1819-1886), 
judge, born on 5 Aug. 1819, was son of 
John Norman Pearson [q. v.], and elder bro- 
ther of Charles Henry Pearson [q. v.] He gra- 
duated B.A. at Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge, on 24 Feb. 1841, and proceeded 
M.A.on 2 July 1844, having been called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn on 11 June the same year. 
A sound and painstaking lawyer, but with- 
out influential connections or conspicuous 
brilliance, Pearson rose slowly at the chancery 
bar, and did not take silk until 1866 (13 Dec!) 
In the following year he was elected a bencher 
of his inn, of which he was treasurer in 1884- 
1885. In 1882, on the retirement of Vice- 
chancellor Hall, Pearson was appointed on 
24 Oct. to succeed him, but without the title 
of vice-chancellor, and on 30 Nov. following 
was knighted at Windsor. He died at his 
residence, 75 Onslow Square, South Ken- 
sington, after a painful illness of some weeks' 
duration, on 13 May 1886. His remains 
were interred in Brompton cemetery. 

During his brief judicial career Pearson 
proved himself an eminently competent judge. 
His decisions on the Settled Land Act of 
1882 did much to determine the construction 
of that important statute ; nor did he show 
less ability in dealing with patent cases and 
company law. Pearson was for some time a 
member of both the councils of legal educa- 
tion and law reporting. 

Pearson married, on 21 Dec. 1854, Charlotte 
Augusta, daughter of William Short, rector 
of St. George's, Bloomsbury, who survived 

[Foster's Men at the Bar and Index Eccle- 
siasticus; G-rad. Cant.; Times, 14 May 1886; 
Ann. Reg. 1886, obituary; Law Times, Law 
Journ. and Solicitors' Journ. 22 May 1886; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities.] J. M. R. 

1865), divine, son of John Pearson (1758- 
1826) [q.v.], born 7 Dec. 1787, was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
gained the Hulsean prize in 1807. He then 
took orders, and acted as chaplain to the Mar- 
quis of Wellesley until the Church Missionary 
Society appointed him, in 1826, the first prin- 
cipal of its newly founded missionary college 
at Islington. In 1839 he was appointed vicar 

of Holy Trinity Church, Tollbridge Wells, 
a position which he resigned in 1853. He 
afterwards lived in retirement, doing occa- 
sional duty for the surrounding clergy, at 
Bower Hall, near Steeple Bumpstead in 
Essex, until his death in October 1865. He 
married Harriet, daughter of Richard Puller 
of London and sister of Sir Christopher Puller, 
by whom he had a numerous family. His sons 
Sir John and Charles Henry are separately 

There is a three-quarter length portrait of 
Pearson in oils, dated 1843, but unsigned, in 
the hall of the Missionary College in Upper 
Street, Islington. 

Pearson's works are : 1. 'A Critical Essay 
on the Ninth Book of Warburton's Divine Le- 
gation of Moses,' Cambridge, 1808. 2. 'Christ 
Crucified ; or some Remarkable Passages of 
the Sufferings of Our Lord Jesus Christ, de- 
votionally and practically considered,' Lon- 
don, 1826, 12mo. 3. ' Life of Archbishop 
Leighton,' prefixed to an edition of his 
'Works' in 1829. 4. ' The Candle of the 
Lord uncovered ; or the Bible rescued from 
Papal Thraldom by the Reformation,' Lon- 
don, 1835, 8vo. 5. 'The Faith and Patience 
of the Saints exhibited in the Narrative of 
the Sufferings and the Death , . . of I. Le- 
fevere ; ' a new translation, 1839, 12mo. 

6. ' Psalms and Hymns chiefly designed 
for Public Worship,' London, 1840, 12mo. 

7. 'The Days in Paradise,' London, 1854, 
12mo. He also published several volumes 
of sermons. . 

[Obituary notice in Gent. Mag. 1865, ii. 792.] 

D'A. P. 

1806), captain in the navy, was born at Lan- 
ton Hall, near Appleby in Westmoreland, 
in March 1731. Entering the navy in 1745 
on board the Dover, he joined in the Medi- 
terranean the Seaford, commanded by his 
kinsman, Captain Wilson. In her he re- 
mained for three years, and in 1749 joined 
the Amazon, with Captain Arthur Gardiner 
[q. v.] In 1750, seeing little prospect of ad- 
vancement in the navy, he took service under 
the East India Company ; but returned to 
the navy when war was imminent in 1755, 
passed his examination on 5 Nov., and on 
16 Dec. was promoted to be fourth lieutenant 
of the Elizabeth, which during 1756 was 
commanded by Captain John Montagu, and 
attached to the fleet employed on the coast 
of France and in the Bay of Biscay. In 
1757 Montagu was superseded by Charles 
Steevens [q. v.], who took the Elizabeth out 
to the East Indies ; and in her Pearson was 
present in the actions of 29 April and 3 Aug. 




1758 and of 10 Sept. 1759. In one of these 
he was severely wounded. He was after- 
wards first lieutenant of the Norfolk with 
Steevens and Kempenfelt, and was actually 
in command during a violent hurricane on 
1 Jan. 1761, owing to Kempenfelt's being 
disabled by an accident. It is said that 
Steevens was so well satisfied with his con- 
duct on this occasion that he promised him 
the first vacancy, and that his commission 
to command the Tiger, a 60-gun ship, was 
actually made out ; but that it never took 
effect, as Steevens died before it was signed. 
At the reduction of Manila in 1762 Pearson 
was first lieutenant of the Lennox, and 
afterwards returned to England in the Sea- 

In 1769 he went out to Jamaica as first 
lieutenant of the Dunkirk with Commodore 
Arthur Forrest [q. v.J, who had promised 
him the first vacancy. Forrest, however, 
died before a vacancy occurred ; and, though 
Captain Stirling, who was left senior officer 
at Jamaica, gave him in August 1770 an 
acting order to command the Phoenix, it was 
disallowed by Captain Robert Carkett [q. v.], 
on whom the command properly devolved. 
The admiralty, however, took a favourable 
view of Pearson's claims, and promoted him 
on 29 Oct. 1770 to command the Druid sloop. 
In January 1773 he was appointed to the 
Speedwell ; and on 25 June, being at Spit- 
head when the king reviewed the fleet, was 
specially advanced to post rank. In 1776 
he was appointed to the Garland, in which 
he went out to Quebec in charge of convoy, 
and for the next two years was detained for 
service in the St. Lawrence. 

In March 1778 he was appointed to com- 
mand the 44-gun ship Serapis; and in the 
autumn of 1779, having been sent to the 
Baltic with convoy, was returning in com- 
pany with the Countess of Scarborough, a 
hired ship, and the trade from the Baltic, 
when, off Flamborough Head, on the even- 
ing of 23 Sept., he met the little squadron 
commanded by John Paul Jones [q. v.] The 
Pallas, one of Jones's squadron, engaged and 
captured the Countess of Scarborough, while 
Jones's own ship, the Bon-homme Richard, 
grappled with the Serapis, and between the 
two one of the most obstinate fights on re- 
cord took place ; it was ended in favour of the 
Richard by the latter's consort the Alliance, a 
36-gun frigate, coming under the stern of the 
Serapis and raking her, though the fire was not 
effective, and the officers of the Richard al- 
leged that much of it struck their ship. But 
Pearson felt unable to withstand a second 
enemy, and struck his colours. The Richard 
was on the point of sinking, and did sink a few 

hours after the Serapis was taken possession 
of. Meantime the convoy had made good its 
escape ; Jones's cruise was necessarily brought 
to an end ; and the defence of the Serapis 
against a nominally superior force won for 
Pearson a very general approval. When able 
to return to England he was honourably ac- 
quitted by a court-martial held on 10 March 
1780 ; he was afterwards presented with the 
freedom of the towns by Hull, Scarborough, 
Lancaster, and Appleby, and by the Russia 
Company and the Royal Exchange Assurance 
Company with handsome pieces of plate. He 
was also knighted. Pearson was an honest, 
brave -officer, and no blame was attributable 
to him for his ill-success ; but, though the 
merchants were satisfied, the defeat was not 
one which should have been officially re- 
warded. Jones's remark on hearing of the 
honour conferred on him was : ' Should I 
have the good fortune to fall in. with him 
again, I'll make a lord of him.' In April 
1780 Pearson was appointed to the Alarm. 
He afterwards commanded the Arethusa; 
but in 1790 was retired to Greenwich Hos- 
pital, where, in 1800, he succeeded Captain 
Locker as lieutenant-governor. He died there 
in January 1806. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Francis Harrison of Appleby, by 
whom he left issue four sons and two daugh- 
ters. Two engraved portraits of Pearson 
are mentioned by Bromley. 

[Naval Chronicle (with a portrait), xxiv. 353 ; 
List-books and other official documents in the 
Public Eecord Office ; Laughton's Studies in 
Naval History, p. 396.] J. Z. L. 

1836), physician, was born in Birmingham 
in 1765. After education at Sutton Cold- 
field grammar school, he began medical 
study under Mr. Tomlinson in Birmingham, 
and, while a student, obtained a gold medal 
from the Royal Humane Society for an 
essay on the means of distinguishing death 
from suspended animation. He proceeded to 
the university of Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.D. on 24 June 1786. While a 
student he became president of the Royal 
Medical Society, as well as of the Natural 
History Society in the university. His in- 
augural dissertation was on scrofula, and was 
published at Edinburgh in 1786. It shows 
more reading than original observation, but 
the tendency even at so early a date to make 
clinical experiments with electricity is shown 
by his recommendation of that physical agent 
for the cure of enlarged lymphatic glands 
(Dissertation p. 38). After graduating he 
travelled in France, Germany, and Italy for 
two vears with Thomas, Knox, lord North- 




land, and afterwards first earl of Ranfurley. 
On 22 Dec. 1788 he was admitted a licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians of London, 
and began practice at Birmingham, where he 
became physician to the General Hospital in 
September 1792. In 1795 he published ' A 
Short Account of the Nature and Properties 
of different kinds of Airs so far as relates to 
their Medicinal Use, intended as an intro- 
duction to the Pneumatic Way of Treating 
Diseases,' and in 1798 'The Arguments in 
Favour of an Inflammatory Diathesis in 
Hydrophobia considered,' in which he com- 
bats the then prevalent opinion of Dr. John 
Ferriar [q. v.] of Manchester that general 
inflammation and inflammation of the fauces 
were the chief pathological conditions in 
hydrophobia. Pearson expresses the opinion 
that the case of Dr. Christopher Nugent (d. 
1775) [q. v.] was one of hysteria, and recom- 
mends the omission of bleeding in such cases, 
the administration of wine, and the applica- 
tion of caustics in regions distant from the bite. 
In 1799 he published ' Observations on the 
Bilious Fever of 1797, 1798, and 1799,' and 
in 1801 resigned his hospital appointment 
and settled in London, where he lived in 
Bloomsbury Square. He published in 1803 
' Observations on the Epidemic Catarrhal 
Fever or Influenza of 1803.' The epidemic 
had begun in London in February, and thence 
spread all over England ; and this work, after 
a brief but lucid statement of the clinical 
features of the disease, discusses its treat- 
ment fully, and concludes with some inte- 
resting letters from practitioners in country 
districts. Pearson describes clearly the ex- 
treme mental depression which has been 
observed in subsequent epidemics as a fre- 
quent sequel of influenza. An epidemic of 
plague was raging on some of the coasts of 
the Mediterranean in 1804, and he pub- 
lished ' Outlines of a Plan calculated to put 
a Stop to the Progress of the Malignant 
Contagion which rages on the Shores of 
the Mediterranean.' Two treatises on materia 
medica in 1807 were his next publications : 
1 Thesaurus Medicaminum,' which reached 
a fourth edition in 1810, and l A Practical 
Synopsis of the Materia Alimentaria and 
Materia Medica,' of which a second edition 
appeared in 1808. In 1812 he published 
' Account of a Particular Preparation of 
Salted Fish,' and in 1813 < A Brief Descrip- 
tion of the Plague.' After this he migrated 
to Reading, thence to Sutton Coldfield, and 
at last to Birmingham, where he was one of 
the founders of the present medical school. 
In 1835 he published * Observations on the 
Action of the Broom Seed in Dropsical Af- 
fections.' He also wrote several medical 

articles in Rees's ' Encyclopaedia ' and in the 
' British Critic,' and took part in the 
abridgment of the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions.' He died at Birmingham on 11 Jan. 
1836, and was buried at St. Paul's Chapel 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. vol. ii. ; works.] 

N. M. 

1892), general, was the son of John Pearson, 
advocate-general of India. He was born in 
June 1806, educated at Eton, and entered the 
army as a cornet in the llth light dragoons 
on 14 March 1825. In November of that 
year he served at the siege of Bhurtpore 
under Lord Combermere ; and when, owing 
to the scarcity of European infantry, volun- 
teers were called for from the cavalry to 
take part in the assault, he was one of those 
who offered themselves. The arrival of an 
additional infantry regiment made it needless 
to use them, but the cavalry did good ser- 
vice in preventing the escape of the usurp- 
ing rajah and his followers. 

When Lord Amherst. the governor-gene- 
ral, paid a visit to Runjeet Singh, Pearson 
accompanied him as aide-de-camp, and re- 
ceived a sword from the maharajah for his 
skill in mounting and riding a horse that 
was believed to be unmanageable. He 
obtained a troop in the 16th lancers on 
16 Aug. 1831, and served with that regi- 
ment at the battle of Maharajpore, where 
Sir Hugh Gough defeated the Mahrattas on 
29 Dec. 1843, and also in the first Sikh war. 
At Aliwal (28 Jan. 1846) he commanded one 
of the squadrons which broke through an 
infantry square. During the latter part 
of that day, and at Sobraon (10 Feb.), he 
was in command of the regiment ; he was 
twice mentioned in despatches, and re- 
ceived a brevet majority 19 June 1846. He 
became major in the regiment 23 April 1847 ; 
but he saw no further service in the field, 
and was placed on half-pay 7 April 1848. He 
became lieutenant-general 1 Oct. 1877, and 
was then retired with the honorary rank of 
general. He had been made C.B. 2 June 
1869, and on 4 Feb. 1879 he was given the 
colonelcy of the 12th lancers. He died 
29 April 1892, leaving four sons and three 

[Records of the 16th Lancers; Despatches 
of Lord Hardinge, Lord Gough, &c., pp. 89, 127; 
Times, 3 May 1892.] E. M. L. 

PEARSON, WILLIAM (1767-1847), 
astronomer, was born at Whitbeck in Cum- 
berland on 23 April 1767. He came of a 
good old yeoman family, and appears to have 
been the second son of William Pearson by 




his wife Hannah Ponsonby. Educated at 
the grammar school of Hawkshead, near 
Windermere, Cumberland, he took orders and 
went to reside at Lincoln. There he con- 
structed a curious astronomical clock and 
an orrery, noticed in Rees's ' Cyclopaedia ' (art. 
* Orrery'); described in 1797 a new electrical 
machine (NICHOLSON, Journal of Natural 
Philosophy, i. 506) ; and in 1798 an apparatus 
for showing the phenomena of Jupiter's satel- 
lites (if), ii. 122). Two papers on the minor 
planet Ceres were dated from Parson's Green 
in 1802 (ib. i. 284, ii. 48, new ser.) 

Pearson was one of the original proprietors 
of the Royal Institution, and finished in 1803 
a planetarium for illustrating Dr. Young's 
lectures (REES, Cyclop&dia, art. * Plane- 
tarium '). On 10 Jan. 1810 he was presented 
to the rectory of Perivale in Middlesex, and 
by Lord-chancellor Eldon, on 15 March 1817, 
to that of South Kilworth in Leicestershire. 
In 1811 he became owner of a large private 
school at Temple Grove, East Sheen, where, 
having established an observatory, he mea- 
sured the diameters of the sun and moon 
during the partial solar eclipse of 7 Sept. 
1820 with one of Dollond's divided object- 
glass micrometers (Memoirs Astronomical 
Society, i. 139). 

To his initiative the foundation of the 
Astronomical Society of London was largely 
due. In 1812, and again in 1816, he took 
preliminary steps towards the realisation of 
a design which assumed a definite shape at 
a meeting held at the Freemasons' Tavern 
on 12 Jan. 1820. Pearson helped to draw up 
the rules, and acted as treasurer during the 
first ten years of the society's existence. In 
1819 he was elected F.R.S., and about the 
same time granted an honorary LL.D. On 
quitting East Sheen in 1821 he erected an 
observatory at South Kilworth, first in awing 
added to the rectory, later as a separate build- 
ing. Among the fine instruments collected 
there were a 3-foot altazimuth, originally 
constructed by Troughton for the St. Peters- 
burg Academy of Sciences (ib. ii. 261), a 
3^-foot achromatic by Tulley, a transit by 
Simms, and a clock by Hardy. A piece of 
flint-glass by Guinand, nearly seven inches 
across, purchased by him in 1823 for 250/., 
was worked by Tulley into the largest object- 
glass then in England. 

Pearson's first notable observations at 
South Kilworth were of the occultations of 
the Pleiades in July and October 1821 (ib. 
p. 289). In 1824 and 1829 appeared the 
two quarto volumes of his ' Introduction to 
Practical Astronomy.' The first was mainly 
composed of tables for facilitating the pro- 
cesses of reduction ; the second gave elabo- 


rate descriptions of various astronomical in- 
struments, accompanied by engravings of 
them and instructions for their use. For this 
publication, styled by Sir John Herschel 
* one of the most important and extensive 
works on that subject which has ever issued 
from the press' (ib. iv. 261), he received, 
on 13 Feb. 1829, the gold medal of the 
Royal Astronomical Society. To that body 
he bequeathed the stock and plates of the 

In 1830 Pearson was nominated a mem- 
ber of the new board of visitors to the Royal 
Observatory, and he undertook in the same 
year, assisted by a village mathematician 
named Ambrose Clarke, the reobservation 
and computation of 520 stars tabulated for 
occultations in his 'Practical Astronomy.' 
The resulting catalogue was presented to the 
Royal Astronomical Society on 11 June 
1841 (ib. xv. 97). On 29 Oct. 1835 he ob- 
served Halley's comet ; in 1839 he deduced 
from his own determinations a value for the 
obliquity of the ecliptic (ib. ix. 269, xi. 73). 
His death occurred at South Kilworth on 
6 Sept. 1847, and a tablet inscribed to his 
memory in the church perpetuates the re- 
spect earned by his exemplary conduct as a 
clergyman and a magistrate. Some improve- 
ments effected by him in Rochon's doubly 
refracting micrometer (ib. i. 67, 82, 103) were 
claimed by Arago (Annales de Chimie, August 
1820) ; but the accusation of plagiarism was 
satisfactorily refuted (Phil. Mag. Ivi. 401). 
Pearson contributed to Rees's ' Cyclopaedia ' 
sixty-three articles on subjects connected 
with practical astronomy. His second wife 
survived him, and he left one daughter by 
his first wife. 

[Memoirs Eoyal Astr. Society, xvii. 128 ; 
Proceedings Koyal Society, v. 712; Lonsdale's 
Worthies of Cumberland, vi. 147; Gent. Mag. 
1847, pt. ii. p. 661 ; Foster's Index Eccle- 
siasticus; Allibone's Critical Diet, of English 
Literature ; Poggendorff' s Biogr. Lit. Hand- 
worterbuch ; Lardner's Handbook of Astronomy, 
ii. 831, ed. 1856.] A. M. C. 


HENLEY (1813-1883), ecclesiastical his- 
torian. [See JEEVIS.] 

PEART, CHARLES (/. 1778-1798), 
sculptor, first appears as an exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy in 1778, sending in that and 
the four following years various models in 
wax. In 1782 he obtained the gold medal 
of the Royal Academy for a group of ' Her- 
cules and Omphale.' In 1784 he exhibited 
a plaster model of ' Prometheus,' and in later 
years was largely employed on monumental 
work, either in the style of classical or 




allegorical friezes, or memorial busts. He 
had a studio in the New (now the Euston) 
Road, in the vicinity of the chief stoneyards 
in that locality. The date of his death has 
not been ascertained, but he exhibited for 
the last time at the Royal Academy in 1798. 
[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880; Royal Academy Cat.] 

I*. C. 

PEART, EDWARD (1756 P-1824), 
physician, born about 1756, was M.D. and a 
corresponding member of the London Medi- 
cal Society. He practised for some time at 
Knightsbridge, but afterwards removed to 
Butterwick, near Gainsborough, Lincoln- 
shire, where he wrote on numerous scientific 
topics. He was chiefly known for his works 
on physical and chemical theory, which in- 
volved him in polemics with the critical ma- 
gazines. Although an acute critic both of 
Priestley and Lavoisier, he failed to grasp the 
distinction made by the latter chemist be- 
tween ponderable matter and caloric, and 
hence his constructive theories, though in- 
genious, were unsound and sterile, and dis- 
credited his criticisms. Peart in his ' Animal 
Heat' (1788) explained all chemical and 
physical phenomena by assuming the exis- 
tence of four elements aether, phlogiston, 
the acid principle, and earth. In the follow- 
ing year these were reduced to three, two 
active principles, sether and phlogiston, and 
one fixed. When a fixed particle is sur- 
rounded by an atmosphere of particles of 
sether radiating from it in straight lines, it 
forms an earthy (i.e. alkaline) particle ; a 
phlogiston atmosphere producing an acid 
particle (The Elementary Principles of 
Nature, pp. 24, 285). All actions ' at a 
distance,' corresponding to the phenomena 
of electricity, magnetism, and gravitation, 
are explained by means of these ' atmo- 
spheres.' The least fantastic of Peart's books 
are those on physiology and medicine. In 
his 'Animal Heat' Peart revives the idea of 
John Mayow [q. v.] that animal combustion 
takes place in the substance of the muscle 
and not in the lung, as Lavoisier thought. 
In the same book he sees clearly that the 
constant temperature of animals in exercise 
and at rest must be due to a correla- 
tion of various functions, and investigates ) 
the matter experimentally in a somewhat 
rough way. The formula ' excitability of 
the muscular fibres is the great charac- 
teristic of life in animals ' (loc. cit. p. 91) : 
is still accepted. In his medical works he 
shows himself untrammelled by the school 
teaching of his day, and his independent ob- 
servation of nature should have exerted a 
useful influence on his contemporaries. He 

used simple drugs, and ascribed their bene- 
ficial effects to direct action on the materies 
morbi of the disease. Peart declares (On the. 
Composition of Water, p. G7), 'I write for 
amusement at my leisure hours,' and (Physio- 
logy, preface, p. xiii) ' I have no expectation 
of making converts to my peculiar views/ 1 
He seems to have made none. From his 
writings, and in spite of his controversies,. 
Peart appears as a man of kindly though 
erratic tendencies. In his ' Physiology ' (p. 
280) and elsewhere he vigorously protests 
against the unnecessary vivisections of his 

Peart died at Butterwick in November. 

The following is a list of Peart's works : 

1. ' The Generation of Animal Heat,' 1788. 

2. 'The Elementary Principles of Nature/ 
1789. 3. 'On Electricity,' 1791. 4. 'On 
the Properties of Matter, the Principles of 
Chemistry,' &c., 1792. 5. 'On Electric 
Atmospheres [with] a Letter to Mr. Read 
of Knightsbridge,' 1793. 6. 'The Anti- 
phlogistic Doctrine . . . critically examined 
. . . [with] Strictures on Dr. Priestley's 
Experiments on the Generation of Air from 
Water,' 1795. 7. ' On the Composition and 
Properties of Water, with a Review of Mrs.. 
Fulhame's Essay on Combustion,' 1796. 

8. 'Physiology,' 1798. 9. 'On Malignant 
Scarlet Fever and Sore Throat,' 1802. 

10. 'On Erysipelas and Measles,' 1802. 

11. 'On Rheumatism, Inflammation of the 
Eyes,' &c., 1802. 12. ' On Inflammation of. 
the Bowels,' 1802. 13. 'On Consumption 
of the Lungs,' ] 803. 

[Gent. Mag. 1824, ii. 472; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.; Monthly Review, 1795, 2ndser. xix. 194; 
Critical Review, 1795, xv. 161 ; information 
kindly given by Dr. L. Larmuth ; Peart's works."] 

P. J. H. 

PEASE, EDWARD (1767-1858), rail- 
way projector, born at Darlington on 31 May 
1767, was the eldest son of Joseph Pease and 
his wife Mary Richardson. A brother Joseph 
(1772-1846) was one of the founders of the 
Peace Society in 1817, and a supporter of the 
Anti-Slavery Society, for which he wrote 
tracts in 1841 and 1842. Edward was edu- 
cated at Leeds under Joseph Tatham the 
elder, and in his fifteenth year was placed in 
the woollen manufacturing business carried 
on by his father at Darlington. About 1817 
he retired from active participation in the 
business. Soon afterwards he became in- 
terested in a scheme for constructing a tram- 
road from Darlington to Stockton ; in 1818 
preliminary steps were taken to obtain par- 
liamentary sanction for the undertaking, but 
the bill was thrown out owing to the opposi- 




tion of the Duke of Cleveland, near one of 
whose fox-covers the line was to run. In 
1819 a new route was proposed, and the 
measure received royal assent on 19 April 
1821. Originally the cars were only in- 
tended to carry coal, and be drawn by horses ; 
but in the spring of 1821 George Stephen- 
son, then only an ' engine- wright,' introduced 
himself to Pease, and pressed upon him the 
practicability and advantages of steam loco- 
motives, and a railway instead of a tram- 
road. Convinced by an inspection of Stephen- 
son's engine at Killingworth, Pease adopted 
Stephenson's plan. Stephenson was ap- 
pointed to survey the proposed route, in 
which he made several alterations, and the 
first rail was laid on 23 May 1823. 

Meanwhile Stephenson persuaded Pease 
to advance him money in order to start an en- 
gine factory at Newcastle, and there was con- 
structed the first engine used on the Stockton 
and Darlington line ; it now occupies a 
pedestal at Darlington station. After con- 
siderable opposition the line was opened for 
traffic on 27 Sept. 1825, and at once proved 
a success [see STEPHENSON, GEORGE]. Pease, 
however, withdrew from railway enterprise 
about 1830, and died at his residence, North- 
gate, Darlington, on 31 July 1858. His re- 
lations with George Stephenson and his son 
Robert remained cordial to the end of his 

Both Pease and his wife were devout 
quakers, being ' overseers ' in the society in 
their youth, Pease subsequently becoming 
an elder and his wife a minister. Dr. Smiles 
describes Pease as ( a thoughtful and saga- 
cious man, ready in resources, possessed of 
indomitable energy and perseverance ; ' ex- 
tracts from his journal are printed in the 
< Annual Monitor' (1859, pp. 123-64), and a 
portrait is given in Smiles's ' Lives of the 
Engineers ' (George and Robert Stephenson, 
ed. 1874, p. 124). 

Pease married, on 30 Nov. 1796, Rachel, 
daughter of John Whitwell of Kendal. She 
died at Manchester on 18 Oct. 1833, having 
had five sons and three daughters. 

The second son, JOSEPH PEASE (1799-1872), 
aided his father in carrying out the project for 
the railway from Stockton to Darlington in 
1819 and 1820. The draft advertisement of the 
opening of the line, dated 14 Sept. 1825, in his 
autograph, is preserved by the company. 
Upon the extension of the railway to Middles- 
brough in 1828, the mineral owners offered 
powerful opposition. Pease consequently 
purchased a coal-mine in the neighbourhood 
in order to prove the value of the new mode 
of conveyance. Four years later the colliery 
owners were convinced, and admitted their 

obligations to Pease for conquering their 
prej udices. After the passing of the Reform 
Bill in 1832, Pease was returned for South 
Durham, and retained the seat till his retire- 
ment in 1841. He was the first quaker mem- 
ber who sat in parliament, and on presenting 
himself on 8 Feb. 1833 he objected to take the 
usual oath. A select committee was appointed 
to inquire into precedents, and on 14 Feb. he 
was allowed to affirm (H ANSARD,P r/. Dcb.xv. 
387, 639). He was a frequent speaker on 
matters of social and political reform, always 
avoiding the use of titles when addressing the 
house, and retaining his quaker dress (cf. 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 153). In 
addition to business of various kinds and 
politics, he devoted himself to philanthropic 
or educational work, aiding Joseph Lancaster 
[q. v.], and acting as president of the Peace 
Society from 1860. Before 1865 he became 
totally blind, but, with the aid of his 
secretary, republished and distributed many 
Friends' books ; and he had the ' Essays, Moral 
and Religious,' of Jonathan Dymond [q. v.] 
translated into Spanish, for which service the 
government of Spain conferred on him (2 Jan. 
1872) the grand cross of Charles III. He 
died on 8 Feb. 1 872. At the time of his death 
there were nearly ten thousand men employed 
in the collieries, quarries, and ironstone mines 
owned by him and his family, who also 
directed the older woollen and cotton manu- 
factories. Pease married, on 20 March 1826, 
Emma (d. 1860), daughter of Joseph Gurney 
of Norwich, leaving five sons and four daugh- 
ters. Joseph Whitwell Pease, the eldest son, 
who was created a baronet on 18 May 1882, 
was member for South Durham from 1865 to 
1885, and subsequently for Barnard Castle. 
Arthur Pease, the third son, was M.P. for 
Whitby from 1880 to 1885, and for Darling- 
ton from 1895. 

Edward Pease's fifth son, HENRY PEASE 
(1807-1881), also entered with zeal into 
the railway projects of his father. His prin- 
cipal achievement was the opening in 1861 
of the line across Stainmoor, called ' the back- 
bone of England,' the summit of which is 1374 
feet above sea level. It joined at Tebay the 
London and North- Western railway, and was 
soon extended to Saltburn-on-Sea. In January 
1854 Pease was deputed by the meeting for 
sufferings, held on the 17th of that month, to 
accompany Joseph Sturge [q. v.] and Robert 
Charleton as a deputation from the Society 
of Friends to Russia. On 10 Feb. they were 
received by the Emperor^Nicholas, and pre- 
sented him with a powerful address, urging 
him to abstain from the then imminent Cri- 
mean war. He received them politely, but 
their efforts were unavailing, and Kinglake 





(Invasion of the Crimea, ii. 54) ridiculed their 
action. Pease was M.P. for South Durham 
from 1857 to 1865. In 1867 he visited Napo- 
leon III with a deputation from the Peace 
Society, but their request for permission to 
hold a peace congress during the International 
exhibition in Paris was rejected. He was 
chairman of the first Darlington school board 
in 1871, first mayor of the town, president 
of the Peace Society from 1872, and on 27 Sept. 
1875 chairman of the rail way jubilee held at 
Darlington, at which eighty British and thirty 
foreign railways were represented. He was 
always a prominent member of the Society of 
Friends. He died in Finsbury Square, London, 
while attending the yearly meeting, on 30 May 
1881, and was buried at Darlington. Pease 
married, on 25 Feb. 1835, Anna, only daugh- 
ter of Richard Fell of Uxbridge, who died on 
27 Oct. 1839, leaving a son, Henry Fell Pease, 
M.P. from 1885 for the Cleveland division of 
Yorkshire ; secondly, he married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Lloyd of Wednesbury, by whom 
he had three sons and two daughters. 

Schools and a library were presented by 
members of the Pease family to Darlington, 
which has in many other ways benefited by 
their munificence. 

[Cat. of Devonshire House Portraits, pp. 487- 
495, 503, 507; Annual Monitor, 1859 pp. 122- 
164,1873 pp. 101-10, 1832 iii. 122; Foster's 
Pease of Darlington; Our Iron Roads, 1852; 
Smiles's Lives of the Engineers ; Illustrated 
London News, 7 Aug. 1858 ; the Engineer, 1858, 
ii. 103 ; Times, 2 Aug. 1858 ; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. vii. 465 ; Joseph Pease, a Memoir, re- 
printed from the Northern Echo of 9 Feb. 1872, 
with Appendix, and 31 May 1881 ; LongstaiF s 
Hist, of Darlington, pp. xciv, 318, 333; Random 
Recollections of the House of Commons, p. 289 ; 
the Peases of Darlington, British Workman, 
February 1892; Smith's Catalogue, ii. 278; in- 
formation from Henry Fell Pease, esq., and per- 
sonal knowledge.] A. F. P. and C. F. S. 

PEAT, THOMAS (1708-1780), almanac- 
maker, was born in 1708 at Ashley Hall, 
near Wirksworth, Nottinghamshire, where 
his father held a farm. He early acquired 
a taste for learning, which his father strove 
to repress. A brother, a joiner in Not- 
tingham, to whom he became apprenticed, 
gave him no more encouragement ; but 
Cornelius Wildbore, a master-dyer, and like 
the Peats, a regular attendant at the presby- 
terian High Pavement chapel, noticed him, 
and supplied him with the means of obtain- 
ing books. Peat devoted himself chiefly to 
the study of mathematics and astronomy, 
and in 1740 he was one of the principal pro- 
jectors of ' The Gentleman's Diary, or Ma- 
thematical Repository.' The first number 

appeared in 1741, with Peat as joint-editor ; 
in 1756 he became sole editor, and filled that 
office until his death in 1780, his successor 
being a Rev. Mr. Wildbore, probably a son 
of Peat's early benefactor. In addition to 
the usual information contained in alma- 
nacs, ' The Gentleman's Diary' was largely 
devoted to the solution of mathematical 
problems. The original editions in the 
British Museum are not complete. A col- 
lected edition was published in 1814 (3 vols.) 
The numbers edited by Peat occupy the first 
two volumes. 

Subsequently Peat became editor of the 
'Poor Robin's Almanac,' which is erro- 
neously said to have been started by Herri ck 
(Notes and Queries, 6th ser. vii. 321-3). It 
was conducted anonymously. Peat's share 
in it ceased some time before his death. 

Peat was also a surveyor, architect, and 
schoolmaster, using his almanacs as means 
for advertising himself in each of these capa- 
cities ; he is also said to have been ' not a 
bad censor of poetry.' About 1743 he pro- 
jected a course of fourteen lectures at Not- 
tingham on mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, 
pneumatics, astronomy, and the use of 
globes ; the price of a ticket for the course 
was a guinea, and a syllabus of the lectures 
was published at Nottingham. In 1770 he 
proposed to publish a map of Leicestershire, 
drawn from his own survey ; at that time 
he was residing at Thringstone ; in 1771 he 
removed to Swannington, both in Leicester- 
shire, and in 1777 he returned to Notting- 
ham, where he died, at his residence at 
Greyfriars' Gate, on 21 Feb. 1780, aged 72. 

[Prefaces to the Gentleman's Diary, signed 
Thomas Peat; Syllabus of Lecture, 1744?; 
Wylie's Old and New Nottingham, p. 158; 
Brown's Nottinghamshire Worthies, p. 379 ; 
Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 465.] A. F. P. 

PEBODY, CHARLES (1839-1890), jour- 
nalist, the son of Charles and Eliza Pebody, 
was born at Leamington, Warwickshire, on 
3 Feb. 1839. His parents removing to Wat- 
ford, Leicestershire, where the family had 
lived for some three hundred years, Pebody 
went to the village school, and afterwards 
was taught privately by the schoolmaster. 
At the age of fourteen he came up to London, 
and entered a lawyer's office, but soon found 
work as a reporter, and afterwards joined 
the staff of the ' Chelmsford Chronicle/ At 
the age of twenty-one he was appointed edi- 
tor of the 'Barnstaple Times.' From Barn- 
staple he moved to Exeter as editor of the 
' Flying Post,' and from Exeter to Bristol as 
editor of the ' Bristol Times and Mirror.' It 
was while at Bristol that Pebody obtained 




in 1875 the prize of 501. offered by Mr. James 
Hey wood for the best essay ' showing the 
expediency of an Address by the House of 
Commons to the Crown in favour of such a 
Rubrical Revision of the Services of the 
State Church as will abrogate the threat of 
everlasting Perdition to those of Her Ma- 
jesty's Subjects who do not agree with the 
Doctrines contained in the Athanasian Creed.' 
In 1882 Pebody was appointed editor of the 
' Yorkshire Post,' a conservative morning 
paper published at Leeds. Under his di- 
rection it rapidly grew in circulation and in- 
fluence, and before his death it stood in the 
front rank of provincial journals. Although 
an enthusiastic student of English political 
history, and profoundly interested in the 
course of public events, Pebody was not, 
apart from journalism, a political worker. 
In 1888 his health showed signs of failure ; 
but after six months' rest he resumed work, 
and organised a new evening paper. He 
died at Leeds on 30 Oct. 1890. Pebody 
brought to his work quick intelligence, 
unfailing industry, and high spirits ; a sin- 
gularly wide knowledge of literature and 
affairs, great organising power, and a marked 
capacity for making friends. He married, 
22 Aug. 1859, Mary Ann Martyn, who sur- 
vived him, and by whom he had one daughter. 
He published, besides the essay noticed, 
1. 'Authors at Work,' 1872. 2. ' English Jour- 
nalism and the Men who have made it,' 1882. 

[Yorkshire Post, 31 Oct. 1890 ; Leeds Mercury, 
31 Oct. 1890 ; personal knowledge.] A. R. B. 

PECHE, RICHARD (d. 1182), bishop of 
Lichfield, was son of Robert Peche, an earlier 
bishop of the see. Richard is said to have 
been archdeacon of Chester in 1135, and 
subsequently archdeacon of Coventry. In 
1161 he was consecrated to the bishopric of 
Lichfield by Walter of Rochester (GEKVASE 
i. 305, Rolls Ser. ; WHARTON, Anglia Sacra, 
i. 435 ; Annales Monastici, i. 49, ii. 56, 238, 
iii. 18, Rolls Ser.) Peche is frequently, even 
in official documents, styled bishop of Ches- 
ter on account of the removal of the see, for 
a short time, from Lichfield to Chester in 
1075. He is said to have called himself 
only bishop of Coventry, to which place the 
seat of the bishopric had been for a second 
time removed before its final return to Lich- 
field (Anglia Sacra, i. 463). The title of 
Lichfield is rarely given to him by the chro- 
niclers. Peche was at Westminster in 1162, 
at the settlement of a protracted dispute 
between the churches of Lincoln and St. 
Albans (MATTHEW PARIS, Hist. Angl. i. 318 ; 
Chron. Major a, ii. 219 ; Gesta Abbat. Monast. 

S. Albani, i. 139, 157 ; ROGER OF WEXDOVER, 
i. 22, Rolls Ser.) In 1170 he made the grave 
mistake of sanctioning by his presence the 
coronation of the young prince Henry by 
the archbishop of York, in defiance of the 
rights of the church of Canterbury (Chro- 
nicles of Stephen, &c., iv. 245). The arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket [see 
THOMAS], was then in exile, but returned in 
the same year, and Peche was among the 
prelates who were at once suspended from 
their sees for their share in the coronation of 
the prince (RAD. DE DICETO, i. 340 ; Annales 
Monastici, iv. 382 ; MATT. PARIS, Hist. Angl. 
i. 357 ; Chron. Majora, ii. 277). He appears 
to have been soon forgiven and restored, 
for in 1171 he was one of the bishops chosen 
to reconcile the church of Canterbury, in 
which divine service had been suspended 
after the murder of the archbishop (GER- 
VASE OF CANTERBURY, i. 236). About this 
time he made a grant of lands and rents to 
augment the deanery of Lichfield, which 
had been impoverished during the previous 
wars (WHITELOCKE, Hist. Lichfield, ap. 
Anglia Sacra, i. 448). In 1175 Peche at- 
tended the council of Westminster (WALTER 
OF COVENTRY, i. 239, Rolls Ser.) During 
his last years he was a liberal benefactor to, 
if not the actual founder of, the Augustinian 
priory of St. Thomas the Martyr at Staf- 
ford (TANNER, Notit. Monast. Staffordshire, 
xxiv. 2). He had a great affection for the 
house, and when, shortly before his death, he 
resigned his bishopric, it was to this founda- 
tion that he retired. He took the habit of 
the canons of St. Thomas, and died among 
them, 6 Oct. 1182. He was buried in the 
priory church (Annales Monastici, i. 52, 187, 
ii. 242, iv. 385 ; ROG. Hov. ii. 284). 

[In addition to the authorities cited, see Dug- 
dale's Monasticon, vi. 471-2; Madox's Form. 
Angl. cclxxxvii ; Trivet, Annales, p. 51 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.); Le Neve's Fasti, i. 545, 565; 
Stubbs's Regi.strum, p. 31.] A. M. C-E. 


BROOKE (1789-1860), vice-admiral, born 
on 30 June 1789, son of Sir Thomas Brooke 
Pechell, bart., and younger brother of Sir 
Samuel John Brooke Pechell [q. v.], entered 
the navy in 1803, served in the Triumph in 
the fleet off Toulon under Lord Nelson in 
1804, and afterwards in the Medusa, at the 
capture of the Spanish treasure-ships off Cape 
St. Mary on 5 Oct. [see GORE, SIR JOHN ; 
MOORE, SIR GRAHAM]. In 1806 he was in 
the Revenge off Brest and Rochfort, and in 
1809 in the Barfleur in the Tagus. On 
25 June 1810 he was promoted to be lieute- 




nant of the Caesar, from which he was moved 
in 1811 to the Macedonian, and in 1812 to 
the San Domingo, commanded by his brother, 
and carrying the flag of his uncle, Sir John 
Borlase Warren [q. v.], on the North Ame- 
rican station. By Warren he was appointed 
to the acting command of the Colibri brig, 
and afterwards of the Recruit, in both of 
which he cruised with some success on the 
coast of North America. On 30 May 1814 
he was promoted to the rank of commander, 
and in May 1818 commissioned the Bellette 
for the Halifax station, where he was em- 
ployed in enforcing the treaty stipulations 
as to the fisheries. In October 1820 he was 
appointed by Rear-admiral Griffith to the 
command of the Tamar frigate, which, being 
very sickly, had come north from Jamaica, 
and had lost her captain and a large propor- 
tion of her officers and men. The com- 
mander-in-chief on the Jamaica station, 
however, claimed the vacancy, and the 
matter being referred to the admiralty, all 
the promotions were disallowed, and Pechell 
returned to the Bellette. "While in the 
Tamar he had obtained the authority of the 
Haytian government for putting a stop to 
piracy committed by vessels pretending to 
be Haytian, and for searching all suspected 
vessels. He accordingly captured a large 
brigantine, with a crew of ninety-eight men, 
and forged commissions from the different 
independent states of South America. On 
26 Dec. 1822 Pechell was advanced to post 
rank. In July 1830 he was nominated 
gentleman-usher of the privy chamber, and 
in April 1831 equerry to Queen Adelaide. 
In 1835 he was returned to parliament as 
member for Brighton, which he continued to 
represent in the whig interest during his life, 
taking an active part in public affairs, and 
especially in all questions relating to the 
navy, the mercantile marine, or the fisheries. 
On the death of his brother on 3 Nov. 1849 
he succeeded to the baronetcy, and took the 
additional surname of Brooke ; he became a 
rear-admiral on the retired list on 17 Dec. 
1852, and vice-admiral on 5 Jan. 1858. He 
died at his house in Hill Street, Berkeley 
Square, on 29 June 1860. He married, in 
1826, Katharine Annabella, daughter and 
coheiress of the twelfth Lord de la Zouche, 
by whom he had issue a son and two daugh- 
ters. The son having predeceased him, the 
baronetcy passed to his cousin. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Times, 30 June 
I860.] J. K. L. 

PECHELL, SIE PAUL (1724-1800), 
first baronet and soldier, second son of Jacob 
Pechell and of Jane, daughter of John Boyd, 

was born at Owenstown, co. Kildare, in 1724 
His father, Jacob, served in the British army 
and adopted the war-office spelling, Pechell. 
His grandfather, Samuel de Pechels (1645- 
1732), a native of Montauban, was ejected 
from his estate upon the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes in 1685. In a brief narrative 
(printed in Sussex Archceoloyical Collections, 
xxvi. 116) he relates how, after the entry of 
the ' missionary ' dragoons into Montauban, 
he was first imprisoned at Cahors, and then 
in 1687 conveyed to Montpellier, whence 
he was shipped to the French West Indies. 
He managed to escape from St. Domingo to 
Jamaica in 1688, and, after many hardships, 
reached England in the autumn of that year. 
In August 1689 he accompanied William III 
to Ireland as a lieutenant in Schomberg's 
regiment, and in January 1690 the king 
granted him a pension. He subsequently 
acquired the estate of Owenstown, co. 
Kildare, and, dying at Dublin in 1732, 
was buried in St. Anne's Church in that 

Paul himself entered the army as cornet- 
en-second in the royal regiment of dra- 
goons (1st dragoons), 17 March 1743-4. 
He was promoted to be captain in Briga- 
dier-general Fleming's regiment (36th foot), 
now the second battalion Worcestershire 
regiment, 12 Dec. 1746. At the begin- 
ning of 1747 the 36th regiment embarked 
at Gravesend to join the army of the Duke 
of Cumberland in Flanders. Pechell was 
present at operations near the frontiers of 
Holland, which led to the battle of Laffeld 
or Val, near Maastricht, 2 July 1747. His 
regiment lost two officers, two sergeants, and 
twenty-two rank and file, and he was among 
the wounded. He received from the Duke 
of Cumberland l the greatest commendation ' 
(Lond. Gazette, 27 July 1747). 

After the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 7 Oct. 
1748, the establishment of the regiment was 
reduced on its return to England, and 
Pechell was gazetted captain in the 3rd 
dragoon guards, 31 May 1751. In the spring 
of 1752 this regiment furnished relays of 
escorts to attend George II to Harwich, 
where his majesty embarked on his way to 
Hanover, and for the next three years the 
regiment was on coast duty to put down the 
smuggling and highway robbery in Suffolk, 
Essex, and Devonshire. On 25 Nov. 1754 
Pechell was gazetted guidon and captain in 
the second troop of the horse grenadier guards 
(now the 2nd lifeguards), lieutenant and 
captain 5 July 1755, major 7 Feb. 1759, and 
lieutenant-colonel 20 Jan. 1762. 

He retired from the service on 24 June 
1768, receiving a lump sum for his commis- 




sion. lie was created a baronet on 1 March 
1797, and died in 1800. He married, in 
175:2, Mary, only daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Brooke, of Paglesham, Essex, and 
left two sons and five daughters. His eldest 
son, Major-general Sir Thomas Brooke Pechell 
(d. 1826), was father of Rear-admiral Sir 
Samuel John Brooke Pechell, and of Admiral 
Sir George Richard Brooke Pechell, both of 
whom are separately noticed. 

[Burke's Peerage, s.v. Pechell ; Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections, xxvi. 11351 (with pedigree); 
Benoit's Hist, de 1'Edit de Nantes; Erman et 
Reclam's Memoires des Refugies Frarujais ; 
Agnew's French Protestant Exiles ; War Office 
Records ; De Ainslie's First Dragoons; Cannon's 
First Dragoons and Third Dragoon Guards ; 
Army Lists.] B. H. S. 

BROOKE (1785-1849), rear-admiral, born 
1 Sept. 1785, belonged to a French family 
which settled in Ireland after the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes. He was eldest son of 
Major-general Sir Thomas Brooke Pechell, 
bart., was brother of Sir George Richard 
Brooke Pechell [q. v.], and nephew of Admi- 
ral Sir John Borlase Warren [q. v.] Under 
Warren's care he entered the navy on board 
the Pomone in July 1796. In August 1797 
he was moved into the Phoebe, with Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir Robert) Barlow, and was 
present at the capture of the Nereide on 
21 Dec. 1797, and of the Africaine on 
5 March 1800, in two of the most brilliant 
frigate actions of the war. After the latter, 
Barlow, who had been knighted, was moved 
into the Triumph of 74 guns, and Pechell 
followed him, till, in February 1803, he was 
appointed acting-lieutenant of the Active, a 
promotion confirmed by the admiralty on 
1 April. In January 1806 he joined his 
uncle's flagship, the Foudroyant, and in her 
was present at the capture of the Marengo 
and Belle Poule on 13 March. On 23 March 
1807 he was promoted to the command of 
the Ferret sloop on the Jamaica station, and 
on 16 June 1808 was posted to the Cleopatra, 
a 38-gun frigate, in which, on 22 Jan. 1809, 
he engaged the 40-gun French frigate 
Topaze, at anchor under a battery at Point 
Noire in Guadeloupe. The battery, however, 
had only one effective gun, and the Topaze, 
having sustained great loss, struck her 
.colours when, after forty minutes, the Jason 
frigate and Hazard sloop joined the Cleo- 
patra (JAMES, v. 3; CHEVALIEE, p. 350). 
,The disparity of force at the close of the 
action necessarily dimmed its brilliance, but 
Pechell's judgment in so placing the Cleo- 
patra as to render the enemy's fire ineffective 
was deservedly commended. He afterwards 

L2 he was appointed to the 
flagship of his uncle, as 

took part in the reduction of Martinique. 
In October 1810 he was moved into the 
Guerriere, but returned to the Cleopatra 
in July 1811, and commanded her in the 
North Sea, on the coast of France and at 

In December 1812 he was aj 
San Domingo, the flagship ol His uncle, as 
commander-in-chief on the coast of North 
America, and in her returned to England in 
June 1814. He was nominated a C.B. in 
June ] 815, and in July 1823 commissioned 
the Sybille frigate for service in the Medi- 
terranean, where, in 1824, she formed part 
of the squadron off A Igiers, under Sir Harry 
Burrard Neale [q. v.], and was afterwards 
employed in preventing piracy, or the semi- 
piratical attempts of the Greek provisional 
government, near the Morea. The Sybille 
was paid off in November 1826, and Pechell, 
having, by the death of his father, succeeded 
to the baronetcy on 17 June 1826, took the 
additional surname of Brooke, in conformity 
with the will of his grandmother, the only 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Brooke of 
Paglesham in Essex. He had no further 
service afloat, but from 1830 to 1834, and 
again from 1839 to 1841, was a lord of the 
admiralty. He was in parliament as member 
for Hallestone in 1830, and for Windsor in 
1833. He attained the rank of rear-admiral 
on 9 Nov. 1846, and died on 3 Nov. 1849. 
He married, in 1833, Julia Maria, daughter 
of the ninth lord Petre, but, dying without 
issue, the title passed to his brother, George 
Richard Brooke Pechell. 

Pechell was one of the few officers of his 
time to recognise the immense importance of 
practice and precision in the working and firing 
great guns. Following the plan of Captain 
Broke in the Shannon [see BROKE, SIR PHILIP 
BOWES VERE], he carried out, when in com- 
mand of the San Domingo, systematic exer- 
cise and target practice, by which he obtained 
results then considered remarkable. In the 
Sybille he followed a similar method, again 
with results far superior to anything before 
known. As the Excellent gunnery school at 
Portsmouth was first instituted in 1832, while 
Pechell was one of the lords of the admiralty, 
it may be fairly presumed that the establish- 
ment of it was mainly due to him. He was 
also the author of a valuable pamphlet en- 
titled ' Observations upon the defective 
Equipment of Ships' Guns,' first published 
in 1812 (2nd edit. 1824 ; 3rd, 1828). 

[Marshall's Royal Naval Biogr. v. (suppl. 
pt. i.) p. 361; O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet.; 
James's Naval History ; Chevalier's Histoire de 
la Marine francaise sous le Consulat etl'Empire.] 

J. K. L. 




PECHEY, JOHN (1655-1716), medical 
writer, whose name is also spelt Peachey 
and Peche, was son of William Pechey of 
Chichester, and was born in 1655. He en- 
tered at New Inn Hall, Oxford, in 1671, and 
graduated B.A. in 1675, M.A. in 1678. On 
7 Nov. 1684 he applied for admission as a 
licentiate of the College of Physicians in 
London ; his application was further con- 
sidered on 5 Dec., and he was admitted on 
22 Dec. 1684. He practised in the city of 
London, residing at the Angel and Crown 
in Basing Lane. His methods were those of 
an apothecary rather than of a physician, and 
on 15 Nov. 1688 he was summoned before 
the College of Physicians ' upon printing 
bills signifying his removal and shilling fee, 
and putting up a board of notice to the people 
with his name over his dore.' He was ad- 
monished, but on 7 Dec. 1688, the board 
remaining over his door as formerly, and he 
not having ceased ' spargere cartulas,' the 
censors fined him 4:1. On 4 Jan. he declined 
to pay, and on 17 Jan. 1689 he had no further 
excuse than that ' other have broake our 
statutes besides ' himself, and was fined 8/. 
for his second contempt. On 30 July 1689 
he took the oaths and declaration, and his 
autograph signature remains in the original 
record at the College of Physicians as ' Joh. 
Peachey.' In 1692 he published two books, 
' Collections of Acute Diseases, in five parts/ 
and ' A Collection of Chronical Diseases.' 
The first treats of smallpox, measles, plague, 
and other febrile disorders, of rheumatism, 
apoplexy, and lethargy; and the second, of 
colic, hysteria, gout, and hsematuria. He 
published in 1693 * Promptuarium Praxeos 
Medicse,' in Latin a compendium of medi- 
cine with many prescriptions given in full. 
The book ends with an admonition or puft' 
of ' Pilulae catharticae nostrae,' which ( venales 
prostant ' at his own house in Basing Lane. 
He next published ' The Compleat Herbal 
of Physical Plants ' and ' The Storehouse of 
Physical Practice.' Another edition of the 
former appeared in 1707, and of the latter, 
with slightly altered title, in 1697. In 1696 
he published 'A General Treatise of the 
Diseases of Maids, Big-bellied Women, Child- 
bed Women, and Widows' a compilation 
without any original observations. All these 
were brought out by his original publisher, 
Henry Bonwicke, and slightly varied parts of 
some of them appeared as separate works. 
In the same year he published the book by 
which he is best known a vigorous and 
idiomatic translation of ' the whole works 
of Sydenham. The preface, which contains 
a short account of Sydenham, is dated from 
the Angel and Crown in Basing Lane, 

12 Oct. 1695, and on the last page is an ad- 
vertisement of Pechey's pills, sold at his 
house at 1*. 6d. the box. A seventh edition 
of this translation appeared in 1717, and an 
eleventh in 1740. Pechey moved into Bow 
Lane, Cheapside, near his former house, and 
the last list, at the College of Physicians, in 
which his name appears is that of 1716. 

He has often been confused with John 
Peachi or Pechey, who was a doctor of medi- 
cine of Caen in Normandy, and was admitted 
an extra-licentiate of the College of Physicians 
on 26 July 1683 (original record at College 
of Physicians). This physician is stated in 
a manuscript note on the title-page of a 
pamphlet in the library of the Royal Medical 
and Chirurgical Society to be the ' doctor of 
physick in Gloucestershire ' who wrote 
' Some Observations made upon the Root 
called Casmunar,' reprinted in London in 
1693. Several other pharmacological tracts 
are attributed to him without satisfactory 
proof, and many of them contain internal 
evidence of another authorship. That he 
practised outside London is certain, as his 
name never appears in the College of Phy- 
sicians' lists, in which at that time extra- 
licentiates were not included (Manuscript 
Annals or Minutes of Proceedings at the Col- 
lege of Physicians, 1683-9). 

[The prefaces and advertisements which cor- 
roborate the statements in the Annals of the 
College of Physicians conclusively establish 
that the works mentioned in this life are 
all by John Pechey the licentiate, and not by 
John Peachi the extra-licentiate, and show that 
the lists in Dr. Munk's College of Physicians, 
the printed catalogue of the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society, 1879, and the index cata- 
logue of the library of the surgeon-general's 
office, United States Army (vol. xiv.), 1893, do 
not accurately distinguish the two writers. 
In Minutes of Evidence, University for London 
Commission, 1889, p. 208, a witness quotes an 
advertisement of Pechey in the Postman of 
10 Jan. 1 700 to support an argument as to prac- 
j tice, in ignorance of the fact that Pechey's conduct 
j was censured, and not approved, by the College 
I of Physicians. See also Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Athenaeum, iv. 787.] N. M. 

PECK, FRANCIS (1692-1743), anti- 
quary, younger son of Robert and Elizabeth 
Peck, was born in the parish of St. John the 
Baptist at Stamford, Lincolnshire, on 4 May 
1692, and baptised in St. John's on 12 May. 
His mother's maiden name was Jephson, and 
his father is believed to have been a pro- 
sperous farmer. He entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, at the age of fifteen, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1709, and M.A. in 1713. On 
leaving Cambridge he took holy orders, and 
in 1719 became curate of Kingscliff in 




Northamptonshire. In the same year he 
married Anne, daughter of Edward Curtis 
of Stamford, and shortly afterwards, in 1721, 
gave the first indication of his lifelong devo- 
tion to antiquarian studies by issuing pro- 
posals for printing the history and antiqui- 
ties of his native town. In 1723 he obtained 
by purchase from the patron, Samuel Lowe, 
the advowson of the rectory of Goadby-Mar- 
wood in Leicestershire. He wrote to Browne 
Willis that Bishop Gibson confirmed his 
appointment within one hour of his trans- 
lation from the see of Lincoln to that of 
London. Peck was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries on 9 March 1732. In 
January 1738 he obtained by the favour of 
Bishop Reynolds the prebendal stall of Mar- 
ston St. Laurence in Lincoln Cathedral. 
He held this prebend, which had previously 
been held bv White Ken nett, until his death 
on 9 July 1743. The latter portion of his 
life was wholly devoted to antiquarian pur- 
suits. He was buried just within the south 
door of Goadby church, where a Latin in- 
scription, modelled upon that of Robert 
Burton, describes him as 'notus nimis omni- 
bus, ignotus sibi.' He left two sons Francis 
(1720-1749), rector of Gunby, Lincolnshire; 
and Thomas, who died young and one 
daughter, Anne, born in 1730, who married 
John Smalley, a farmer and grazier of Strox- 
ton. Peck's widow retired to Harlaxton in 
Lincolnshire, where she died about 1758. 
In this year Peck's books were sold by auc- 
tion (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. iii. 655). 

At the time of his death Peck had in con- 
templation no less than nine different works, 
several of which were in an advanced stage 
of preparation (see below). He had a re- 
markable faculty for accumulating out-of- 
the-way facts, which is best exhibited in his 
well-known 'Desiderata Curiosa,' but his 
talent for arrangement and generalisation 
was less conspicuous. His researches were 
mainly confined to the seventeenth century, 
but were not sufficiently concentrated to 
render him an expert in dealing with the 
value of evidence or any other subjects of 
controversy. He was, however, commend- 
ably free from political bias. Some of his 
literary peculiarities are on the whole fairly 
characterised by William Cole, who writes 
of Peck : * Had he lived longer we might 
have had many more curious peices of 
antiquity, which he seems to have been in 
possession of; but the cheif and great failing 
of this gentleman seemed to be an eager 
desire to publish as little in one volume as 
he could, in order to eke out his collections. 
His " Desiderata Curiosa" is full of curious 
things, but he has so disjointed, mangled, 

and new-sentenced all of them, and what 
with detached books, chapters, and heads of 
the chapters, that, in endeavouring to be 
more than ordinarily clear, he has become 
many times quite the reverse ' (CoLE, Col- 
lections, Addit. MS. 5833, f. 176). A portrait 
of the antiquary in 17 35, engraved by J.Faber 
after J. Highmore, is prefixed to his ' Crom- 
well ' (1740). Another portrait, drawn by 
B. Collins ad vivum in 1731, is prefixed to 
the 1779 edition of the ' Desiderata.' 

The following is a list of Peck's chief 
I works, all of which were printed at his own 
; charge, and for which he solicited orders and 
I subscribers at the end of several of his smaller 
I tracts : .1. < To "Y\J/-os "Ayioi/, or an Exer- 
: cise on the Creation, and a Hymn to the 
Creator of the World ; written in the express 
words of the Sacred Text, as an attempt to 
show the Beauty and Sublimity of Holy 
Scripture,' 1716, 8vo. 2. 'Sighs upon the 
never enough lamented Death of Queen 
Anne,' in imitation of Milton (blank verse), 
1719, 4to. Prefixed is a representation of 
Queen Anne ascending from the earth with 
the support of angels and cherubs ; and ap- 
pended to the main poem are three minor 
pieces. At the end of this work he solicits 
assistance for a ' History of the Two Last 
Months of King Charles I,' which never 
appeared. 3. ' Academia Tertia Anglicana ; 
or the Antiquarian Annals of Stamford in Lin- 
coln, Rutland, and Northampton shires ; con- 
taining the History of the University, Monas- 
teries, Gilds. Churches, Chapels, Hospitals, 
and Schools there,' 1727, 4to. This elaborate 
work was dedicated to John, duke of Rut- 
land, and in it is incorporated the substance 
of a previous tract by Peck upon ' The His- 
tory of the Stamford Bull-running.' 4. ' De- 
siderata Curiosa, or a Collection of Divers 
Scarce and Curious Pieces, relating chiefly to 
matters of English History; consisting of 
choice Tracts, Memoirs, Letters, Wills, 
Epitaphs,' &c., 1732, 4to. This volume, to 
which the author contributed two original 
papers one on the ancient divisions of the 
day and night, the other a description of 
Burghley House was dedicated to Lord 
William Manners ; and it was followed in 
1735 by a second volume dedicated to Bishop 
Reynolds. Only two hundred and fifty copies 
of these volumes having been printed, they 
soon became scarce, and were reprinted in 
one volume in 1779, 4to, with a scanty me- 
moir of Peck by Thomas Evans. 5. 'A 
Complete Catalogue of all the Discourses 
written both for and against Popery in the 
time of King James II ; containing in the 
whole an account of 457 books and pam- 
phlets . . . with an alphabetical list of the 


1 86 


writers on each side,' 1735, 4to. This pam- 
phlet was edited, with large additions, for the 
Chetham Society in 1859, by Thomas Jones, 
then librarian of the Chetham Library, which 
is especially rich in these pamphlets. 6. ' Me- 
moirs of the Life and Actions of Oliver 
Cromwell, as delivered in three panegyrics 
of him, written in Latin ; the first, as said, 
by Don Juan Roderiguez de Saa Meneses, 
Conde de Penguias, the Portugal ambassa- 
dor; the second, as affirmed, by a certain 
Jesuit, the lord-ambassador's chaplain; yet 
both, it is thought, composed by Mr. John Mil- 
ton (Latin secretary to Oliver Cromwell), as 
was the third ; with an English version of each. 
The whole illustrated with a large historical 
preface; many similar passages from the 
"Paradise Lost " and other works of Mr. John 
Milton, and "Notes from the BestHistorians," ' 
1740, 4to. To the work was appended a col- 
lection of ' Divers Curious Historical Pieces ' 
relating to, among others, Sir Thomas Scot, 
Thomas Hobson the carrier, Old Parr, John 
Evelyn, Gerard Salvin, Tobias Rustat, and 
Abraham Cowley ; and there is ' a large ac- 
count of Queen Elizabeth's entertainment at 
Oxford in 1592.' 7. ' New Memoirs of the 
Life and Poetical Works of Mr. John Milton ; 
with, first, an Examination of Milton's Style; 
secondly, Explanatory and Critical Notes on 
divers Passages in Milton and Shakespeare, 
by the Editor ; thirdly, Baptistes : a Sacred 
and Dramatic Poem in defence of Liberty, 
as written in Latin by Mr. George Buchanan, 
translated into English by Mr. John Milton, 
and first published in 1641 by order of the 
House of Commons ; fourthly, the Parallel, 
or Archbishop Laud and Cardinal Wolsey 
compared a vision by Milton ; fifthly, the 
Legend of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, knight, 
chief butler of England, who died of poison 
anno 1570 an historical poem by his nephew, 
Sir Thomas Throckmorton, knight ; sixthly, 
Herod the Great, by the editor ; seventhly, 
the Resurrection, a poem in imitation of 
Milton, by a friend ; and, eighthly, a Dis- 
course on the Harmony of the Spheres, by 
Milton, with Prefaces and Notes,' 1740. The 
work, which was dedicated to Speaker 
Onslow, was adorned with a portrait of 
Milton which Peck obtained from Sir John 
Meres of Kirkby Beler in Leicestershire. Be- 
fore the publication of the volume Vertue 
told Peck that the portrait was not Milton's, 
but Peck bade 'posterity settle the difference.' 
The critical notes on Milton and Shakespeare 
are remarkable, as being perhaps the first 
attempts made to illustrate their writings 
by extracts from contemporary writers, in 
accordance with the method subsequently 
followed by Steevens and Malone (see Me- 

1 moirs of Milton, p. 5). 8. ' Four Discourses, 
viz. : i. Of Grace and how to excite it ; 
ii. Jesus Christ the True Messiah, proved 
from a consideration of His Resurrection in 
particular; iii. Jesus Christ the True Messiah, 
proved from a consideration of His Resur- 
rection in particular ; iv. The Necessity and 
Advantage of Good Laws and Good Magi- 
strates,' 1742, 8vo. 

Of the various works that Peck had in 
contemplation at the time of his death pro- 
bably the most important was his ' Natural 

I History and Antiquities of Leicestershire.' 

| The manuscript was purchased by Sir Thomas 
Cave in 1754 for ten guineas, and on his death 
in 1778 the whole of Peck's materials, to- 
gether with those of Sir Thomas himself, 
were handed over by the latter's son to John 
Nichols. The materials of both were care- 
fully, and with due acknowledgment, incor- 
porated by Nichols in his monumental work. 
Peck's natural history collections were 
quaintly digested under the following heads : 
' Stones, Salt, Long Life, Herbs, Earthquakes, 
Crevices, and Apparitions.' The next in im- 
portance of Peck's manuscripts was the 
' Monasticon Anglicanum Volumen Quar- 
tum.' This work, which was also purchased 
by Cave, consisted of five quarto volumes, 
and was on 14 May 1779 presented to the 
British Museum. It has been used by nume- 
rous antiquaries and county historians, and 
was naturally of especial value to the subse- 
quent editors of Dugdale (Ellis, Cayley, and 
Bandinel). The materials used by Peck in 
his 'Life of Nicholas Ferrar of Little Gidding,' 
which was also in an advanced stage of pre- 
paration, are for the most part embodied in 
Packard's ' Memoirs ' (cf. Gent. Mag. 1791, 
i. 456). The remainder of his manuscripts, 
including the ' Lives ' of William and Robert 
Burton (author of the ' Anatomy of Melan- 
choly'), ' The History and Antiquities of 
Rutland,' 'The Annals of Stamford' con- 

I tinued, ' Memoirs of the Restoration of 
Charles II,' and a third volume of 'Desiderata 
Curiosa/ were all in a fragmentary or merely 
inchoate state. Several other manuscripts 
of Peck, of minor importance, are still pre- 
served in the British Museum ; and Gil- 
christ possessed a copy of Langbaine's ' Lives ' 
carefully interlined by him. Peck, whose 
interests were so catholic, and whose reading 
was so omnivorous, was naturally in corre- 
spondence with most of the antiquaries of his 
day, and letters of his are extant to, among 
others, Thomas Hearne, Browne Willis, 
Thomas Wotton (Addit. MS. 24121), Zachary 
Grey (Addit. MS. 6396). He also communi- 
cated some notes on the Gresbam professors 
to Dr. Ward (Addit. MS. 6209). Papers of 




his, including copies of Milton's 'Poems' and 
transcripts of 'Robin Hood Ballads,' com- 
prise Addit, MSS. 28637, 28638. 

[Cole's Athente Cantabrigienses ; Graduati 
Cantabrigienses, p. 134; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 
Angl.ii.184; Gent. Mag. 1743, p. 443; Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary, xxiv. 210 ; Nichols's 
Hist, of Leicestershire, preface; Nichols's Illustr. 
of Lit. i. 507 (a valuable memoir, on which 
all subsequent lives are based), ii. 543, 604. iv. 
553, vi. 159, 198, 309-453, viii. 573, 690, ix. 191; 
Mem. of Thomas Hollis( 1780), pp. 513, 526, 531; 
Bibl. Topogr. Britannica, ii. 50; Birch's Life of 
Tillotson, p. 127; llearne's Preface to Fordun's 
Scotichronicon ; Chambers's Book of Days; 
Baker's Biogr. Drama tica (1812), i. 564;McClin- 
tock and Strong's Cyclopaedia of Biblical Litera- 
ture ; Didot's Nouvelle Biographie Generale ; 
English Cyclopedia; Brit. Mus. Cat,] T. S. 

PECK, JAMES (1773-1810 ?), musician, 
music engraver, and publisher, is stated to 
have been born in London in 1773 (Fi,Tis), 
and would seem to be a member of a family 
of printers and booksellers residing at York 
and Hull. A musician named Peck died at 
Bath on 3 Feb. 1784, but his relationship 
with James cannot be traced. James com- 
posed 1. l Kisses,' a glee for three voices, pub- 
lished by Preston about 1798. It was followed 
by 2. 'Love and sparklingWine,'and 3. ' Hail, 
Britannia,' printed by himself at Westmorland 
Buildings about 1799. Some of his other pub- 
lications were : 4. ' Two hundred and fifty 
Psalm-tunes,' in three parts, 1798. 5. ' Peck's 
Collection of Hymn-tunes, Fugues, and Odes,' 
chiefly original, in three and four parts, 1799. 

6. ' Peck's Miscellaneous Collection of Sacred 
Music'. . . original and selected hymn-tunes 
and odes, printed at Westmorland Buildings, 
and (book iii.) at Newgate Street, 1809. 

7. 'Vocal Preceptor.' 8. < Flute Preceptor.' 

9. ' Advice to a young composer,' 1810. 

10. ' Soft be the gently breathing notes,' a 
hymn for two or three voices, with accompani- 
ment for two flutes and pianoforte,' 1810? 

11. ' Sacred Gleanings, or Hymn -tunes 
adapted for two flutes.' 12. 'Beauties of 
Sacred Harmony, or Vocalist's Pocket-book/ 
1824. 13. 'Peck's Pocket Arrangement of 
Psalm and Hymn-tunes,' 3 vols., 1833. The 
later works were probably published by John 
Peck, the organist at St. Faith's, and James 
Peck the younger. 

[Gent. Mag. 1784 p. 152, 1798 p. 1149, 1801 
p. 1210; Brown's Diet, of Musicians, p. 466; Peck's 
publications.] L. M. M. 


whig divine, son of the Rev. John Peckard 
of Welbourn, Lincolnshire, matriculated 
from Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 20 July 
1734, when aared 16, and was admitted on 

9 Oct. He graduated B.A. 1738, M.A. March 
1741-2, and became scholaris, or probationary 
fellow, in 1744 (FowLEE, Corpus Christi Coll. 
p. 405). After having been ordained in the 
English church, he seems to have become a 
chaplain in the army, to have married about 
1752, and to have settled for a time at 
Huntingdon. Probably through local in- 
fl uen ce he was appointed in 1 760 to the rectory 
of Fletton and the vicarage of Yaxley, both 
near Peterborough. A dispensation for the 
holding of these two livings at the same 
time was requisite, and it was obtained with 
great difficulty from Seeker, then archbishop 
of Canterbury. Peckard was considered 
heterodox ' upon the question concerning an 
intermediate or separate state of conscious 
existence between death and the resurrection,' 
and his examination was several times ad- 
journed. He obtained his dispensation at last, 
but only after he had signed four articles to 
some extent modifying his views, and it was 
given at a date when the second benefice was 
within a day or two of lapsing. His own nar- 
rative of these proceedings and the Latin 
essays which he wrote for the archbishop are 
in Archdeacon Blackburne's ' Works' (vol. i. 
pp. xciv-cvii). The conclusion of Bishop Law 
was ' Peter Peckard has escaped out of 
Lollard's tower with the loss of his tail.' 

In 1766 Peckard became chaplain to the 
first, troop of grenadier guards, and served 
with it in Germany. He was at that time 
noted as a man of convivial tastes, but in 
after years he practised the strictest economy. 
The rectory of Fletton was held by him until 
his death, but he vacated the vicarage of 
Yaxley in 1777. He was prebendary of 
Clifton in Lincoln Cathedral from 9 May 
1774, and of Hampton in Southwell Minster 
from 23 Oct. 1777 to his death. He was also 
appointed in 1777, under dispensation, to the 
rectory of Tansor in J^orthamptonshire, and 
from 1793 to 1797 he retained the rectory of 
Abbots' Ripton, near' Huntingdon. 

In 1781 he was appointed to the master- 
ship of Magdalene College, Cambridge, by Sir 
John Griffin Griffin, afterwards Lord Howard 
deWalden, who had the right of presentation, 
as owner of the estate of Audley End. He 
was incorporated at Cambridge in 1 782, ap- 
pointed vice-chancellor in 1784, and created 
D.D. per literas recjias in 1785. In April 
1792 he was advanced by the crown to the 
deanery of Peterborough, and it is recorded, 
as a crowning proof of his parsimony, that he 
only gave one annual dinner to his chapter. 
He built a new parsonage-house at Fletton. 
and was permitted by the patron, Lord Carys- 
fort,to nominate his successor to the benefice. 
Peckard died on 8 Dec. 1797, and was buried 




at Peterborough. His wife was Martha 
(1729-1805), eldest daughter of Edward 
Ferrar, attorney at Huntingdon. A poetical 
essay on Peckard is in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine/ 1799 (pt. i. p. 325), and two 
poems, one by him and one by his wife, are 
in that periodical for 1789 (pt. ii. p. 748). 

Peckard published many sermons of a liberal 
tendency, and th ose of later life drew attention 
to the evils of the slave traffic. The views 
which Archbishop Seeker deemed heterodox 
were set out in : 1. * Observations on the 
Doctrine of an Intermediate State,' 1756. 
2. ' Further Observations on the Doctrine of 
an Intermediate State,' 1757. The last was 
in reply to the queries of Thomas Morton, 
rector of Bassingham. Peckard's opinions 
were also criticised by Caleb Fleming, D.D. 
[a. v.], in his * Survey of the Search of the 
Souls,' 1759, and defended by him in * Ob- 
servations on Mr. Fleming's Survey,' 1759, 
which provoked from Fleming ' A Defence of 
the Conscious Scheme' against that of the 

Among Peckard's other sermons and tracts 
were : 3. ' The popular Clamour against the 
Jews indefensible,' 1753. 4. ' A Disserta- 
tion on Revelation, chap. xi. ver. 13,' 1756. 
This was written to prove that the passage 
was prophetical, and fulfilled by the Lisbon 
earthquake. It was criticised at some length 
in the l Gentleman's Magazine,' 1756 (pp. 138- 
139), and defended by the author in the same 
periodical (pp. 213-14). 5. ' The proper Stile 
of Christian Oratory,' 1770 (against thea- 
trical declamation). 6. ' National Crimes the 
Cause of National Punishments,' 1795. It 
passed through three editions, and referred 
chiefly to the slave trade, on which subject 
Peckard often preached. On becoming vice- 
chancellor at Cambridge he put the question, 
'Anne liceat invitos in servitutem dare?' 
He published anonymously in 1776 a treatise 
on (7) 'Subscription with Historical Ex- 
tracts,' and in 1778 a pamphlet (8) ' Am I not 
a Man and a Brother ? ' 

Peckard's father-in-law, Edward Ferrar, 
left him by will many books and papers, in- 
cluding a ' life,' by John Ferrar, of Nicholas 
Ferrar [q. v.] It was published by him in 1 790 
as (9) ' Memoirs of the Life of Mr. Nicholas 
Ferrar,' but with some mutilations, through 
fear of a ' scornful public.' It was reprinted, 
with a few omissions, in Wordsworth's ' Ec- 
clesiastical Biography' (v. 69-266), and pub- 
lished separately in an abridged form in 1852. 
Some of Peckard's manuscripts, which were 
valuable to students of the genealogy of the 
early American settlers, are referred to in 
J. W. Thornton's ' First Records of Anglo- 
American Colonisation,' Boston, 1859. 

Peckard left property to Magdalene Col- 
lege, and also founded two scholarships. 
Portraits of him and his wife hang in the 
college hall. A ' capital portrait ' of him is 
said to exist at Fletton. 

[Gent. Mag. 1766 p. 496, 1777 p. 248, 1797 
pt. ii.pp. 1076, 1126, 1798pt.i. p. 440; Mayor's 
N. Ferrar, pp. 378-'J, 382-3 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 119, 444 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustrations, vi. 729-31 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, ii. 134, 541, iii. 455, 611, 695 ; 
Sweeting's Churches of Peterborough, pp. 58, 
187, 204 ; Blackburne's Works, vol. i. pp. xlii- 
xliii ; Pinkerton's Lit. Correspondence, i. 44-9, 
105-6; information from A. G. Peskett, Mag- 
dalene Coll.] W. P. C. 

PECKE, THOMAS (fl. 1664), verse- 
writer, son of James Pecke, a member of the 
well-known family of his name settled at 
Spixworth in Norfolk, was born at Wymond- 
ham in 1637. His mother's maiden name 
was Talbot. He was educated at the free 
school, Norwich, under Thomas Lovering, 
to whom he addresses one of his epigrams, 
and was admitted a member of Gonville and 
Caius College, 3 Oct. 1655. He apparently 
owed his maintenance at the university to 
his uncle, Thomas Pecke of Spixworth, but 
seems to have left it without a degree. He 
entered at the Inner Temple on 22 June 
1657, when he was described as of Edmon- 
ton, and was called to the bar on 12 Feb. 
1664 (Register Books of the Inner Temple). 

Pecke was a friend of Francis Osborne 
(1593-1659) [q, v.], the author of 'Advice 
to a Son,' and when Osborne was attacked 
by John Heydon [q. v.] in his ' Advice to a 
Daughter,' replied to the latter in 'Advice to 
Balaam's Ass,' 8vo, 1658. Heydon also gave 
currency to the report that Pecke was the 
author of ' A Dialogue of Polygamy,' a trans- 
lation from the Italian of Bernardino Ochino 
[. v.], published in 1657, and dedicated to 

Pecke also published ' An Elegie upon the 
never satisfactorily deplored Death of that 
rare Column of Parnassus, Mr. John Cleeve- 
land,' a folio broadside, 1658 (Brit. Mus.) ; 
' Parnassi Puerperium,' 8vo, 1659, a collec- 
tion of epigrams, original and translated from 
Sir Thomas More and others, upon the title of 
which he describes himself as the ' Author 
of that celebrated Elegie upon Cleeveland,' 
and a congratulatory poem to Charles II, 4to, 

There is a portrait of Pecke prefixed to 
' Parnassi Puerperium.' 

[Information kindly supplied by the master of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.] 

G. T. D. 




1564), treasurer or master of the mint, was 
son of Peter Peckham, by his second wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Eburton. His 
family was connected with Buckinghamshire, 
and he acquired a house and estate at Den- 
ham in that county. At an early age he 
entered the king's counting-house as a clerk, 
and attended Henry VIII on his visit to 
Gravelines in July "l 520 {Rutland Papers, 
p. 5). Henry VIII appointed him in 1524 
cofterer of the royal household, and in 1526 
clerk of the green cloth. From 1525 he was 
a justice of the peace for Buckinghamshire. 
A like honour in regard to Middlesex was 
conferred on him in 1537. In 1527, on the 
attainder of Francis, viscount Lovel, he was 
granted the manors of Alford, Eccles, Alder- 
ley, Chester, and Flint. He was knighted 
on 18 May 1542 (WRIOTHESLEY, Chronicle, 
i. 135). In 1546 he added to his other offices 
that of treasurer or master of the mint, to 
which was attached a residence at Black- 
friars. He retained the post till his death, 
although during 1552-4 his place was filled 
temporarily by Martin Pirri, master of the 
Dublin mint. In 1547 he was nominated an 
assistant executor of Henry VIII's will, under 
which he received 200/. In 1549 during 
Edward VI's reign he was directed with 
others to restore the old standard of gold. 
In 1551 he coined the pound weight of silver 
three-quarters alloy and one fine into 
seventy-two shillings worth twelve pence 
a piece. On Edward VI's death Peckham 
maintained with much energy the cause of 
Queen Mary, in opposition to Lady Jane 
Grey. He proclaimed Queen Mary in Buck- 
inghamshire {Chronicle, pp. 8, 12), and subse- 
quently kept a careful watch on the move- 
ments of the Duke of Northumberland in the 
eastern counties. He was rewarded by be- 
coming a privy councillor, and was elected 
M.P. for Buckinghamshire in the first and 
third parliaments of the new queen's reign 
(October 1553 and November 1554). He and 
his son Henry took a prominent part in re- 
pressing Wyatt's rebellion. Reputed to be 
a staunch catholic, he exerted much influence 
at Mary's court. In 1557 he attended the 
funeral* of Anne of Cleves, and acted as her 
executor (NICOLAS, Testamenta Vetusta, pp. 
42, 44). With Queen Mary's death his poli- 
tical life ceased, but he remained treasurer 
of the mint, and helped to carry into effect 
Queen Elizabeth's measures for the restora- 
tion of the coinage. He was buried in Den- 
ham church on 18 April 1564. An elaborate 
monument was erected to his memory there, 
but only damaged fragments survive. 

Peckham married Ann, daughter of John 

Cheyne of Chesham-Bois, Buckinghamshire. 
She was buried at Denham on 27 May 1570. 
By her he had four sons Robert, Henry, 
George [q. v.], and Edward and at least 
two daughters. The eldest son, Robert 
(1515-1569), stood high in Queen Mary's 
favour as a zealous catholic, was made a 

?rivy councillor by her, and was knighted in 
555. He was M.P. for Buckinghamshire 
in April 1554. According to his long epitaph 
at Denham, he sought to improve his health 
(which he had injured by excess of study) 
by a foreign tour, on which he set out in 
1564. But his epitaph at Rome states that 
he voluntarily exiled himself from his native 
country on account of the final triumph of 
protestantism under Elizabeth. He died at 
Rome on 10 Sept. 1569, and was buried in 
the church of San Gregorio there, where a 
mural monument is still standing (cf. Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 259). His heart was 
subsequently interred in Denham church, 
where he is commemorated in a tablet bear- 
ing a long inscription. He married Mary, 
daughter and coheiress of Edmund, lord 
Bray, whose sister was wife of Sir Ralph 

Sir Edmund's son Henry was four times 
elected M.P. for Chipping Wycombe between 
March 1552-3 and October 1555. He was 
involved in 1556, with Henry Dudley and 
Job Throgmorton, in a conspiracy to rob the 
exchequer. He was arrested on 18 March, 
and sou